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DENTAL STAINS,DISCOLORATIONS    DH210 Jenny                  Dennings,           AND    RDH, BSDH     POLISHING
DEFINITION OF STAINStain is any discolorations ofthe teeth or restorations.•adheres directly to the surface•contained with...
CLASSIFICATION OF STAINSLocation•Intrinsic•ExtrinsicSource•Exogenous•Endogenous      Copyright 2013 Wolters Kluwer Health|...
DEFINITION OF INTRINSIC STAINoccurs within the tooth and cannot beremoved by scaling or polishingmay be possible to lighte...
DEFINITION OF EXTRINSIC STAINoccurs on the externalsurface of the tooth andcan be removed bytoothbrushing, flossing,scalin...
DEFINITION OF EXOGENOUSstains that develop fromsources outside the toothcan be extrinsic or becomeintrinsic i.e. red wine ...
DEFINITION OF ENDOGENOUSstains that develop or originate fromwithin the toothalways intrinsicare usually discolorations of...
ENDOGENOUS INTRINSIC STAINstains that develop or originate fromwithin the toothalways intrinsic and are usuallydiscolorati...
ENDOGENOUS INTRINSIC STAINPulpless teeth•blood and other tissue breakdown as a result of hemorrhages in the pulp chamber, ...
ENDOGENOUS INTRINSIC STAINTetracyclines•used to fight many infections•absorbed by the bones and teeth•Discoloration can re...
EXOGENOUS INTRINSIC STAINcomes from anoutside source, notfrom within the tooth   Copyright 2013 Wolters Kluwer Health| Lip...
EXOGENOUS INTRINSIC STAINRestorative Materials•Silver amalgam – causes a gray to black discoloration•Copper amalgam – used...
EXOGENOUS INTRINSIC STAINEndodontic Therapy•Gives yellowish/brown to different shades of silver and black depending on the...
EXOGENOUS INTRINSIC STAINStain in dentin•Results from carious lesions    Copyright 2013 Wolters Kluwer Health| Lippincott ...
LOCATIONExtrinsic• Yellow Stain• Green Stain• Black Line Stain• Brown Stain• Tobacco Stain• Orange and Red Stain• Metallic...
PROCEDURES FOR STAIN REMOVALPatient preparation•Instruction and clinical procedures•Explain the procedure•Provide protecti...
ENVIRONMENTAL PREPARATIONProcedures to lessen contaminatedaerosols• Pre-procedural rinseProtective barriers (PPE)• Mask, s...
THE PORTE POLISHER   Design   Grasp   Application   Features
POWER-DRIVEN INSTRUMENTSHandpiece•Speed•UsesProphylaxis angle•Types available•Disposable or sterilizable       Copyright 2...
PROPHYLAXIS ANGLE ATTACHMENTSRubber polishing cups•Types•MaterialsBristle brushes•Types•Materials      Copyright 2013 Wolt...
USE OF THE PROPHYLAXIS ANGLEEffects on tissues: clinicalconsiderations•Consideration for oral tissues•Tactile sensitivity ...
PROPHYLAXIS ANGLE PROCEDUREInstrument graspFinger restSpeed of handpieceUse of rheostat      Copyright 2013 Wolters Kluwer...
PROPHYLAXIS ANGLE PROCEDURE              (CONT’D)Rubber cup• Stroke and procedureRubber polishing points• OrthodonticsBris...
POLISHING PROXIMAL SURFACESUse of:•Floss•Tape•Finishing stripsPrevention of tissue damage•Recognition of gingival anatomy ...
DENTAL TAPE AND FLOSSFeaturesUses during cleaning and polishing•Stain removal with dental tape•Cleaning gingival surfaces ...
FINISHING STRIPSDescription and useTechnique for finishing strip•Grasp and finger rest•Positioning•Stain removal•Dental fl...
FACTORS TO TEACH THE PATIENTFormation of stain on dentitionConcept of selective polishingPrevention of extrinsic stain thr...
BIBLIOGRAPHY Wilkins, Esther M. (2013). Clinical practice of the dental  hygienist. Philadelphia: Lipponcot, Williams, an...
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Dental stains, discolorations and polishing

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Dental stains, discolorations and polishing

  1. 1. DENTAL STAINS,DISCOLORATIONS DH210 Jenny Dennings, AND RDH, BSDH POLISHING
  2. 2. DEFINITION OF STAINStain is any discolorations ofthe teeth or restorations.•adheres directly to the surface•contained within the calculus•within the tooth structure or restorative material. Copyright 2013 Wolters Kluwer Health| Lippincott Williams & Wilkins
  3. 3. CLASSIFICATION OF STAINSLocation•Intrinsic•ExtrinsicSource•Exogenous•Endogenous Copyright 2013 Wolters Kluwer Health| Lippincott Williams & Wilkins
  4. 4. DEFINITION OF INTRINSIC STAINoccurs within the tooth and cannot beremoved by scaling or polishingmay be possible to lighten withwhitening techniques in certain cases Copyright 2013 Wolters Kluwer Health| Lippincott Williams & Wilkins
  5. 5. DEFINITION OF EXTRINSIC STAINoccurs on the externalsurface of the tooth andcan be removed bytoothbrushing, flossing,scaling, or polishing Copyright 2013 Wolters Kluwer Health| Lippincott Williams & Wilkins
  6. 6. DEFINITION OF EXOGENOUSstains that develop fromsources outside the toothcan be extrinsic or becomeintrinsic i.e. red wine staining Copyright 2013 Wolters Kluwer Health| Lippincott Williams & Wilkins
  7. 7. DEFINITION OF ENDOGENOUSstains that develop or originate fromwithin the toothalways intrinsicare usually discolorations of the dentinreflected thru the enamel Copyright 2013 Wolters Kluwer Health| Lippincott Williams & Wilkins
  8. 8. ENDOGENOUS INTRINSIC STAINstains that develop or originate fromwithin the toothalways intrinsic and are usuallydiscolorations of the dentin reflectedthru the enamel Copyright 2013 Wolters Kluwer Health| Lippincott Williams & Wilkins
  9. 9. ENDOGENOUS INTRINSIC STAINPulpless teeth•blood and other tissue breakdown as a result of hemorrhages in the pulp chamber, root canal treatment or necrosis of the pulp tissue Copyright 2013 Wolters Kluwer Health| Lippincott Williams & Wilkins
  10. 10. ENDOGENOUS INTRINSIC STAINTetracyclines•used to fight many infections•absorbed by the bones and teeth•Discoloration can result in children when the drug is administered before the age of 12 and also invitro•Color of teeth may be light green to dark yellow or a gray brown. The discoloration depends on the dosage•Discoloration may be generalized to the localized areas depending on the formation of the teeth at the time of drug intake Copyright 2013 Wolters Kluwer Health| Lippincott Williams & Wilkins
  11. 11. EXOGENOUS INTRINSIC STAINcomes from anoutside source, notfrom within the tooth Copyright 2013 Wolters Kluwer Health| Lippincott Williams & Wilkins
  12. 12. EXOGENOUS INTRINSIC STAINRestorative Materials•Silver amalgam – causes a gray to black discoloration•Copper amalgam – used for primary teeth often gives a bluish green color Copyright 2013 Wolters Kluwer Health| Lippincott Williams & Wilkins
  13. 13. EXOGENOUS INTRINSIC STAINEndodontic Therapy•Gives yellowish/brown to different shades of silver and black depending on the materials used Copyright 2013 Wolters Kluwer Health| Lippincott Williams & Wilkins
  14. 14. EXOGENOUS INTRINSIC STAINStain in dentin•Results from carious lesions Copyright 2013 Wolters Kluwer Health| Lippincott Williams & Wilkins
  15. 15. LOCATIONExtrinsic• Yellow Stain• Green Stain• Black Line Stain• Brown Stain• Tobacco Stain• Orange and Red Stain• Metallic Stain Copyright 2013 Wolters Kluwer Health| Lippincott Williams & Wilkins
  16. 16. PROCEDURES FOR STAIN REMOVALPatient preparation•Instruction and clinical procedures•Explain the procedure•Provide protection for the patient•Patient position•Patient breathing Copyright 2013 Wolters Kluwer Health| Lippincott Williams & Wilkins
  17. 17. ENVIRONMENTAL PREPARATIONProcedures to lessen contaminatedaerosols• Pre-procedural rinseProtective barriers (PPE)• Mask, safety glasses, gloves Copyright 2013 Wolters Kluwer Health| Lippincott Williams & Wilkins
  18. 18. THE PORTE POLISHER Design Grasp Application Features
  19. 19. POWER-DRIVEN INSTRUMENTSHandpiece•Speed•UsesProphylaxis angle•Types available•Disposable or sterilizable Copyright 2013 Wolters Kluwer Health| Lippincott Williams & Wilkins
  20. 20. PROPHYLAXIS ANGLE ATTACHMENTSRubber polishing cups•Types•MaterialsBristle brushes•Types•Materials Copyright 2013 Wolters Kluwer Health| Lippincott Williams & Wilkins
  21. 21. USE OF THE PROPHYLAXIS ANGLEEffects on tissues: clinicalconsiderations•Consideration for oral tissues•Tactile sensitivity for clinician•Rate of abrasion•Trauma to gingival tissue•Need for premedication for at-risk patient Copyright 2013 Wolters Kluwer Health| Lippincott Williams & Wilkins
  22. 22. PROPHYLAXIS ANGLE PROCEDUREInstrument graspFinger restSpeed of handpieceUse of rheostat Copyright 2013 Wolters Kluwer Health| Lippincott Williams & Wilkins
  23. 23. PROPHYLAXIS ANGLE PROCEDURE (CONT’D)Rubber cup• Stroke and procedureRubber polishing points• OrthodonticsBristle brush• Occlusal surfacesIrrigation Copyright 2013 Wolters Kluwer Health| Lippincott Williams & Wilkins
  24. 24. POLISHING PROXIMAL SURFACESUse of:•Floss•Tape•Finishing stripsPrevention of tissue damage•Recognition of gingival anatomy Copyright 2013 Wolters Kluwer Health| Lippincott Williams & Wilkins
  25. 25. DENTAL TAPE AND FLOSSFeaturesUses during cleaning and polishing•Stain removal with dental tape•Cleaning gingival surfaces of appliances•Flossing•Rinsing and irrigation Copyright 2013 Wolters Kluwer Health| Lippincott Williams & Wilkins
  26. 26. FINISHING STRIPSDescription and useTechnique for finishing strip•Grasp and finger rest•Positioning•Stain removal•Dental floss Copyright 2013 Wolters Kluwer Health| Lippincott Williams & Wilkins
  27. 27. FACTORS TO TEACH THE PATIENTFormation of stain on dentitionConcept of selective polishingPrevention of extrinsic stain through biofilm controlAbrasiveness of professional polishing agents for homeuse Copyright 2013 Wolters Kluwer Health| Lippincott Williams & Wilkins
  28. 28. BIBLIOGRAPHY Wilkins, Esther M. (2013). Clinical practice of the dental hygienist. Philadelphia: Lipponcot, Williams, and Wilkins.

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