A craft is a skill, especially involving practical arts. It may refer to a trade or particular art.<br />Carl Rogers (January 8, 1902 – February 4, 1987) was an influential American psychologist and among the founders of the humanistic approach to psychology. Rogers is widely considered to be one of the founding fathers of psychotherapy research and was honored for his pioneering research with the Award for Distinguished Scientific Contributions by the American Psychological Association in 1956.<br />The person-centered approach, his own unique approach to understanding personality and human relationships, found wide application in various domains such as psychotherapy and counseling (client-centered therapy), education (student-centered learning), organizations, and other group settings. For his professional work he was bestowed the Award for Distinguished Professional Contributions to Psychology by the APA in 1972. Towards the end of his life Carl Rogers was nominated for the Nobel Peace Prize for his work with national intergroup conflict in South Africa and Northern Ireland. In an empirical study by Haggbloom et al. (2002) using six criteria such as citations and recognition, Rogers was found to be the sixth most eminent psychologist of the 20th century and second, among clinicians, only to Sigmund Freud.<br />Abraham Harold Maslow (April 1, 1908 – June 8, 1970) was an American psychologist. He is noted for his conceptualization of a "
hierarchy of human needs"
, and is considered the founder of humanistic psychology.<br />Maslow created to explain his theory, which he called the Hierarchy of Needs, is a pyramid depicting the levels of human needs, psychological and physical. When a human being ascends the steps of the pyramid he reaches self actualization. At the bottom of the pyramid are the “Basic needs or Physiological needs” of a human being, food and water and sex. The next level is “Safety Needs: Security, Order, and Stability.” These two steps are important to the physical survival of the person. Once individuals have basic nutrition, shelter and safety, they attempt to accomplish more. The third level of need is “Love and Belonging,” which are psychological needs; when individuals have taken care of themselves physically, they are ready to share themselves with others. The fourth level is achieved when individuals feel comfortable with what they have accomplished. This is the “Esteem” level, the level of success and status (from self and others). The top of the pyramid, “Need for Self-actualization,” occurs when individuals reach a state of harmony and understanding. (The Developing Person through the Life Span, (1983) <br />John Dewey (October 20, 1859 – June 1, 1952) was an American philosopher, psychologist, and educational reformer whose ideas have been influential in education and social reform. Dewey, along with Charles Sanders Peirce and William James, is recognized as one of the founders of the philosophy of pragmatism and of functional psychology. He was a major representative of the progressive and progressive populist philosophies of schooling during the first half of the 20th century in the USA.<br />Although Dewey is known best for his publications concerning education, he also wrote about many other topics, including experience, nature, art, logic, inquiry, democracy, and ethics.<br />Dewey's educational theories were presented in My Pedagogic Creed (1897), The School and Society (1900), The Child and the Curriculum (1902), Democracy and Education (1916) and Experience and Education (1938). Throughout these writings, several recurrent themes ring true; Dewey continually argues that education and learning are social and interactive processes, and thus the school itself is a social institution through which social reform can and should take place. In addition, he believed that students thrive in an environment where they are allowed to experience and interact with the curriculum, and all students should have the opportunity to take part in their own learning.<br />In addition to his ideas regarding what education is and what effect it should have on society, Dewey also had specific notions regarding how education should take place within the classroom. In The Child and the Curriculum (1902), Dewey discusses two major conflicting schools of thought regarding educational pedagogy. The first is centered on the curriculum and focuses almost solely on the subject matter to be taught. Dewey argues that the major flaw in this methodology is the inactivity of the student; within this particular framework, “the child is simply the immature being who is to be matured; he is the superficial being who is to be deepened” (1902, p. 13). He argues that in order for education to be most effective, content must be presented in a way that allows the student to relate the information to prior experiences, thus deepening the connection with this new knowledge.<br />Friedrich Wilhelm August Fröbel (or Froebel) ( April 21, 1782 – June 21, 1852) was a German pedagogue, a student of Pestalozzi who laid the foundation for modern education based on the recognition that children have unique needs and capabilities. He developed the concept of the “kindergarten”, and also coined the word now used in German and English.<br />Fröbel’s idea of the kindergarten found appeal, but its spread in Germany was thwarted by the Prussian government, whose education ministry banned it on 7 August 1851 as “atheistic and demagogic” for its alleged “destructive tendencies in the areas of religion and politics”. Other states followed suit. The reason for the ban, however, seems to have been a confusion of names. Fröbel’s nephew Karl Fröbel had written and published Weibliche Hochschulen und Kindergärten (“Female Colleges and Kindergartens”), which apparently met with some disapproval. To quote Karl August Varnhagen von Ense, “The stupid minister von Raumer has decreed a ban on kindergartens, basing himself on a book by Karl Fröbel. He is confusing Friedrich and Karl Fröbel.”<br />Henry Clinton Morrison (1871-1945) was the New Hampshire state superintendent of public instruction from 1904 to 1917, superintendent of University of Chicago Laboratory Schools from 1919 to 1928, professor of education, and an author.<br />Morrison entered as the teaching principal at Milford High School from 1895 through 1899. He taught mathematics, Latin, history, and science but became known for his ability to deal with misbehaved students. The reputation Morrison built led to the offer to be the superintendent of schools for Portsmouth, New Hampshire from 1899-1904. Morrison married Marion Locke and the two had three sons together.<br />In 1904, Morrison was promoted to New Hampshire State Superintendent of Public Instruction. He held this position for thirteen years and during that time he examined and approved all schools throughout the state, served on the state medical board, examined teachers, and supervised attendance and child labor laws. During the year of 1908, he was elected president of the American Institute of Instruction. In 1912, the dean of the School of Education at the University of Chicago, asked him to be the guest speaker for a summer session in Chicago. Morrison later became great friends with the dean, Charles Hubbard Judd, which proved to be important later in Morrison’s career. From 1917 to 1919 Morrison lived in Connecticut and took a position on the Connecticut State Board of Education.<br />After two years serving on the state board, the position of superintendent of the University of Chicago Laboratory Schools became available. Charles Judd. the dean of the college. was familiar with Morrison through their previous encounters and offered Morrison the job. Morrison moved to Chicago and held the position of superintendent of Laboratory Schools until 1928. He left the position as superintendent to become the Professor of School Administration until 1937.<br />Morrison is best remembered for the work and research he did at the University of Chicago. He formulated the “Morrison plan” which reorganized the style of teaching. He studied the problems with education and designed theories for approaching these problems. He believed that the student learned best by adapting or responding to a situation. Morrison configured the secondary curriculum into five types: science, appreciation, practical arts, language arts, and pure-practice. He also identified a five step instructional pattern: pretest, teaching, testing the results of instruction, changing the instruction procedure, and teaching and testing again until the unit is mastered by the student. Morrison’s landmark publication was the The Practice of Teaching in Secondary Schools. This book is widely known as a way to use teaching from the 1920’s to the 1940’s. Morrison retired from the University of Chicago in 1937 and later died of a heart attack in 1945.<br />