Child with autism


Published on

Published in: Education, Health & Medicine
  • Be the first to comment

Child with autism

  1. 1. Research of Autism By BANU & LAN Diploma of Children Service, Wollongong TAFE, Illawarra Institute
  2. 2. What is Autism Spectrum Disorder? <ul><li>Autism spectrum disorders (ASDs) are lifelong developmental disabilities characterised by marked difficulties in social interaction, impaired communication, restricted and repetitive interests and behaviours and sensory sensitivities. </li></ul>   
  3. 3. What is Autism Spectrum Disorder? <ul><li>The word ‘spectrum’ is used because the range and severity of the difficulties people with an ASD experience can vary widely. ASDs include autistic disorder , Asperger’s disorder , pervasive developmental disorder and atypical autism . Sometimes the word “autism” is used to refer to all ASDs. </li></ul>
  4. 4. Numbers of children known to Centrelink with a diagnosis of Autism or Asperger disorder by age groups for the years 2003-2005 Australian Bureau of Statistics, 2005. Population estimate for each year in June. 1 July 2003-June 2004 data http:// “ Studies show 1 in 160 Australians have an ASD and that it is more prevalent in males than females. ’’ 1525206 1521540 1523512 Total 742903 741024 742485 Females 782303 780516 781027 Males ABS* Population 3355 2890 2456 Total 580 500 419 Females 2775 2390 2037 Males ASD* 256 200 129 Total 41 30 29 Females 215 170 100 Males Asperger 3099 2690 2327 Total 539 470 390 Females 2560 2220 1937 Males Autism 2005 2004 2003 0-5 years old
  5. 5. Autism has increasing… <ul><li>Autism has increase 172% in the 1990s. Why? This disorder that impairs language and impedes social skills is becoming a rising phenomena that is affecting thousands of children, mainly males, in the world. </li></ul>
  6. 6. Physicality? <ul><li>Children with autism usually don’t look physically different from other children and there is no blood test to tell if a child is autistic, and is only diagnosed only by observing the child’s behaviour. </li></ul>
  7. 7. Autism Signs and Symptoms: <ul><li>Signs of autism may appear during infancy and the disorder is usually diagnosed by the age of 3, though Sometimes the child's development appears normal until about 2 years old and then regresses rapidly. Symptoms of autism occur in various combinations, from mild to severe. </li></ul>
  8. 8. Infants with Autism <ul><li>Displays abnormal reactions to sensory stimuli </li></ul><ul><li>Touches may be experienced as painful </li></ul><ul><li>Smells may be overwhelmingly unpleasant </li></ul><ul><li>Everyday noises may be painful </li></ul><ul><li>Bright lights and loud noises such as a vacuum cleaner may cause crying. </li></ul>
  9. 9. Other Symptoms of Autism in infants may include: <ul><li>Appears indifferent to surroundings </li></ul><ul><li>Appears content to be alone, happier to play alone </li></ul><ul><li>Displays lack of interest in toys </li></ul><ul><li>Displays lack of response to others </li></ul><ul><li>Marked reduction or increase in activity level </li></ul><ul><li>Resists affection </li></ul>
  10. 10. Symptoms of Autism in Children may include: <ul><li>Avoids cuddling or touching </li></ul><ul><li>Repeated behavioural outbursts and tantrums </li></ul><ul><li>Inappropriate attachments to objects </li></ul><ul><li>Maintains little or no eye contact </li></ul><ul><li>Has no fear of danger </li></ul><ul><li>Unusual vocabulary for child’s age or social group </li></ul><ul><li>Easily overwhelmed by social and other stimulation </li></ul><ul><li>Inability to cope with change or unstructured situations </li></ul>
  11. 11. What is the cause of Autism <ul><li>Basically the cause of autism is unknown. The disability results from abnormalities in brain structure or function and the underlying cause usually cannot be identified as yet, though research is on the rise. </li></ul>
  12. 12. What is the cause of Autism <ul><li>Brain abnormalities can often result from: </li></ul><ul><li>Generic (hereditary) </li></ul><ul><li>Environmental factors, example exposure to toxins </li></ul><ul><li>Metabolic disorders, example serotonin deficiency </li></ul><ul><li>Viral infections, example German measles </li></ul><ul><li>Complications during pregnancy and delivery </li></ul>
  13. 13. What are the characteristics of Autism and how does it effect each area of development?
  14. 14. COMMUNICATION AND LANGUAGE: <ul><li>Delayed language development </li></ul><ul><li>Difficulties initiating and sustaining conversations </li></ul><ul><li>Stereotyped and repetitive use of language </li></ul><ul><li>Limited imaginative or make-believe play </li></ul><ul><li>difficulty with symbolic or abstract language </li></ul><ul><li>difficulty listening and following directions when given to whole class. </li></ul>
  15. 15. <ul><li>The text Australian Autism Handbook written by O’Riely and Smith have included some of the lives of families who have Autistic children and one parent says- </li></ul><ul><li>“ When my son was 18 months old, a friends brought her nine month-old baby round to our house. I had so much fun with the baby; there was constant communication between us. I realised that this was completely absent with my own little boy.” (Pg2) </li></ul>COMMUNICATION AND LANGUAGE:
  16. 16. SOCIAL AND EMOTIONAL RELATIONSHIPS/INTERACTIONS: <ul><li>Autistic children’s relationships with their family members and peers range from in difference to others, though we must not assume that all children with Autism dislike social interactions, as some do. </li></ul>
  17. 17. SOCIAL AND EMOTIONAL RELATIONSHIPS/INTERACTIONS: <ul><li>Children with autism when avoiding social situations they tend to: </li></ul><ul><li>Limited use and understanding of non-verbal communication such as eye gaze, facial expression and gesture </li></ul><ul><li>Difficulties forming and sustaining friendships </li></ul><ul><li>Lack of seeking to share enjoyment, interest and activities with other people </li></ul><ul><li>Lack of empathy - insensitivity to the feelings and needs of others </li></ul><ul><li>Difficulties with social and emotional responsiveness </li></ul>
  18. 18. <ul><li>In the book Australian Autism Handbook written by O’Riely and Smith (Pg 3) a mother of an Autistic child says- </li></ul><ul><li>“ He didn’t respond to his own name; he didn’t understand a word we said to him; he had no speech what so ever- in fact he was pretty silent. He walked in circles and pushed chairs; he hand-flapped; he had poor eye contact and he ran away from people. He treated people like they were objects, walking over the top of them and climbing on them. He had a thing about switches.” </li></ul>SOCIAL AND EMOTIONAL RELATIONSHIPS/INTERACTIONS:
  19. 19. IMAGINATION & CREATIVITY: <ul><li>Limited in their imaginative play </li></ul><ul><li>Enjoy lining up objects in a perfect line rather then playing imaginatively with them </li></ul><ul><li>Group objects according to colour or size. </li></ul>
  21. 21. Restricted and repetitive interests, activities and behaviours <ul><li>Unusually intense or focused interests </li></ul><ul><li>Stereotyped and repetitive body movements such as hand flapping, rocking and spinning </li></ul><ul><li>Repetitive use of objects such as repeatedly flicking a doll’s eyes or lining up toys </li></ul><ul><li>flicking hands or fingers in front of their eyes </li></ul><ul><li>Adherence to non-functional routines such as insisting on traveling the same route home each day </li></ul>
  22. 22. Sensory processing implications: <ul><li>Auditory system (hearing) e.g. makes sounds to screen out unwanted noise </li></ul><ul><li>Visual system (sight) e.g. sensitive to pulsations in lighting </li></ul><ul><li>Tactile system (touch) e.g. avoids touch or contact </li></ul><ul><li>Olfactory system (smell) e.g. dislike of strong smells such as perfume </li></ul><ul><li>Gustatory system (taste) e.g. only eats certain food. </li></ul><ul><li>Proprioceptive system (movement, one's own position) e.g. exerts too much pressure when handling objects </li></ul>
  23. 23. <ul><li>Autistic people often develop obsession with items and become very dependent upon certain routines, if there is a sudden change in that routine it can often cause major distress which often leads to tough behaviours. </li></ul>
  24. 24. Useful Autism Information
  25. 25. Inclusive Practise Parents to be included in the service and be cared for observe children with additional needs rather than generalizing from their “additional needs’ Inclusive programming Relatives and friends who are involved in the child’s life Provide an inclusive environment Inclusive plan Implementing & evaluating
  26. 26. Implementing Play Sessions for Autistic children and supporting families: <ul><li>Playsession is an environment where we welcome families at all times providing them with support and a sense of belonging. In the website it discusses the advantages of implementing play sessions for Autistic children and it says- </li></ul>
  27. 27. <ul><li>“ By presenting fun activities that involve manipulation of play materials, sensory experiences, construction, exploration of cause and effect, simple sequencing and patterning, you can help your child to begin to understand the numerous functions of objects. The focus of play sessions with your child will include early social and communication skills such as looking, attending, imitation of actions, joint sharing of attention and simple turn-taking .” </li></ul>Implementing Play Sessions for Autistic children and supporting families:
  28. 28. My Time Groups in General <ul><li>“ My time groups provide local support for families caring for a young child under school age with a disability or a chronic medical condition. My Time gives families the chance to socialise and share ideas with others who understand the rewards and intensity of the caring role” . (O’Reilly & Smith,2008, P226) </li></ul>My Time Groups:1800 889 997
  29. 29. My Time Groups in General <ul><li>Parent “ can meet with people in similar circumstances to have fun, swap information and find out about available community support. Research based parenting information is also available at group meetings. Each group has a play helper who can lead children in activities such as singing, drawing, playing with toys, blocks or sand so parents can spend time catching up with others ”. (O’Reilly & Smith,2008, P226) </li></ul>My Time Groups:1800 889 997
  30. 30. Interview with Mil <ul><li>Mil is the mother of twins Mia and Adrian who are six, Adrian has Severe Autism, and Mil has kindly agreed to share her life experience… She said: “I am graceful I have a beautiful boy!” </li></ul>living with her autism children
  31. 31. Comments that are REALLY NOT HELPFUL: <ul><li>“ Well he looks alright to me” </li></ul><ul><li>“ Oh don’t worry about that, all children… chew their clothes/tantrums/spin objects in front of their eyes, I wouldn’t worry too much” </li></ul><ul><li>“ Is he talking yet?” </li></ul><ul><li>“ Can he sit and listen yet?” </li></ul>(O’Reilly & Smith,2008, P182)
  32. 32. Comments that are REALLY HELPFUL: <ul><li>“ Why don’t you sit down and let me make you a cup of tea” </li></ul><ul><li>“ You need a night out, show me what to do and I will babysit” </li></ul><ul><li>“ I’m just dropping off this casserole for you, for now pop it in the freezer” </li></ul><ul><li>“ I knew you would appreciate a nice bottle of wine/bar chocolate” </li></ul>(O’Reilly & Smith,2008, P182)
  33. 33. Discussing Time <ul><li>Share your feelings and ideas </li></ul>AUTISM Thank You
  34. 35. Reference List <ul><li>Benison O’Reilly and Seana Smith, 2008, Australian Autism Handbook – The essential resource guide for autism spectrum disorders. First Edition. Edgecliff NSW </li></ul><ul><li>   </li></ul><ul><li>http:// </li></ul><ul><li> </li></ul><ul><li> </li></ul><ul><li>http:// </li></ul><ul><li> </li></ul>