02 proposal report_preparation_2nd_sem

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02 proposal report_preparation_2nd_sem

  1. 1. RESEARCH PROPOSAL and REPORT PREPARATION LUISITO I. TABADA, Ph.D. Associate Professor IV
  2. 2. Definition "thesis“ - from a Greek word meaning "position" - refers to an intellectual proposition. "Dissertation" - from Latin dissertātiō , meaning "discourse." In some countries/universities, the word thesis is used as part of a Bachelors or Masters course, while dissertation is normally applied to a Doctorate.
  3. 3. Language Used <ul><li>Today mainstream international scientific journals are effectively only published in the English language. </li></ul><ul><li>This means that your manuscript must be written in CLEAR ENGLISH. </li></ul>
  4. 4. Research Proposal an organized written presentation of a proposed activity/ies aimed at achieving a defined goal and objectives Means by which research proposals may be generated <ul><li>solicitation from funding agencies </li></ul><ul><li>management‘s initiative </li></ul><ul><li>proponent’s initiative </li></ul>
  5. 5. Types of Research Proposals <ul><li>Research – an inquiry or investigation directed at acquiring new or additional knowledge/information about a certain topic. </li></ul><ul><li>Development </li></ul><ul><li>a systematic work, drawing on existing knowledge gained from research and/or practical experience directed towards producing </li></ul><ul><li>- new materials, product or device, </li></ul><ul><li>- installing new processes, systems and services </li></ul><ul><li>- improving substantially those already produced or installed for the benefit & welfare of particular target beneficiaries. </li></ul><ul><li>may include pilot-testing projects </li></ul><ul><li>innovative work that aims to confirm and demonstrate the feasibility of using a technology, modality or approach, gauging end-user’s reaction to introduction of improved technologies and identifying potential problems related to wider dissemination </li></ul>
  6. 6. Study - the basic unit in the investigation of a researchable problem with predetermined objectives, and conducted in a specific time frame. Project - a group of interrelated research studies in the same field or discipline designed to meet certain established goals within a specific time frame. Two or more studies may make up a project. Program - a group of interrelated research projects requiring an interdisciplinary or multidisciplinary approach to meet established goals within a specific time frame. Forms of R&D Proposals
  7. 7. <ul><li>To enable the proponent to thoroughly analyze and understand the research problem and determine the feasibility of the proposed activity. </li></ul><ul><li>To guide the researchers during project implementation </li></ul><ul><li>To win the appreciation & support of funding institutions </li></ul>Rationale in preparing a research proposal
  8. 8. <ul><li>Need to establish two key questions: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>What is the broad problem to be investigated? </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>What are the specific initial activities to undertake and outcomes to pursue? </li></ul></ul>Shaping a research proposal <ul><li>Choosing a topic and advisor </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Students and advisors form close working relations </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Student is typically responsible for most of the effort… but the intellectual input is shared </li></ul></ul>
  9. 9. <ul><li>Is the research at right kind of technical level? </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Make use of your strength </li></ul></ul>Shaping a research proposal <ul><li>Scope </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Don’t be too ambitious – entering research with hope of achieving something dramatic significance </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Identify easily achieved outcome… then move on to more challenging goals </li></ul></ul>
  10. 10. Typical Parts of a Research Proposal <ul><li>Program/Project Title </li></ul><ul><li>Introduction </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Problem Statement </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Objectives </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Significance of the Study </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Review of literature </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Conceptual Framework </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Methodology </li></ul><ul><li>Work Program </li></ul><ul><li>Estimated budget </li></ul><ul><li>Literature cited </li></ul><ul><li>Bio-data of the proponents </li></ul>
  11. 11. Research Title <ul><li>Importance: </li></ul><ul><li>Introduces the research to the reader </li></ul><ul><li>Identifies the research components </li></ul><ul><li>Reflect the main purpose and gives the reader the idea on what the researcher proposes to do </li></ul><ul><li>The goal in making the title is to describe the coverage of the research and delineates its scope </li></ul>
  12. 12. <ul><li>Features of a good title: </li></ul><ul><li>Concise and informative, have specific rather than general terms, and accurately describe the content </li></ul><ul><li>Short, easy to remember, and can easily be indexed and retrieved </li></ul><ul><li>Has few words that adequately describes the contents of the paper </li></ul><ul><li>Clearly embody the focus of the proposal and is supported by the stated objectives and expected outputs </li></ul>Research Title (continued)
  13. 13. <ul><li>Tips on coming up with a good research title </li></ul><ul><li>List the most important factors to be studied (e.g., performance, directed-acyclic graph, buffered switch, architecture), as well as methodology/treatments to be used </li></ul><ul><li>Categorize the words that can be grouped (e.g. bipartite matching, traveling salesman, quick sort and binary search can be grouped as algorithms) </li></ul><ul><li>Compose the words to form a clear, eye-catching title </li></ul><ul><li>Review for grammar and improve some of the words without changing its meaning/message </li></ul>Research Title (continued)
  14. 14. <ul><li>Guidelines in making the Title </li></ul><ul><li>Do not include too much information in the title </li></ul><ul><li>Avoid using unnecessary words (effects, evaluation, study, experiment, trials, observations, results, test, factors, analysis, etc.) </li></ul><ul><li>Title can be expressed in terms of scope of the results </li></ul>Research Title (continued)
  15. 15. Titles should: Titles should NOT: <ul><li>Describe contents clearly and precisely, so that readers can decide whether to read the report </li></ul><ul><li>Provide key words for indexing </li></ul><ul><li>Include wasted words such as &quot;studies on,&quot; &quot;an investigation of&quot; </li></ul><ul><li>Use abbreviations and jargon </li></ul><ul><li>Use &quot;cute&quot; language </li></ul>Good Titles Poor Titles <ul><li>The Relationship of Luteinizing Hormone to Obesity in the Zucker Rat </li></ul><ul><li>An Investigation of Hormone Secretion and Weight in Rats </li></ul><ul><li>Fat Rats: Are Their Hormones Different? </li></ul>
  16. 16. <ul><li>Introduction </li></ul><ul><li>Use the first paragraphs to describe the context </li></ul><ul><li>The opening sentence should clearly indicate the topic </li></ul>Parts of a Research Proposal <ul><li>Example: </li></ul><ul><li>Underutilization of main memory impairs the performance of operating system </li></ul><ul><li>Operating systems are traditionally designed to use the least possible amount of main memory, but such design impairs their performance </li></ul>
  17. 17. Parts of a Research Proposal <ul><li>Introduction (continuation) </li></ul><ul><li>Underutilization of main memory impairs the performance of operating sentence </li></ul><ul><li>Operating systems are traditionally designed to use the least possible amount of main memory, but such design impairs their performance </li></ul><ul><li>The second version is better for the ff reasons: </li></ul><ul><li>Clear – states the context which can mean that OS don’t use much memory </li></ul><ul><li>positive </li></ul>
  18. 18. <ul><li>Introduction (continuation) </li></ul><ul><li>Take care to distinguish description of existing knowledge from the description of paper’s contribution </li></ul>Parts of a Research Proposal <ul><li>Example: </li></ul><ul><li>Many user interfaces are confusing and poorly arranged. Interfaces are superior if developed according to rigorous principle. </li></ul><ul><li>Many user interfaces are confusing and poorly arranged. We demonstrate that interfaces are superior if developed according to rigorous principles. </li></ul>
  19. 19. <ul><li>Introduction: four-element organization </li></ul><ul><li>A general statement introducing the broad research area of the particular topic being investigated. </li></ul><ul><li>An explanation of the specific problem (difficulty, obstacle, challenge) to be solved. </li></ul><ul><li>A brief review of existing or standard solutions to this problem and their limitations. </li></ul><ul><li>An outline of the proposed new solution. </li></ul>Parts of a Research Proposal
  20. 20. Questions to address (in INTRO) How to address them What is the problem? <ul><li>Describe the problem investigated. </li></ul><ul><li>Summarize relevant research to provide context, key terms, and concepts so your reader can understand the experiment. </li></ul>Why is it important? Review relevant research to provide rationale. (What conflict or unanswered question, untested population, untried method in existing research does your experiment address? What findings of others are you challenging or extending?) What solution (or step toward a solution) do you propose? Briefly describe your experiment : hypothesis (es), research question (s); general experimental design or method ; justification of method if alternatives exist.
  21. 21. <ul><li>Problem Statement </li></ul><ul><li>Definition: </li></ul><ul><li>A problem is a set of conditions needing discussion, a solution, and information… (conventional sense) </li></ul><ul><li>Implies the possibility of empirical investigation, that is, of data collection and analysis… (technical) </li></ul><ul><li>IT IS NOT: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>How to do something </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>A vague or too broad a proposition </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>A value question </li></ul></ul><ul><li>But… by asking these types of questions a researchable problem may emerge </li></ul>Parts of a Research Proposal
  22. 22. <ul><li>Problem Statement </li></ul><ul><li>Usual Format: </li></ul><ul><li>The purpose of this [type of study] study is to understand [what] of [who or what] involving [what or who] from [when] to [purpose]. </li></ul><ul><li>Example </li></ul>Parts of a Research Proposal
  23. 23. Problem Statement: Example <ul><li>the type & purpose of study </li></ul><ul><li>who or what </li></ul><ul><li>limits of when (time period) </li></ul><ul><li>major constructs (identified as observable variables) </li></ul><ul><li>theoretical framework (this supports how the construct is defined and defines the lens used to analyze & interpret the data) </li></ul><ul><li>A Problem Statement by Tiffanie Davis © 2000 </li></ul><ul><li>The purpose of this project is to create four different WebQuests which employ constructive active learning pedagogy, teach higher order thinking skills, and that introduce feminist issues to 6th ­8th grade art students. I will pilot the WebQuests over a period of 3 months and document student written responses, my observations of their process, and student WebQuest products in order to evaluate student learning and interest in the feminist technological art curriculum </li></ul>
  24. 24. <ul><li>Objectives </li></ul><ul><li>state the specific purposes to address the problem areas of the project </li></ul><ul><li>should be clear as to what the proposal intends to achieve </li></ul><ul><li>must be attainable within the timeframe and resources required. </li></ul><ul><li>Formulating the Objectives </li></ul><ul><li>Statements of the goals of the study </li></ul><ul><li>Set the limit by which the problem will be studied </li></ul><ul><li>Should be attainable under reasonable conditions </li></ul><ul><li>Simple, specific, narrow enough to permit definite answers </li></ul>Parts of a Research Proposal
  25. 25. SMART Guide Research Objectives (continued) S PECIFIC M EASURABLE A TTAINABLE R ELEVANT T IMEBOUND Parts of a Research Proposal
  26. 26. <ul><li>State what you expect to accomplish </li></ul><ul><li>The words survey, examine, quantify, and investigate tell what the researcher intends to do </li></ul><ul><li>The words evaluate, compare, characterize, determine, or recommend tell what the researcher will do with the data to come up with conclusions and recommendations </li></ul>Research Objectives (continued) Parts of a Research Proposal Have a general objective, if there are many studies all leading to a common goal Objectives like “To solve the social problems of the Philippines” or “To attain self sufficiency in rice” are too presumptuous and should be narrowed down to attainable objectives under reasonable conditions. 
  27. 27. REASONS FOR READING A SCIENTIFIC PAPER <ul><li>to understand the work that has been presented in the study. </li></ul><ul><li>to place it in context and possibly to build on its results by carrying out more research. </li></ul>
  28. 28. <ul><li>Review of Literature </li></ul><ul><li>An organized and synthesized presentation of previous works - answers the question “what has been done relative to the problem at hand?” </li></ul><ul><li>Shows the state of knowledge about a subject matter - indicates the finding on which the proposal is building on </li></ul><ul><li>Ensures that there will be no duplication of work, and all the researchable areas will be covered </li></ul><ul><li>Indicate related researches/activities which have been conducted for the last 5-10 years. </li></ul>Parts of a Research Proposal
  29. 29. <ul><li>Review of Literature (continued) </li></ul><ul><li>The state of the art of current technology/information from which the project proposal will take off should likewise be discussed. </li></ul><ul><li>The results of the prior art search conducted during the capsule stage of the proposal should be included in this section (include any related technology which is protected by any of the intellectual property rights scheme e.g. patent, trademark, copyright, etc). </li></ul><ul><li>Which Literature to Review? </li></ul><ul><li>Books and reviews but use them with caution - data may not be original </li></ul><ul><li>Technical journal </li></ul><ul><li>- Internet </li></ul>Parts of a Research Proposal
  30. 30. <ul><li>Organizing the Review </li></ul><ul><li>Make an outline of the topics to be presented </li></ul><ul><li>Classify the pertinent abstract of the reviewed literature into topics ; interrelate or group similar findings ; </li></ul><ul><li>Compare or contrast findings where appropriate </li></ul><ul><li>Use the review of literature to clarify, augment, support or contradict the idea </li></ul><ul><li>Present one idea per paragraph </li></ul><ul><li>Do not include a literature not relevant to the problem </li></ul>Review of Literature (continued) Parts of a Research Proposal
  31. 31. Organizing the Review -   Provide smooth transitions by using such words as “on the other hand”, “nevertheless”, “in addition”, “in contrast”, etc. -     Avoid so many reviewed articles on the same subject -     Limit and avoid complementary papers by the same author -     Cite results but not tabulated data -     State research findings in your own words -     Citing word for word requires enclosing them in quotation marks -     Acknowledge sources of sentences or sections lifted from text or articles, and other vividly striking expressions Review of Literature (continued) Parts of a Research Proposal
  32. 32. <ul><li>Methodology – this consist of the following: </li></ul><ul><li>Conceptual or Analytical Framework </li></ul><ul><li>Research design/Experimental layout </li></ul><ul><li>Sample size & sampling procedure/# of replications </li></ul><ul><li>List of data to be collected & method of collection </li></ul><ul><li>Methods of data analysis </li></ul>Parts of a Research Proposal
  33. 33. <ul><li>Methodology </li></ul><ul><li>The methodology should be geared towards providing answers to the research objectives </li></ul><ul><li>The measurable outputs that the project will produce and their set of indicators and expected values should be included </li></ul><ul><li>The methodology should also show the appropriate, sound treatments, experimental layout, and appropriate statistical analysis </li></ul><ul><li>There should be a discussion on how the data required based on the set of indicators will be obtained, by whom, what sources, how frequent the data collection and how the collected data will be processed and reported. </li></ul>Parts of a Research Proposal
  34. 34. <ul><li>Tips on developing a conceptual framework: </li></ul><ul><li>Generally used in social science R&D; equivalent to research design in the other sciences </li></ul><ul><li>Show how the problem is viewed and how the proposed interventions will lead to the solutions of the problem under study; guides the researcher on how to analyze the data and what methodology to use </li></ul><ul><li>The review of literature should guide the researcher in contextualizing the problem and identifying the variables to be looked into </li></ul><ul><li>Usually contains variables and depicts their relationships </li></ul><ul><li>Illustrated using a diagram or a figure </li></ul><ul><li>Should always be accompanied by a textual explanation </li></ul>Methodology
  35. 35. <ul><li>Sampling procedure </li></ul><ul><li>Sampling is done in most researches for economy of time, money and effort </li></ul><ul><li>Sampling is a selection of a part of a population in such a way that the sample is representative of the population </li></ul><ul><li>Depending on the degree of homogeneity or heterogeneity of the population, the degree of accuracy required, and the objectives, the sample size is determined </li></ul>Parts of a Research Proposal
  36. 36. <ul><li>Methods of data collection </li></ul><ul><li>What information will be collected? </li></ul><ul><li>How does the researcher propose to gather the data – from secondary or primary sources? </li></ul><ul><li>If data will come from primary sources, how will they be collected – through personal interviews or mailed questionnaires , laboratory or experimental observation or field survey? </li></ul><ul><li>Processing of the research proposal will be facilitated if a questionnaire is appended to it. Otherwise, a list of needed information has to be incorporated in the procedure. </li></ul>Parts of a Research Proposal
  37. 37. <ul><li>Project Duration: </li></ul><ul><li>Presenting the timetable of planned activities (work plan) typically involves the use of a Gantt chart to illustrate activity duration. </li></ul><ul><li>Enumerate in chronological order the activities to be undertaken. The activities should answer the expected outputs. The expected outputs on the other hand should be anchored on the proposed objectives. </li></ul>Parts of a Research Proposal
  38. 38. <ul><li>Estimated Budgetary Requirement </li></ul><ul><li>The total financial requirement indicated must be reasonable and appropriate in relation to the objectives of the study </li></ul><ul><li>It must be consistent with the work plan </li></ul><ul><li>Counterparts funds should be indicated and line-item expenditures should be consistent with existing allowable rates </li></ul>Parts of a Research Proposal
  39. 39. <ul><li>The said counterpart fund maybe provided anytime during the duration of the proposed project so long as the accumulated allocation satisfies the percentage counterpart fund required </li></ul><ul><li>Personal services - Honoraria of research leaders, salaries of full time researchers, research assistants, research aides and interviewers </li></ul><ul><li>Maintenance and operating expenses - supplies and materials, travel expenses, attendance to meetings/ workshops, communications, contracted services, gasoline and oil, patenting, publication in a refereed journal and other expenses </li></ul>Estimated Budgetary Requirement (continued) Parts of a Research Proposal
  40. 40. Literature Cited - list alphabetically all materials used, quoted, rates, or referred to. Use standard system for citation. Books Author(s)/Editor(s)/Corporate Author(s). Year of Publication. Title of publication. Place of publication: Publisher, year. Pagination. Hnannesy J and Patterson D. 1996. Computer Architecture: A Quantitative Approach. San Francisco, California: Morgan Kauffman Publishers, Inc., 1996. 521-522pp. Technical Journal: Author(s). Year of Publication. Title of article. Name of Journal, Vol and Issue No. Pagination. Tabada, LI and Tagle, PU. 2009. Reliability Analysis of Fault Tolerant Buffered Switch. Proceedings of International Conference on Computer Engineering and Applications. 319-325pp. Parts of a Research Proposal
  41. 41. Internet Author(s)/Editor(s)/Corporate Author(s). Year of Publication. Title of publication. Available at: <URL>. Access Date: <date>. International Engineering Consortium. 2007. Internet Model for Control of Converged Networks. Available at: http://www.iec.org/online/tutorials/emerg- multi/topic01.html . Access Date: March 7, 2008. Parts of a Research Proposal
  42. 42. Formatting the manuscript <ul><li>Depends on the college or organization’s formatting </li></ul><ul><li>Can be automated using LateX software </li></ul><ul><ul><li>open source </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>manual available at the CEIT office – for reproduction </li></ul></ul>
  43. 43. Writing the Manuscript <ul><li>Title </li></ul><ul><li>Abstract </li></ul><ul><li>Introduction </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Context </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Statement of the Problem </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Objectives </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Significance </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Review of Related Literature </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Methodology </li></ul><ul><li>Results and Discussions </li></ul><ul><li>Conclusion </li></ul><ul><li>Recommendations </li></ul><ul><li>Literature Cited/ References </li></ul>
  44. 44. Abstract <ul><li>Find out maximum length (may vary from 50 to 300+ words). </li></ul><ul><li>Process: Extract key points from each section. Condense in successive revisions. </li></ul><ul><li>What to avoid: </li></ul><ul><li>Do not include references to figures, tables, or sources. </li></ul><ul><li>Do not include information not in report. </li></ul>
  45. 45. Question to address in ABSTRACT How to address it: What is the report about, in miniature and without specific details? <ul><li>State main objectives. (What did you investigate? Why?) </li></ul><ul><li>Describe methods. (What did you do?) </li></ul><ul><li>Summarize the most important results. (What did you find out?) </li></ul><ul><li>State major conclusions and significance. (What do your results mean? So what?) </li></ul>
  46. 46. Writing the Manuscript <ul><li>Introduction </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Context </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Statement of the Problem </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Objectives </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Significance of the Study </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Review of Related Literature </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Methodology </li></ul>Basically, have the same contents as Proposal Writing: Except in Methodology…
  47. 47. Questions to address: How to address them: How did you study the problem? Briefly explain the general type of scientific procedure you used What did you use? (May be subheaded as Materials ) Describe what materials, subjects, and equipment (chemicals, experimental animals, apparatus, etc.) you used. (These may be subheaded Animals, Reagents, etc.) How did you proceed? (May be subheaded as Methods or Procedures ) Explain the steps you took in your experiment. (These may be subheaded by experiment, types of assay, etc.)
  48. 48. Additional Tips: Methodology <ul><li>Provide enough detail for replication. For a journal article, include, for example, genus, species, strain of organisms; their source, living conditions, and care; and sources (manufacturer, location) of chemicals and apparatus. </li></ul><ul><li>Order procedures chronologically or by type of procedure (subheaded) and chronologically within type. </li></ul>
  49. 49. Additional Tips: Methodology <ul><li>Use past tense to describe what you did . </li></ul><ul><li>Quantify when possible: concentrations, measurements, amounts (all metric); times (24-hour clock); temperatures (centigrade) </li></ul>
  50. 50. Results <ul><li>Display of data with logical development showing how your findings satisfy your objectives </li></ul><ul><li>If possible, give illustrative examples and compare those with known results in the literature </li></ul><ul><li>Use tables and figures/ pictures </li></ul>
  51. 51. Question to address in RESULTS: How to address it:: What did you observe? <ul><li>For each experiment or procedure: </li></ul><ul><li>Briefly describe experiment without detail of Methods section (a sentence or two). Report main result(s) , supported by selected data: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Representative: most common </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Best Case: best example of ideal or exception </li></ul></ul>
  52. 52. Results… Additional Tips <ul><li>Order multiple results logically: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>from most to least important </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>from simple to complex; </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>organ by organ; chemical class by chemical class </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Use past tense to describe what happened. </li></ul>
  53. 53. Discussion <ul><li>AN INTRODUCTION is to place the reason for carrying out your study in context, so the DISCUSSION is to place your results in context . </li></ul>
  54. 54. Discussion <ul><li>the hardest section to write </li></ul><ul><li>you discuss, you do not recapitulate the Results </li></ul><ul><li>the relationship among observed facts show </li></ul><ul><li>Don't over-generalize. </li></ul><ul><li>Don't ignore deviations in your data. </li></ul><ul><li>Avoid speculation that cannot be tested in the foreseeable future. </li></ul>
  55. 55. Discussion… Additional Tips <ul><li>Move from specific to general: your finding(s) --> literature, theory, practice. </li></ul><ul><li>Don't ignore or bury the major issue. Did the study achieve the goal (resolve the problem, answer the question, support the hypothesis) presented in the Introduction? </li></ul><ul><li>Make explanations complete. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Give evidence for each conclusion. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Discuss possible reasons for expected and unexpected findings. </li></ul></ul>
  56. 56. Questions to address How to address them What do your observations mean? <ul><li>Summarize the most important findings at the beginning. </li></ul>What conclusions can you draw? <ul><li>For each major result: </li></ul><ul><li>Describe the patterns, principles, relationships your results show. </li></ul><ul><li>Explain how your results relate to expectations and to literature cited in your Introduction. Do they agree, contradict, or are they exceptions to the rule? </li></ul><ul><li>Explain plausibly any agreements, contradictions, or exceptions. </li></ul><ul><li>Describe what additional research might resolve contradictions or explain exceptions. </li></ul>How do your results fit into a broader context? <ul><li>Suggest the theoretical implications of results. </li></ul><ul><li>Suggest practical applications of your results. </li></ul><ul><li>Extend your findings to other situations or other species. </li></ul><ul><li>Give the big picture: do your findings help us understand a broader topic? </li></ul>
  57. 57. Conclusion <ul><li>Draw together the topics discussed </li></ul><ul><li>Should include concise statement of the paper’s important results and an explanation of their significance </li></ul><ul><li>State any shortcomings in the experiments, problems that the theory does not address, and so on… </li></ul>
  58. 58. Conclusion <ul><li>Look beyond the current context to other problems that were not addressed, to questions that were no answered, to variations that could be explored </li></ul><ul><li>If you have no conclusion to draw, write “Summary” </li></ul>
  59. 59. Common Problems <ul><li>Too long – only about 2.5% of manuscript </li></ul><ul><li>Too much detail – emphasize on evaluation, implication, etc. </li></ul><ul><li>Failure to comment on larger, more significant issues – Introduction is deduction while conclusion is inductive (how the research affect the world) </li></ul><ul><li>Failure to reveal the complexities of a conclusion or situation – negative aspects can be included </li></ul><ul><li>Lack of a concise summary of what was learned. </li></ul><ul><li>Failure to match the objectives of the research </li></ul>
  60. 60. REMEMBER <ul><li>Writing helps you to think and to learn. Don’t misjudge your audience. They can tell you when you are bluffing and when you don’t believe what you are saying or doing. </li></ul><ul><li>Write clear and simple , science is not an entertainment. </li></ul>
  61. 61. Thank you for listening

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