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27.3 ppt


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27.3 ppt

  1. 1. Ch. 27.3 Europeans Claim Muslim Lands
  2. 2. Discussion Questions • Why did Europeans imperialize Africa? • Examine the map below. What was so strategic about the extensiveness of the Ottoman Empire? • Why was the land of the Ottomans so desirable to Europeans?
  3. 3. RESPONSES • Natural Resources, labor, Christianity • Waterways in and out of Mediterranean Sea – Access to Red Sea, Persian Gulf – Control of land surrounding Mediterranean Sea – 6 access points to Med. and Arabian Seas • Trade routes, especially for areas with no access to Mediterranean – Oil deposits in Persia
  4. 4. Ottomans Lose Power • Arab and Ottoman conquests create vast empire surrounding Mediterranean (Med.) Sea • Weak successors to Suleyman I lead to failures – Corruption and theft lead to debt – Inflation • Modernization attempt by Selim III fails – Janissary resist – Selim overthrown • Nationalism by people of Ottoman empire rises – Greece and Serbia gain self-rule
  5. 5. Geopolitics and European Land Grab • Geopolitics defined: An interest in or taking of land for strategic locations or products • Current example: 80 percent of European gas imports travels from Russia through Ukraine • What happens when Russia and Ukraine spat?
  6. 6. Geopolitics and Imperialism • Location, location, location – Creates interest for Ottoman land • Ottomans controlled access to Med. and Atlantic Sea trade • Merchants in landlocked countries forced to travel through Ott. Emp. • Russia wants access through Black Sea and into Med. – Grain exports • Discovery of Oil in Persia and Arabian Peninsula
  7. 7. Russia and Crimean War • Purpose: give Russia a warmweather port and access to Black Sea and Med. Sea • Britain and France enter war – Prevent Russia from gaining more Ott. land – Fight with Otts and defeat Russia • First war women established positions as army nurses and covered by newspapers • Florence Nightingale
  8. 8. Crimean cont… • War reveals Ott’s weakness • Russia helps Slavics in Balkans • Otts lose: – – – – – – – Romania Montenegro Cyprus Bosnia Herzegovina Bulgaria Land in northern Africa
  9. 9. “Great Game” • Britain vs. Russia • Geo-Pol. Struggle over Muslim land in Central Asia – Especially India and Afghanistan • England attempts to spread empire into Afghanistan – (b/t Russian (Persia) and British (India) empires)
  10. 10. Afghanistan’s Importance • 1800s: Independent Muslim kingdom • Physical geography and resistance discouraged colonization • Britain gets out 1881 – 1921 formally agrees to not extend border – Soviet Union (Russia) sign non-aggression pact • Soviets change policy in 1979 invasion of Afg.
  11. 11. Egyptian Reforms • Initiates political and social reforms to block Euro imperialism • Military and economic reforms result from French occupation – Egypt’s location (head of Read Sea entering Med.) • Muhammad Ali – Sent by Otts to govern Egypt – Gains Syria and Arabia – Europe recognizes M.A. as ruler of Egypt • Ali reforms: – Shifted Egyptian agriculture to plantation cash crop (cotton) – Effect: Traditional farmers (peasants) lose land used for food
  12. 12. • • • • • • • • Suez Canal Isma’il (Ali’s grandson) continues modernization Constructs Suez Canal – 101 mile ship Canal in Egypt between Port Said on the Mediterranean and Suez on the Red Sea. – Vital shortcut b/t both Euro, East Coast American, southern Asia and eastern Africa ports – Opens 1869. French contracts with Egypt 10 years to construct Ismail’s heavy spending and money spent on canal creates debt Ismail forced to take out loans from European banks Sells canal to Great Britain. British send soldiers into Egypt – Concerned for their property – British occupy Egypt and control the Suez Canal.
  13. 13. Persia’s Pressured • Russia vs. Britain – Sphere of Influence • Russian interests – Persian Gulf and Indian Ocean • British want buffer b/t India and Afghanistan (Russia) – Persia gives up claims to Afg. – Oil discovery increases Brit interest • Persia lacks capital to exploit resources – Sells rights to operate in certain areas or for certain products – England develops oil fields (1900s)
  14. 14. Tobacco • 1890 Persian ruler Nasir al-Din grants concession to British company to export tobacco – By religious leaders fearing modernization • Outrages Persian leader who supports modernization – Boycott (heavy smokers) – Believes concession is a “sell-out” – Nasir cancels concession and is killed • Russia and Britain divide country into spheres of influence – Economic control established – Economic and Sphere of Influence forms used