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Bilingual and multilingual children


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Bilingual and multilingual children

  1. 1. i C i Sign i C i Sign
  2. 2. Overview <ul><li>Types of hearing loss </li></ul><ul><li>Styles of Sign Language used in Australia </li></ul><ul><li>Deafness is a culture not a disability </li></ul><ul><li>Deaf Etiquette </li></ul><ul><li>Simple Signs to use with children </li></ul><ul><li>Strategies to implement when working with </li></ul><ul><li>children who are Deaf or hard of hearing </li></ul>
  3. 3. Learning Outcomes <ul><li>Students will gain an understanding about deafness as a culture and as an additional needs </li></ul><ul><li>Students will learn some basic signs to use with young children in a service </li></ul><ul><li>Students will learn body language and facial expressions as a part of communicating in AUSLAN </li></ul>
  4. 4. Types of Hearing Loss <ul><li>Conductive hearing loss : </li></ul>The outer or middle ear prevents sound getting to the inner ear. This can be caused by something in the ear canal, fluid (otitis media) or ear wax. This is most common type of hearing loss in early childhood and can often be corrected.
  5. 5. Types of Hearing Loss <ul><li>Sensorineural hearing loss: </li></ul><ul><li>damage to the inner ear, the nerve to the brain stem, or both. </li></ul><ul><li>Referred to as perceptive impairment, cochlear or neurosensory loss or nerve loss. </li></ul><ul><li>May be congenital (at birth) or due to illness (mumps, meningitis, rubella) or environmental (drugs, head trauma or exposure to noise). </li></ul>Reference:
  6. 6. Styles of sign language used in Australia <ul><li>Signed English- different set of signs and rules </li></ul><ul><li>Makaton - (Pidgin Auslan)- Auslan signs in English word order- predominately used in the wider community and in schools </li></ul><ul><li>Auslan ( Au stralian S i gn Lan guage)-own language grammar </li></ul>
  7. 7. Listening Activity <ul><li>(How much can a Deaf person understand without the use of hearing aids or lip reading) </li></ul><ul><li>Megan will take out her hearing aid and face the white board </li></ul><ul><li>Catherine will ask the class to call out a word one at a time </li></ul><ul><li>Megan will write what she hears on the board </li></ul>
  8. 8. Don’t Dis My Ability
  9. 9. Deafness is a culture not a disability <ul><li>Identification with the Deaf community is a personal choice and it does not depend on the degree of deafness, but rather on identifying with the cultural model of deafness. </li></ul><ul><li>Culturally Deaf people, whether they have hearing aids, cochlear implants or use sign language see themselves as normal, not as “abnormal” hearing people. </li></ul>
  10. 10. <ul><li>Accepting one's Deafness as part of a person's identity is the core element in identification into the Deaf community and are often described as Deaf with a capital D to emphasize their Deaf identity. </li></ul><ul><li>the community shares attitudes and beliefs that bond as common experiences and is united in identity by sharing Auslan. </li></ul><ul><li>Advocates of the cultural view promotes that Deaf people are not a disabled group, but a linguistic minority group, </li></ul>
  11. 11. <ul><li>Deaf people, like their hearing peers, have the same aspirations, needs, desires of a quality lifestyle that will reap benefits to them and their families. </li></ul>Reference: <ul><li>Being proud of one's Deafness now takes full force in a variety of ways such as the Deaf festivals that are fostered each year across Australia throughout the National Week of Deaf people . </li></ul>
  12. 12. Using interpreters with families who are Deaf Maintain eye contact and conversation with the Deaf person . Talk to the Deaf person as you would any other person. Avoid saying to the interpreter, “Tell him/her….”. Position the interpreter appropriately . Ask the Deaf person and the interpreter where they would like to sit or stand in the room or if they have any special requirements. It is usual for the interpreter to be situated next to the main speaker so that the Deaf person can see both the main speaker and the interpreter at the same time as well as any visual aids.
  13. 13. Using interpreters with families who are Deaf Avoid asking the interpreter for their opinion . The interpreter is bound by a code of ethics that specifies that their role is to facilitate communication and not to contribute personal beliefs or opinions. Speak clearly and at a normal speed . It is easier for the interpreter to establish the context and a natural signing flow if you speak normally e.g. pausing unnecessarily at the end of every sentence as it makes it hard for the interpreter to maintain an even flow.
  14. 14. Give a little extra time for a Deaf person to answer any questions you have asked . The Deaf person, will get the interpreted message slightly later than other participants. This is especially important to note for group discussions. Don’t make &quot;asides&quot; that you don’t want interpreted . The interpreter must interpret everything that the Deaf person would have heard if they could hear spoken English. Be aware that the interpreter will not be translating each spoken word into a sign .. It has a different sentence structure, its own grammar and idioms. The interpreter will be translating the meaning from one language into the other .
  15. 15. Allow time for the Deaf person to take notes or read any printed material before you resume speaking . It is impossible to watch an interpreter and read and write at the same time. Relax! Deaf people and interpreters are used to working with people who have never worked with an interpreter before. It is normal to make mistakes in new situations. Just behave naturally and everything should go smoothly. Reference: http : //
  16. 17. Simple signs to use with children <ul><li>sleep </li></ul><ul><li>juice </li></ul><ul><li>Food </li></ul><ul><li>Drink </li></ul><ul><li>Fruit </li></ul><ul><li>Milk </li></ul><ul><li>Water </li></ul><ul><li>toilet </li></ul>
  17. 18. Strategies to implement when working with children who are Deaf or hard of hearing <ul><li>Face the child. Sit at eye level. Sit in front, not beside them. </li></ul><ul><li>When facing the child don’t stand in front of a window with light behind you this casts shadow across your body </li></ul><ul><li>Don’t obscure lips, don't wear lipstick or a beard. Tie back hair. Don’t shout. </li></ul>
  18. 19. <ul><li>Before speaking, attract the child’s attention. Call name or stamp the floor or clap/wave. Wait for eye contact before speaking. </li></ul><ul><li>Use gestures and appropriate body language when speaking. </li></ul><ul><li>Reduce background noise (hearing aids pick up all noise not just speech. </li></ul>
  19. 20. Strategies to implement when working with children who are Deaf or hard of hearing, Cont’d <ul><li>If the child doesn’t understand what is said, Repeat information. Find different ways of saying the same thing </li></ul><ul><li>Sign all children’s names. Cue who is speaking. Ask children to stand when they speak so the child can identify them. </li></ul><ul><li>At group time Repeat or summarize what other children say </li></ul><ul><li>Form relationship with the child’s family, they know best how best to assist the child </li></ul>
  20. 21. <ul><li>If sign is used at home, learn to sign. Teach other children signs and use as many visual aids as possible. This may include forms of augmentative communication such as picture cards </li></ul><ul><li>Discuss difference with the children teach other children ways to help them communicate best with the child </li></ul><ul><li>Use visual cues for transition times e.g. flashing lights or picture card or sign to the child dependant on what works best for the child </li></ul>
  21. 22. <ul><li>During music times use percussion instruments, when using recorded music use music which has a strong beat and turn speakers to the floor, this allows the child to feel the beat through vibration in the floor. </li></ul><ul><li>use movement such as marching, walking running, jumping crawling. Use clear visual cues to instruct the child </li></ul><ul><li>Learn to sign some favorite songs </li></ul><ul><li>Have poster of daily sequence for routines </li></ul>Reference: accessed 8/8/09
  22. 24. Children’s songs in sign <ul><li>Twinkle, Twinkle </li></ul><ul><li>The rainbow song </li></ul><ul><li>Hickory dickory dock </li></ul>
  23. 25. Resources <ul><li> </li></ul>
  24. 26. References <ul><li>Child with hearing loss: </li></ul><ul><li>Deafness as a culture: </li></ul><ul><li>Using interpreters: http : // </li></ul><ul><li>Strategies for working with children who are Deaf: </li></ul>