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Downsizing and Organizational Culture
Downsizing and Organizational Culture
By Joe Gonzalez
Sociology 100
Dr. Mario Reda
Table of Contents
Chapter 1........................................................................................................................1
Chapter 2........................................................................................................................2
Organizational Culture Defined........................................................................2 Downsizing
Defined............................................................................................3 Culture
Change..................................................................................................4 Connecting the ... Show more
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How do you connect downsizing, which is one of a number of actions being taken, with corporate
culture, which is only one of a number of "crises" being solved in a manner and to a level that
establishes a positive relationship? Another reason that it is difficult to draw a specific link between
downsizing and organizational culture is that there are many different variations and approaches to
downsizing. A distinction has been made between proactive downsizing, which is planned in
advance and usually integrated with a larger set of objectives, and reactive downsizing, which would
be typified by cost–cutting as a last resort after a prolonged period of inattention to looming
problems by management5. Work force reductions can range from forceful in nature, i.e.,
involuntary reductions, to the milder approaches, such as resignation incentives and job sharing 6.
There are different ways of deciding "who stays, who goes" from the outwardly arbitrary to
criterion–based 7. There are different modes of planning, ranging from secretive sessions to open
discussions and solicitation of ideas from employees. There are different standards of notice of
terminations, including relatively harsh same day terminations as well as more generous 90 day or
longer notices. There are even differences in intentionality, i.e., reductions can be planned to present
employees with as little a break
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Organizational Culture and Structure
Organizational Culture and Structure
The structure of an organization determines the allocation of roles, regulations, and responsibilities,
and therefore builds a basis for the culture in an organization. There is a constant relationship
between organizational structure and organizational culture that provides a theme within an
organization. Both can be difficult to clearly define and distinguish when analyzing an organization.
Organization culture is a perspective into the company's personality; it provides descriptive values,
principals, traditions, and a way of doing things that effect how members view the organization
(Robbins, DeCenzo, & Coulter, 2013). The organizational structure builds the ... Show more content
on Helpwriting.net ...
Stories of innovation inspire creativity and help build the strength of an organization's culture. A
strong organizational culture holds key values that are shared with all members. It is the
responsibility of leaders to uphold an organization's culture to ensure that there is a proper
foundation that binds the structure.
Organizational Structure Any organization should have its own operating structure in order to reach
success. Organizational structure is defined as a hierarchy of people that determine roles of
authority, communications, and the duties of an organization (Robbins et al., 2013). Organizations
must organize their structure to meet the needs of that particular organization, and assure that it
resembles the values instilled by the organizational culture. The development of culture through an
organization is a natural process that is dependent upon the instilled values of the leaders and
members in the organization (O'Neil, 2011). Leaders can still influence the culture by sticking to
their values and implementing a strong and effective organizational structure. There are several
models that organizations can utilize to structure the elements within the organization.
The structure of an organization can be divided into two generic organization structure models.
Below is a chart as presented by Robbins et al. (2013)
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The Importance Of Culture And Organizational Culture
The importance of culture in the organization
The organization culture as a leadership concept has been identified as one of the many components
that leaders can use to grow a dynamic organization. Leadership in organizations starts the culture
formation process by imposing their assumptions and expectations on their followers. Once culture
is established and accepted, they become a strong leadership tool to communicate the leader 's
beliefs and values to organizational members, and especially new comers. When leaders promote
ethical culture, they become successful in maintaining organizational growth, the good services
demanded by the society, the ability to address problems before they become disasters and
consequently are competitive against rivals. The leader 's success will depend to a large extent, on
his knowledge and understanding of the organizational culture. The leader who understands his
organizational culture and takes it seriously is capable of predicting the outcome of his decisions in
preventing any anticipated consequences. What then is organizational culture? The concept of
organizational culture has been defined from many perspectives in the literature. There is no one
single definition for organizational culture. The topic of organizational culture has been studied from
many perspectives and disciplines, such as anthropology, sociology, organizational behavior, and
organizational leadership to name a few. Deal defines organizational culture as values,
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Organizational Culture And Its Impact On Business Performance
Organisational culture refers to a structure of shared perceptions, ideologies and beliefs that present
the suitable and unsuitable behaviours to the organisation's employees. .These principles have a
huge effect on employee attitudes and overall organisational performance. Corporate culture could
become one of the organisation's strongest assets or its biggest liability, based on strategies utilised
by managers to share customs and values with employees. . The culture, traditions and shared values
within an organisation could lead to in enhanced corporate performance. Researchers have
discovered that a relationship between corporate culture and company performance, regarding
indicators that includes revenues, sales volume, market share and stock prices. This was reflected in
the 2007 survey conducted by Bain and Company exhibited results that identified business culture is
an important strategy for its corporate success An organisation's corporate culture would have a
great influence on several of its managerial decisions. These include planning, organising, leading
and controlling. Strong work place cultures serve as an asset to the organisation, providing them
greater that will allow the firm to enhance its organisational performance. In contrast a weak culture
serve as detrimental to organisational growth, depleting the level of organisational accomplishments.
Cultures with elements such as widely shared values, employee awareness of the culture, strong
relationship
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Organizational Culture Essay
Organizational culture Culture is something that encompasses all of us. It helps us to understand
how things are created, acknowledged, developed and managed. In this context, culture helps to
define and understand an organisation and how it works and manages. Organizational culture is a
shared value system derived over time that guides members as they solve problems, adapts to the
external environment, and manage relationship (Schein in Wooten and Crane 2003, Vol. 21(6),
p.276). Organisational culture is about how things get done subtly without people watching so that
the organisation runs smoothly. Organisational culture is needed so that company can run without
hiccups and run efficiently. It shows organisation structural ... Show more content on
Helpwriting.net ...
(Schein 1992). In nursing, it is believed that patient safety comes first before others in the nursing
line. They are the most deeply held beliefs of the group (Neuhauser, Bender and Stromberg 2000
p5). Such beliefs are the ones that influence the actions of the nurses. Layer 2 involves behaviours
and habits that changes frequently as the environment changes (Neuhauser, Bender and Stromberg
2000 p5). This layer is about the norms of the organisation. This layer shows the way the
organisation staff does their work. It ranges from formal policies and procedures to the informal
habits and tactics employees use to function effectively within the company (Neuhauser, Bender and
Stromberg 2000 p5). Example of formal policies and procedures is when nurses are to ensure patient
safety at all times when they come in contact with patients. Informal habits and tactics include
junior nurses being tactful to senior nurses or nursing managers when communicating with them. By
understanding the way senior staff act, new or junior staff can distinguish which actions are
appropriate. The third layer includes symbols and language of the organisation staff that changes
frequently as environment and business strategy changes (Neuhauser, Bender and Stromberg 2000
p5). These are the parts of culture that can be visibly be seen, felt or heard. Examples include
nursing home logos, uniform and workplace layout. By understand an
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Organizational Culture And Structure
The cognitive components, beliefs and values constitute Organizational Culture and Structure. Other
beliefs on the subject argue that they include artifacts and behaviors between the visible and the
invisible aspects of organizational culture, leading to a common distinction, that a distinction is
basically the response to the climate or culture of the organization. Other theorists distinguished
multiple levels in comparison to the visible and hidden levels of the company. Schein (1985) as an
expert in Organizational Culture identifies more levels:
a) Fundamental Assumptions
b) Values
c) Behavioral Norms
d) Patterns of Behavior
e) Artifacts and Symbols
The most important and core aspect of the subject is Fundamental Assumptions that constitute
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Leadership and Organizational Culture Essay
House et al. (2007) discovers that leadership and Organisational culture are closely linked together
as leaders influence the culture of their organisations. Researches talk about a range of leadership
definitions but it is not easy to define. (E.g. Western, 2008; Yukl, 2010). However, Cohen (2009)
critically analyses definitions from Dracker (1996), Eisenhower (1969), Northouse (2004) and
finally summarised the definition of leadership constitutes five elements. First of all, ask question to
set direction, which means effective leaders need to listen to followers' voice respectfully and then
share the common goals and ideas with them. In addition, leaders need to seek insights and allocate
resources optimally; act ethically; allow their ... Show more content on Helpwriting.net ...
Initially, the big five traits contains Surgency, Conscientiousness, Agreeableness, Adjustment and
Intellectance. With regard to conscientiousness, it involves dependability (loyalty) and need for
achievement. According to Kellaway (2010), she indicates that Lord Sugar asks his employees for
absolute loyalty. After the interview with him, she turned to his Personal assistant (PA) who
commented Alan Sugar as a polite man instead of bullying in public views. Then Kellaway
supposed she was probably afraid to say so and this may be the only reason why she could still work
for him. Another interview (with BBC Journalist), Alan Sugar acknowledged himself as "got a
strong work ethic and dislike people who work him for nothing" which freshly shows his tough
requirements of achievement–oriented. The implication of these traits is positively encourage his
followers to make their efforts to do the right thing in their positions but it will also make them feel
a sense of pressure due to they had no chance to show efforts but results (E.g. in "The Apprentice",
candidates will be sentenced by the final achievements rather than what they did during the project).
In addition, the final 14 candidates of "The apprentice" were elected from massive rigorous selection
procedures; therefore, apparently, Alan sugar as a boss must have the same traits as these candidates.
For example, one
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Organizational Culture and the Development of...
ORGANIZATIONAL CULTURE AND THE DEVELOPMENT OF ORGANIZATIONAL
CULTURE
1. INTRODUCTION
One of the significant elements while discussing about organization development is to discuss its
own existing culture as the culture itself is part of organization behavior that gives significant role in
shaping organizational sustainability.
Above all there is a need to recognize the right culture for any organization to achieve excellence.
Peters and Waterman (1982) clearly described organizational culture as the human side of an
organization with managers' key role being to shape culture by making meaning for employees out
of the confusing place that some organization can be. It is no doubt one of the absolute function of
any ... Show more content on Helpwriting.net ...
While preparing the planned change, an organization must be able to identify its own culture.
According to Md Zabid Abdul Rashid, Sambasivan and Azmawani Abdul Rahman (2003)
organizational culture is associated with attitudes towards organizational change. Different types of
organizational culture have different level of acceptance on attitude towards organizational change.
Organizational culture gives impacts on organizational change process. While referring to the
transformational type of change, there is no doubt that the transformation process, which regarded as
the most complex and comprehensive type of change process requires radical shift that covers
change in culture, behaviour and mindset of all the components within the organization.
Thus it is clearly understood here that complete understanding of organizational culture will lead to
and rightful approaches to tackle any organizational development and change process.
Organizational culture decides the way its members make decisions, the way they make
interpretation, manage and operate. In other words, organizational culture affects organization's
competitive position. Inability to manage organizational culture will give negative consequences on
organization's performance.
4. FACTORS SHAPING CULTURE IN ORGANIZATION
Understanding organizational culture means to know what, how
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Defining Organizational Culture : An Organization
Defining Organizational Culture
With numerous meanings given to organizational culture, scholars claim that the field is grounded in
the shared assumptions, attitudes, and behaviors accepted and enacted by employees within an
organization, which affect its performance and overall welfare (Belias & Koustelios, 2014). Another
widespread definition of organizational communication often used by organizational scholars states
that: "Organizational culture is the pattern of basic assumptions that a group has invented, or
discovered in learning to cope with its problems of external adaptation and internal integration, and
that have worked well enough to be considered valid and, therefore, to be taught to new members as
the correct way to perceive, think, and feel in relation to those problems" (Schein, 2004, p.3). A
simpler definition of organizational culture claims that the culture of an organization is the study of
specific systems of meaning within an organizational setting (Gabriel, 2010).
Tharp (2009) explains how most definitions of organizational culture include the concept of shared
meaning, which shows that organizational culture can only be developed within groups. Secondly,
organizational culture is socially constructed according to the location of the organization, its
history, the working environment, and certain events that surround it (Tharp, 2009). Finally, most
definitions claim that organizational culture is multidimensional and involves both cognitive and
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Organizational Culture and Structure
ORGANIZATIONAL CULTURE & STRUCTURE
Outline Prepared By:
Marnela Kathleen V. Pasamba, RN
MSN I
I. Organizational Culture
A. Definitions
1. Gareth Morgan: set of beliefs, values and norms, together with symbols like dramatized events
and personalities, that represents the unique character of the organization and provides the context
for action in it and by it.
2. Edgar Schein: a pattern of shared basic assumptions that the group has learned as it solved its
problems that has worked well enough to be considered as valid and is passed on to the new
members as the correct way to perceive, think and feel in relation to these problems.
B. Types of Organizational Culture According to Professor John Paul Kotter
1. "Tough guy" or ... Show more content on Helpwriting.net ...
Disadvantages
i. High operating and managing costs ii. Poor communication between divisions iii. Conflicts among
divisions
3. Matrix
a. Definition
i. a complex form of organization used to control their activities results in matrix structure ii.
simultaneously groups people into two ways – by the function of which they are member and by the
product team on which they are currently working iii. have two bosses: functional boss and product
boss
b. Coordination Advantages
i. Facilitates rapid product development ii. Maximizes cooperation and communication between
members iii. Facilitates innovation and creativity iv. Facilitates face–to–face problem solving
v. Provides a work setting in which managers can decide to solve non–programmed problems vi.
Facilitates frequent product changes of membership in product teams
c. Motivation Advantages
i. Freedom and autonomy to take responsibility for their work activities
d. Disadvantages
i. Increase role conflict and role ambiguity ii. High levels of work stress iii. Limited opportunities
for promotion III. The Relationship Between Organizational Structure and Culture
A. Organizational structure is a mechanism through which effort and work is coordinated with
supervision to produce the results that are hoped for from organizational culture.
B. The structure seems to be the conduits or lines of authority, the system set into place through
which individuals can come together to fulfill the expectations of
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Organizational culture
"Organization culture comprises the deep, basic assumptions and beliefs, as well as the shared
values that define organization membership, as well as the member's habitual ways of making
decisions, and presenting themselves, and their organization to those who come in contact with it."
Clegg, Kornberger and Pitsis, 2008
The dictionary definition of a culture is "the ideas, customs, and social behaviour of a particular
group of people or a society". An organisation is made up of individuals and the culture of an
organization defines how things are done in an organisation and what behaviour and actions are
considered as acceptable or not acceptable. Hofstede defines culture as the collective programming
of the mind that distinguishes ... Show more content on Helpwriting.net ...
Thus the culture of an organisation has an influence and to an extent acts as a driver for everyone
who forms a part of an organisation whether it is at an individual level or a group level. This view is
supported by Harrison and Stokes when they say that
"Culture impacts most aspects of organizational life, such as how decisions are made, who makes
them, how rewards are distributed, who is promoted, how people are treated, how the organization
responds to its environment, and so on"(9)
In fact, these assumptions, beliefs, norms and values which are shared by the organisation's
members that can significantly affect strategy formulation and implementation. (10)
Organisational cultural is in every sense just that, a culture. So not only does it act as an internal
binding force which keeps the organisation together and in harmony, but it also defines how an
individual should present himself and his organisation when he represents it. For example Price
Waterhouse Coopers takes pride in the ever increasing diversity of its workforce and works to instil
the idea of flexible but diligent working. This ideology could be considered as values forming part
of PWC's organisational culture. So whenever an employee comes in touch with a client these
values will be automatically be reflected in
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Organisational Culture And Organizational Culture
Organisational culture refers to 'the shared beliefs and values guiding the thinking and behavioural
styles of members' (Cooke and Rousseau, 1988, in Bratton 2010: 334), indicating that employees
who accept the common values of an organisation and put great effort on commitments are likely to
build up a strong culture to an organisation. Edgar Schein (2004) proposed three levels of
organisational culture. As employees go through changes, they gain experiences from the past, adapt
to a new environment and develop ability to solve problem. The first level is artefacts, which
include all visible characteristics of an organisation, for instance, the architectures/furniture in the
office, uniforms of employees and language. These are the observable elements of an organisational
culture and might influence the way and attitude of how the employees work. The second level is
espoused values in which the influence patterns of observable behaviour at work can be recognised.
Each member will impose dominant values and rules of conduct about the culture and these affect
employees' certainty to work under a particular area. The perceived value that can demonstrate
reliability and be scientifically tested will be transformed into assumption. It then comes to the third
stage of basic assumptions which are taken into granted and are difficult to change. When an
assumption or belief about human nature was supported to be worked successfully, this frames how
the reality should be and shapes
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The Term Organizational Culture Essay
Introduction
A look at simply a couple of works that utilization the term organizational culture will uncover huge
variety in the meaning of this term and much all the more in the utilization of the term society has
no altered or extensively importance even in human sciences, however variety in its utilization is
particularly discernible in the writing on hierarchical society. This is mostly identified with solid
contrast in the reason and profundity of books and articles. Be that as it may, likewise the wide
variety of logical teaches and exploration introduction included in organizational culture studies
makes the field extremely heterogeneous. The idea of society appears to fit altogether different uses
as aggregately imparted manifestations of, for instance, thoughts and insight, as images and
meanings, as qualities and belief systems, as guidelines and standards, as feelings and
expressiveness, as the aggregate unconscious, as conduct examples, structures and practices, and so
forth, all of which may be made focuses of study. Obviously, culture is not special thusly. Really,
most if not all noteworthy idea in association studies and sociology has a tendency to be joined by
an assortment of diverse implications and definition. (Alvesson,2013,P.1)
"Culture is the collective programming of the human mind that distinguishes the members of one
human
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Organizational Culture and Its Importance
There is no single definition for organizational culture. The topic has been studied from a variety of
perspectives ranging from disciplines such as anthropology and sociology, to the applied disciplines
of organizational behaviour, management science, and organizational communication. Some of the
definitions are listed below:
A set of common understandings around which action is organized; finding expression in language
whose nuances are peculiar to the group (Becker and Geer 1960).
A set of understandings or meanings shared by a group of people that are largely tacit among
members and are clearly relevant and distinctive to the particular group which are also passed on to
new members (Louis 1980).
A system of knowledge, of standards ... Show more content on Helpwriting.net ...
To understand culture, we must understand all three levels. One additional aspect complicates the
study of culture: the group or cultural unit which "owns" the culture. An organization may have
many different cultures or subcultures, or even no discernible dominant culture at the organizational
level. Recognizing the cultural unit is essential to identifying and understanding the culture.
Organizational cultures are created, maintained, or transformed by people. An organization's culture
is, in part, also created and maintained by the organization's leadership. Leaders at the executive
level are the principle source for the generation and re–infusion of an organization's ideology,
articulation of core values and specification of norms. Organizational values express preferences for
certain behaviours or certain outcomes. Organizational norms express behaviours accepted by
others. They are culturally acceptable ways of pursuing goals. Leaders also establish the parameters
for formal lines of communication and message content–the formal interaction rules for the
organization. Values and norms, once transmitted through the organization, establish the permanence
of the organization's culture.
ORGANIZATIONAL CULTURE IS ALSO A SYNTHESIS OF SUBCULTURES
Sociologists discuss how distinct societies are composites of interacting subcultures rather than a
single overarching culture. Organizations consist of subgroups that
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Organizational Culture And Ethical Conduct
The purpose of this document is to provide a brief description of the organization for the consulting
services. Next, the consultant will recommend key steps that the organization can take to create a
strong culture. The consultant will develop an introductory paragraph to the survey explaining the
tie between organizational culture and ethical conduct. Designate at least two (2) groups within the
organization who will take the survey and provide a rationale as to why these two (2) groups should
complete the survey. After the two groups have been identified, develop a brief overview of the
participates in the form of an invitation to participate in the survey explaining the purpose and
intended use of the survey. Develop criteria for conducting the ethical climate survey of the
organization. The criteria will identify:
A. Who the target audience is;
B. The method by which the consultant will administer the survey;
C. Instructions for participants on accessing and completing the survey.
D. Construct at least three (3) sample questions that address each of the following areas (12
questions total). At least two (2) of the twelve (12) questions which include the require an open–
ended response.
E. Determine the organizational culture of the business
F. Examine the ethical climate of the organization
G. Examine the impact of existing ethics training program(s)
H. Determine the overall satisfaction of employees with the management on leading the
organization in an ethical manner
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Organizational Culture And Its Functions
INTRODUCTION
Organizational culture involves systems of beliefs and values that guide the behavior of individuals
within the organization and how they shape behavior (Kummerow, 2013). Organizational structures,
on the other hand, dictate the assignment, coordination and control of roles and responsibilities to
achieve organizational goals (Pathak 2011). For a company to perform effectively it needs to grow,
organizational development is one element of growth that focuses on practice an research focused in
expanding effectiveness and the knowledge of individuals. In order to grow, a firm needs to transfer,
create ad retain knowledge within its staff members and people affiliated to it through
organizational. The aim of this paper is to analyze the concepts of organizational, culture, structure,
development, and learning and evaluate how this concept relates to Jaguar Company.
ORGANIZATIONAL CULTURE AND ITS FUNCTIONS
According to Kummerow and Kirby (2013), organizational culture is patterns of shared values,
beliefs and assumptions developed by an organization as it looks for ways to cope with issues of
internal integration and external adaptation. Consequently, it will govern how individual behave
within the organization and the culture is tough to any new member of the organization so that they
know the correct way to think, feel and perceive issues within the organization. Culture is an
important part of any company, it provides and controls the way staff members behave in
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What Is Schein's Model Of Organizational Culture
This issue can be explained with the model developed by Edgar Schein for understanding the
organizational culture. Schein's model of organizational culture identifies three distinct levels in
organizational cultures;
1. Artifacts and behaviors include any tangible, overt or verbally identifiable elements in an
organization such as architecture, furniture, dress code, office jokes etc.
2. Espoused values include organization's stated values and rules of behavior such as how the
members represent the organization expressed in official philosophies and public statements etc.
3. Shared Basic Assumptions are the deeply embedded, taken–for–granted behaviors which are
usually unconscious, but constitute the essence of culture. These assumptions are typically so well
integrated in the office dynamic that they are hard to recognize from within.
Illustration of Schein's model of organizational culture
According to Schein explained, once an organization culture is based on shared basic assumption of
not valuing integrity, it is clear to burst cross– cultural issues with officers who do not have such
assumptions even though ... Show more content on Helpwriting.net ...
Further, the actions of Mr. Sundara were also with many defects in bringing the all officers for the
change in terms of organizing, leading, communicating and other management aspects. He acted as
a police officer and tried to control the system through the tools in traditional enforcement theories
of change. The approaches of Mr. Sundara as well as Director General were direct and obvious
actions relating to enforcement, judgement, emphasis, presentation etc. In terms of the Nudge
Theory of Change, the failure of change can be attributed to the above mentioned facts reviewed in
light of the Nudge theory elements such as indirect, enablement, non judgement, translation,
educate, heuristics
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Organizational Culture : An Organization
Organizational Culture is defined according to Kreitner and Kinicki (2013, p. 62) as, " the set of
shared, taken–for–granted implicit assumptions that a group holds and that determines how it
perceives, thinks about, and reacts to its various environments." In addition to the core definition,
organizational culture encompasses three critical layers that build off one another. The three layers
are Observable Artifacts, Espoused Values, and Basic Assumptions. By, defining what
organizational culture is in turns helps me to perform the job I have been hired to do. With the
culture we have in place it prepares me for accomplishing the mission and vision of the
organization.
According to Rose (2014), there are three vital building elements that help creates your
organizational culture and helps your organization to exist and function. The core components are
mission, vision and values. Furthermore, when these vital building blocks are welcomed, observed,
and performed in your daily walk and carried out by management, , it promotes an environment that
is essential to building your organization identity into something beneficial and positive.
The organizational culture instituted in my job is comprised of being a workplace that has
established itself as a well known brand with a reputable reputation. Many aspire to work for this
organization. I have witnessed that the culture here is a well diversified mixture of backgrounds and
cultures. Moreover, it is infused with a
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Toyota Organizational Culture
Different and many definitions about "organizational culture" have been given since managers
started to use this term at late of 80s , when it became widely known.
The term of organizational culture is defined as the whole of ideas, company mission, values,
expectations, goals and behavioral theories or spiritual parameters shared by a group of people or
members of the organization.
According to Edgar Schein (2006) "organizational culture is a structure of common assumptions that
are distributed among all members of the group to solve internal and external problems of an
organization and to share their knowledge with new members."
But why the culture is important for a company?
As culture is not the only factor determining the success ... Show more content on Helpwriting.net ...
– Better customer service.
Toyota Motor Corporation starting from April 16 of 2016, has unveiled a new management structure
with which it aims to create a product–based rather than function–based organization in order to
streamline work processes on a company–wide basis. TMC is confident that significant value can be
added through this new management structure, in which nine product– and region–based business
units will compete with and learn from one another, while operating alongside TMC's Head Office.
When a large organization such as TMC produces products for different markets, this structure
works because each department is an autonomous group. For that purpose TMC will create seven
product– based in –house companies and will be responsible for short– to mid–term product strategy
and development. That will give a lot of control over operations and will not dependent on another,
separate functional area to get things done. Also TMC's existing region–based business units, Toyota
Nº 1 and Nº 2, will serve to check and balance the operations of the new product–based in–house
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Organizational Culture Essay
Edgar Schein, a famous theorists dealing with organizational culture, provides the following
definition for the term: "A pattern of shared basic assumptions that the group learned as it solved its
problems that has worked well enough to be considered valid and is passed on to new members as
the correct way to perceive, think, and feel in relation to those problems." (organizationalculture101)
However, organizational culture is more than sharing assumptions used by a group to solve
problems; it is the combination of the points of view, ineffectual processes, education, backgrounds
of all the staff which are part of an organization way of doing things. Corporation culture should
uncover from the board of the directors to the rest of ... Show more content on Helpwriting.net ...
Since organization culture is the combination of many factors there are several factors that could
affect it. Among the internal factors to consider are the company's approaches to their processes, is
the company more into results and profits or product quality and employee's safety. Management
style is another important feature that affects corporate culture micromanage companies tend to have
less motivated employees. Technology these days influence organizations at all levels as the
company's approach to technology will go hand on hand with bettering processes. New factor
affecting corporate culture these days is the different work arrangements that are needed these days
with the implementation of flexing time and tele–working had commuting acceptable. The
management approach to work environment, communication style will definite affect organization
culture.
Strong culture is said to exist where staff respond to stimulus because of their alignment to
organizational values. Conversely, there is Weak Culture where there is little alignment with
organizational values and control must be exercised through extensive procedures and
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Organizational Culture Is The Most Important Variable That...
1.0 Introduction
As a result of the accelerating pace of globalization, business environments in which organizations
operate are increasingly turbulent and there is an unprecedented level of competition between rival
firms (News.bbc.co.uk, 2016). Owing to this persistent rise in competition, organizations are faced
with the dilemma of creating a viable competitive advantage. One way of developing such
advantage is by constructing a captivating organizational culture.
Organizational culture creates a unique identity that diversifies an organization from its opposition.
Ogbonna & Lloyd (p, 32, 2002) defines organizational culture as "the collective sum of beliefs,
values, meanings and assumptions that are shared by a social group and that ... Show more content
on Helpwriting.net ...
Then, data obtained from an observation day at doc's shipping Ltd combined with a questionnaire
given to employees and two interviews will be analysed. Finally, my findings are compared with the
already established literature on culture.
2.0 Background
2.1 Brief background on Doc's shipping
Doc's Shipping Ltd is a small organization that is run by the founder. The organization is setup as a
direct response to the emerging trends in the dynamic Maritime/Oil and Gas industry of the West
African Sub region. Additionally, Doc's shipping takes advantage of the Nigerian Coastwise trade
and the Maritime and Oil Gas sector of the economy (Austensgroup.com, 2016). It has a relatively
small workforce of only 45 employees.
2.2 Organizational Culture
There is no single way to describe culture, rather there are numerous. According to Schein (p. 12,
1992), Organizational culture is defined as "a pattern of shared basic assumptions learned by a group
as it solves its problems of external adaptation and internal integration which has worked well
enough to be considered valid and therefore, to be taught to new members as the correct way to
perceived, think, and feel in relation to those problems." Another way to describe this concept is that
it is "a system of assumptions, beliefs, values and behavioural norms which have been developed
and adopted by
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Target's Organizational Culture
"Culture consists of the symbols, rituals, language, and social dramas that highlight organizational
life, including myths, stories, and jargon. It includes the shared meanings associated with the
symbols, rituals, and language. Culture combines the philosophy of the firm with beliefs,
expectations, and values shared by members. It contains the stories and myths about the company's
founder and its current leading figures. Organizational culture consists of a set of shared meanings
and values held by a set of members in an organization that distinguish the organization from other
organizations. An organization's culture determines how it perceives and reacts to the larger
environment (Becker, 1982; Schein, 1996). Culture determines the nature ... Show more content on
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Target makes sure that their team members are balanced in five key well–being elements to help
better their guest. Those five–elements are physical health, financial security, social relationships,
career engagement and community involvement. Giving employees something in return for their
hard work and making sure they do not go unnoticed helps create a better flowing and well round
team to keep a company moving forward. Target encourages wellness and promotes preventive care,
offering many benefits and resources to help team members and their families lead healthy, balanced
lives, feeling happy, challenged and fulfilled at work is the essence of career well–being, social
well–being is about building strong relationships and enjoying life both inside and outside of work,
financial well–being is about making good financial decisions today and planning for the future, and
Target's legacy of local community involvement and corporate social responsibility is a hallmark of
their brand, and a source of pride for our
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ORGANIZATIONAL CULTURE
ORGANIZATIONAL CULTURE
Culture consists of beliefs and behavior. It is cultivated behavior in the sense that it is learnt from
the other members of the society. According to Henry Mintzberg, an internationally renowned
author on Business and Management, "culture is the soul of the organization – the beliefs and
values, and how they are manifested. I think of the structure as the skeleton, and as the flesh and
blood. And culture is the soul that holds the thing together and gives it life force." These lines
portray how critical is a culture in an organization.
Some theorists looked upon organizations as having many of the features of cultures (Brown, 1995).
Martins and Martins (2003) defined organizational culture as "a system of ... Show more content on
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Therefore, managers and employees do not behave in a value–free vacuum; they are governed,
directed and tempered by the organization's culture (Brown, 1998). Employees' behavior includes
their commitment to their respective organizations. For example, if the culture encourages
innovativeness, any problem will make people take initiative and risks as well as try out new ways
of doing things. On the other hand, if the organizational culture is security oriented, the same
problem situation would cause people to start looking for rules, procedures as a mode of response.
Organizational culture is also known as "corporate culture" that has a major impact on the
performance of organization and especially on the quality of work life experienced by the
employees. If people in the organization follow the same culture and accept the cultures as well,
there would be unity formed within the organization that would lead to higher levels of efficiency
resulting in an increase in the levels of performance. It is known that an increase in performance can
lead to the development of a culture, which could lead to culture homogeneity in the way the
organization works. A common culture results in having a common goal. People would agree to the
decisions made more easily and be motivated to work, as the decisions made are the same as the
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Organizational Culture and Its Themes
International Journal of Business and Management
December, 2008
Organizational Culture and Its Themes
Shili Sun School of Foreign Languages, Ludong University No.186 Hongqi Middle Road, Zhifu
District, Yantai 264025, Shandong Province, China Tel: 86–535–668–1098
Abstract
E–mail: shilisun@hotmail.com
As one of the key 'stable factors', culture within an organization is playing a critical role in the
organization's everyday operations. Although the culture literature has at times focused on the
culture of an organization as shared basic assumptions (Schein, 1985), or as metaphors within
organizations (Morgan, 1986, 1997), it is not sufficient to attempt to understand and measure them.
This paper explores organizational culture ... Show more content on Helpwriting.net ...
3, No. 12
International Journal of Business and Management
Whereas Hofstede (1984) wrote of "the collective programming of the mind which distinguishes the
members of one human group from another" as the meaning of the term organizational culture,
which seems an interesting way of understanding the notion, and despite he 'discovered' four areas
of work related value differences at that time (power distance; uncertainty avoidance;
individualism/collectivism; masculinity/femininity), however, in 1992, Hofstede used the term
'practices' to refer to social and cultural phenomena, and in Hofstede's perspective, it is quite
important to locate the deeply held values of organization members at the very center of the
organization's culture. In reality, for some organization members, these values will be so deeply held
that they will not be possible to change at all. However, how we choose to define culture has
considerable implications for how we attempt to examine and study it, different authorities in the
literature has introduced different interpretations. In practice, no matter what size or nature it is, an
organization might have its own culture
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The Organizational Culture of Quinlan's
The Organizational Culture of Quinlan's
Introduction
Quinlan has been UK's foremost retail giant for a long period of time. By end of 1998 there was
evidence of a crisis and since then the company has been on a decline. The company has been
ignoring market changes and trying to maintain its corporate image and identity. This has caused the
customers to drift to more fashionable brands causing huge loss of business to Quinlan. Presently
the company is on a restructuring exercise to improve sales with particular emphasis on customer
satisfaction and marketing.
Organisation culture at Quinlan's
Organisation culture can be defined as the set of key values, beliefs, understandings and ... Show
more content on Helpwriting.net ...
This culture gives prominence to achievement and competitiveness. Employees usually work long
hours to achieve certain goals.
c) Clan – This culture is reflected in organisations that emphasise on employee's participation in
meeting changes of the environment. Particular attention is paid to employee well welfare.
d) Bureaucratic – This type of culture is visible in organisations that follow a well–defined way of
doing things. Employees are not encouraged to take risks and rewarded for following rules. This is
suitable for a stable environment that is hard to find in these modern days.
It is visible that Quinlan's culture was bureaucratic. In particular Quinlan had:
a) Properly defined rules and procedures to function in a predictable and routine manner
b) Roles were clearly defined and labour was divided based on these roles
c) A hierarchical chain of command
d) Clear separation of ownership and control
Culture and organisation success
Daft, Management, 2003, chapter 3 explains that an organisation has two main environments: the
external and internal. The external environment includes elements that exist outside the boundary
but have the ability to affect the organisation. Eg. competitors, resources, technology, customers.
The internal environment consists of
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The Three Levels Of Organizational Culture
Organizational Culture is an anthropological term that refers to the values, belief, norms and ways of
doing things that are shared by the organizational members (Knights and Willmott, 2012). While
Schein (1992) stated that there are three levels of culture. The first level is Surface manifestations,
refers to cultural artefacts or observable culture which are the tangible phenomena such as
traditions, ritual, technology, architecture, logos, heroes, myths, stories, and types of person
employed represent the organizational culture. The other two less visible levels are Organizational
Values refer to the belief about how things are done; and Basic assumptions are invisible,
unconscious and taken for granted understanding held by individuals such as behaviour of human
and the nature of reality (Schein, 1922). ... Show more content on Helpwriting.net ...
'Has' is the critical variable that can be managed while 'Is' is approximately difficult to manage or
change and known as root metaphor (Smircich, 1983). Strong and weak culture are possible to
differentiate, if most of the employees show response to the management surveys and have the same
opinions about the organization's values and missions means that the culture is strong but if the
opinions differ extensively, then the culture is weak (Robbins and Judge,
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Development Of Definitions Of Organizational Culture And...
2. Literature Review
The purpose of this chapter is to make readers comprehend the development of definitions of
organizational culture and project management in different dimensions. And within the content of
project management, the criteria of the success of project management will be demonstrated.
Furthermore, the previous studies about the relationship between organizational culture and the
success of project management will be referred to. Eventually, some problems unanswered on this
filed or some gaps that missed by former studies will be indicated.
2.1 Organizational Culture
A well–known fact that organizational culture is hard to define because of its complexity, and it
seems that most of existing definitions are general and macroscopic. For example, organizational
culture supplies members of organization with principles of behaviors with the help of essential,
common values in the organization, and these principles are usually approved and accepted by
internal members (Baird et al. 2007; Chatman & Jehn, 1994; Deshpandé & Webster, 1989; Narver &
Slater, 1998; as cited in Cynthia Webster & Allyn White, 2010). And organizational culture means
correspondingly fixed faiths, manners and norms that are agreed by organizational members
commonly (Williams, Dobson & Walters, 1993; as cited in Catherine T. Kwantes & Cheryl A.
Boglarsky, 2007). Organizational culture is also defined as "shared normative beliefs and shared
behavioural expectations" or "a particular set of
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Concept Of Organizational Culture Shift
This movie illustrates the ability for organizational change to influence success, and widely accepted
societal norms to be defied, through the combined efforts of a group of individuals. In this particular
instance, a "lowly rated" baseball team in a small market and inauspicious financial setting is able to
undergo a transformative change, primarily due to their beliefs. This illustrates to organizations that
change can be beneficial and is usually required in order to remain competitive, and it is often a
preferred route to follow in order to achieve desired goals.
"Change is important in organizations as it allows employees to learn new skills, explore new
opportunities and exercise their creativity in ways that ultimately benefit the organization through
new idea generation and increased commitment" (Leigh & Demand, n.d., para. 6). The concept of
organizational culture shift can be viewed as a process that is undertaken for growth and success, as
it creates room for new opportunities and risk taking. The purpose of the paper which highlights the
need for organizational and cultural change, and its intrinsic benefits, will be achieved through an
analysis of the internal culture and the influence of external environment, by observing the benefits
of incorporating change in an organization. Furthermore, I will discuss the advantages and
disadvantages of adapting to changes and the competitive edge it provides to organizations.
This paper will begin with a synopsis, which
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Organizational Culture And Organisational Culture
There are many different interpretations on what organizational culture is; it can be defined as ...
This essay will be discussing and explaining organizational culture and change, furthermore how
culture can have an influence on behaviour at work. In addition there will be an discussion on the
organizational culture of two UK businesses, as well Organisational Culture Organisational culture
is described as a company's personality or DNA. (Education Portal) has defined organisational
culture as 'a system of shared assumptions, values, and beliefs, which governs how people behave in
organizations'. There are seven dimensions or characteristics of organisational culture. The
Organisational Culture Profile (OCP) is one of many typologies that businesses use, to help them
not only to describe its culture, but also identify, measure and managing it more effectively. Each
organisation has a unique culture; every company will have a different value for each of the
characteristics; furthermore when they are combined they define the organisations culture. The
difference between strong and weak culture is that if a business has a weak culture, then there will
be a wide variety of opinions, whereas if a business has a strong culture than majority of the
employees will have and share the same beliefs and values of the organisation. This will not only
have an impact but will also influence the behaviour of the members of the business, as they know
what is required of them; therefore the
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Nordstrom Organizational Culture
In the 1980's business experts began to realize the root to organizational success or failure is through
its culture. The culture of an organization is the belief that guides each employee in knowing what to
do and what not to do and it also affect the public perception of the organization's brand. Therefore
culture is the shared social knowledge within an organization regarding the rules, norms and values
(Colquitt, Lepine, & Wesson, 2012). Although, no two cultures are alike, there are components and
characteristics that help business experts to define an organization's culture.
Edgar Schein offers direct and indirect mechanisms that helps decipher the organization's culture:
observable artifacts, espoused values, and basic underlying ... Show more content on
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A ritual generally contributes to the process of an organization. However, it does have symbolic role
which personifies the values of the organization. There are several rites and rituals that helps
cultivate Nordstrom's market and service culture.
Ex. 1: Recognizing and celebrating top sellers (Nordstrom, Inc, 2017).
Ex. 2: Organizational leaders engage with employees by holding "prep rallies (Nordstrom, Inc,
2017)."
Communication
The MNE reinforces their service culture by emphasizing excellent customer service in their
employee handbook–– a 5 ½ x 7 ½ card that states; "Our number one goal is to provide outstanding
customer service, and for this they have only one rule: "Use good judgment in all situations
(Nordstrom, Inc, 2017)." The true testament of Nordstrom's philosophy is best illustrated by its
organizational chart that is readily displayed in the employees' break room. This chart also depicts
another of Nordstrom's philosophy, it empowers frontline employees by placing them at the top of
the organizational pyramid. This suggest that frontline employees have the freedom to create their
own career paths and be creative when it comes to providing excellent customer service.
Adaptive
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Questions On Organizational Culture And Leadership
Schein, E (1992). Organizational Culture and Leadership. 2nd ed., San Francisco, CA: Jossey–Bass
Edgar Schein outlines those characteristics in better understanding and assessing the culture and
climate of an organization. A lot energy and emphasis is focused on the identification and
application of an organization's guiding principles. Schein suggests that our guiding values and
principles are important, but it is in the organizations structure, culture, action that describes the true
character of an organization. He spends time focusing on artifacts, indicators of an organizations
true culture, values and beliefs. When someone better understands an organization, they know that
observation is a key to find out their true make up. This will also lead to finding about some of the
reinforcing and extinguishing characteristics of the organization. His book is very applicable when
attempting to better understand the true make up of an organization like the Mississippi Army
National Guard. He uses key values that describe the organization and its makeup. His article is
considered valid and reliable. Arthur, J. (2010) Of Good Character Exploration of Virtues and Values
in 3–25 Year Olds. Charlottesville, VA: Imprint Academic, Philosophy Documentation Center The
focus of the author is to explore the values of educating leaders in two specific ways. The first way
is to provide research results in the area of moral and character value traits. The second way
attempts to
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The Impact of Organizational Culture on Employee...
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The Impact of Organizational Culture On Employee Satisfaction and Productivity
1
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The Impact of Organizational Culture on Employee Satisfaction and Productivity
Submitted to Emranul Huq Senior Lecturer School of Business United International University
Submitted by Emam Hossan Noshin Riaz Shanaz Murshed Naz Abdul Halim Rubayia Rafi
111072049 111072090 111072161 111073090 111072036
Sec: B January, 2009
2
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Certification ... Show more content on Helpwriting.net ...
..........................10 Sources of Data Limitation
..........................................................................................10 Chapter– 2 Literature
Review...............................................................................................11 Definition of Organizational
Culture................................................................................12 Organizational
Culture.................................................................................................13 Analyzing Organizational
Culture....................................................................................15 Organizational Culture Profile
.........................................................................................16 Type of Organizational Culture
.......................................................................................17 Elements of Organization
Culture....................................................................................18 Healthy Organizational Culture
.......................................................................................20 Organizational Culture Questionnaire
..............................................................................22 What Is A Healthy Organizational
Culture?.....................................................................23 Organizational Culture
Perspective..................................................................................24 Definition of Socialization
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Organizational Culture Essay
Introduction
The concept of organizational cultures was first raised in 1970s, and soon became a fashionable
topic. Organizational culture is the shared beliefs, values and behaviours of the group. Theorists of
organizations believe that organizational culture represents the pattern of behaviours, values, and
beliefs of an organization. Hence, studies around organizational culture have been seen as great
helpful and essential for understanding organizations and their behaviours. Additionally,
organizational culture has been considered to be an important determinant of organizational success.
Therefore, leaders and managers pay more than more attentions on this topic, focusing on
constructing and managing organizational cultures.
This ... Show more content on Helpwriting.net ...
Deal and Kennedy (1982:21) believe that the core of organizational culture is `Value', which are
shared by the members within an organization. And the upper level which is `Behaviour' is guided
by shared values. The invisible values provide a common direction for all members to behave
towards the goal of the organization.
Moreover, Schein (1985) has expanded the concept including fundamental assumptions, artefacts
and symbols. (Schein 1980; Schein 1985)
In Schein's theory, the most visible/outer level is behaviour and artefacts. This is the observable
level of cultures, and consists of behaviours patterns and outward cultural manifestations: such as
flags, dress codes, myths, stories, products and services, level of technology utilized, type of
operations process, and the physical layout of work spaces. These are all visible factors that
presenting the cultures of an organization. At the next level of culture are values. Values underlie
and to a large extent determine behaviour, but they are not directly observable
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The Importance Of Organizational Culture
The Business Dictionary defines organizational culture as values and behaviors based on "shared
attitudes, beliefs, customs, and written and unwritten rules that have been developed over time"
("Organizational Culture", 2017). Simply put, organizational culture is how people learn, think and
act on a daily basis within an organization. But if organizational culture is only unique social and
psychological environments within a business, then how is it possible that it can be just as
influential as business strategy? Research suggests that a strong organizational culture is a key
competitive advantage of business because it can be the driving force behind innovation and
alignment of goals, help motivate and engage employees, and generate fierce customer loyalty.
Organizational culture, also referred to as corporate culture, is a key competitive advantage of
business because it can be the driving force behind innovation and alignment of goals. Innovation is
the foundation upon which most businesses are built. It allows businesses to offer a new or
improved product or provide a service in a way that sets them apart from competitors. Because
consumer tastes are always changing, businesses have to align innovation with their business
strategy to stay competitive. Any company can simply proclaim that their strategy will focus on
innovation but if its employees are discouraged from being creative, if output quantity drives their
paycheck, or if the company's hierarchical
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Organizational Culture
Organizational culture influences many aspects of work life. Workplace cultures that are grounded
in strong and formally articulated values and modes of behavior define an organization. Well–
communicated values influence employee behavior and drive how employees relate with all
stakeholders within the organization—from co–workers, management and members of the board to
clients, shareholders and the community at large. When organizations seek to change their culture,
HR—as change agent and educator of the change process—plays a significant role in this endeavor.
In addition, HR's role is both up front and in the background, by leading, supporting, coaching,
encouraging, measuring and evaluating the change during the process and over time. ... Show more
content on Helpwriting.net ...
The 2,000–member leadership team was first trained in immersion meetings before communicating
the new vision and values to their own teams. Throughout the rollout, the communication team
evaluated the mindsets and levels of interest and refined the content and delivery methods. Post–
meetings surveys found that 100% of participants viewed the change initiative as effective to align
and focus the organization. Going forward, changes in company programs and new initiatives are
first evaluated through the PVB filter to link with the new cultural guidelines.
As a leader and a follower, I believe that in order to promote organizational culture change, three
essentials should be kept in mind. First, culture change should be tied to organizational business
goals and, going forward, be linked to key organizational strategies. Second, throughout the process,
the use of feedback mechanisms provides information to evaluate what is working and what needs
to be improved. Third, by communicating regular updates to management and employees about the
progress and benefits of the organizational change initiative, Human Resource's can continue to
keep the workforce engaged throughout the cultural
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Analysis Of Lincoln Electric Organizational Culture
Analysis of Lincoln Electric organizational culture Lincoln Electric was founded at the end of the
19–th century by John C. Lincoln. He was a talented engineer who invested 200 dollars in his
product electrical motors. Soon he was replaced by his younger brother James F. Lincoln, and the
founder of Lincoln Electric dedicated his time to engineering activities and inventions. James F.
Lincoln was a different type of inventor. He was a good manager with the nice strategic point of
view over manufacturing. At the beginning of the 20th century, the company started manufacturing
welding machines which become their iconic product. That is not the only thing Lincoln electric
became famous for. The incentive management plan was one of a kind at that time and was the first
step of creating company culture with a high focus on the employees, something unheard among the
other manufacturers at that time of the century. Both Lincoln brothers were inventors and this was
crucial for the earlier company development. Both were pioneers and the vision and the mission that
was integrated especially from James Lincoln played a major role in the dramatic company
development during the World War II. The start of the pioneering in the management was the
creation of an advisory board from elected employees. The advisory board had meetings twice a
month during which they made the voice of the employees be heard. For about a decade many
changes become effective and the working conditions changed
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University of Phoenix Organizational Culture
Organizational culture can be defined as the system of attitudes, beliefs and values that are
collectively expressed in support of organizational structure. Organizational culture is a pattern of
shared basic assumptions that dictate the behavior of individuals within an organization. Culture
determines which practices are appropriate and which are not, effectively developing standards,
guidelines, and expectations for individuals within an organization. Although they work hand in
hand, there is a definite distinction in the beliefs and the values that make up organizational culture.
The beliefs of an organization are assumptions of the way things are, while values are an assumption
about the way things should be. By that definition, ... Show more content on Helpwriting.net ...
As the stock prices were inflated, the liquidity of the company was spread very thin. Through the
individual business ventures of these highly educated individuals, Enron took out loans and spread
their finances thin. Additionally, there was an intense culture of competition within Enron. Skilling
implemented an intense employee evaluation system (PRC 360–degree review) in which employees
were judged on the profits of their projects. The bottom 10% of employees according to this
evaluation were often fired or demoted. This created a state of individual paranoia at Enron in which
individuals, in order to keep their jobs, were forced into using shady accounting practices and not
worrying about the future considerations of a deal as long as it turned a short term profit. Because of
this intense culture of internal competition, employees at Enron (even the ones who felt they were
using unethical practices) were reluctant to speak up. The corporate culture made it hard for ethical
objections to be heard or taken seriously. In an employee 's recollection of his experience at Enron it
was noted that "saying things like 'This doesn 't make sense ' was unofficially sanctioned ...I got the
idea that not many people actually knew what was going on, and asking questions would further
show this lack of knowledge." Furthermore, Enron 's message about their values was demonstrated
through the actions
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Organizational Culture : The Best Organizational Performance
The objective of this essay is to critically discuss that the 'best ' organisational cultures lead to the
'best ' organisational performance using concepts and examples trough analysis of empiric studies.
Many studies have proved that organisational culture has a deep influence on many different aspects
of an organisational process, employees and their performance. (Lim,1995) A variety of studies
occupies that the performance is increased to achieve the organisations goals when employees
acknowledge the same norms and values of the organisation. The cultures differ and have a certain
complexity. Nevertheless, it is indispensable for the management to initialise each employee to the
organisational norms, values, objectives in order to achieve the commitment, which increases the
productivity.
Culture is collective conditioning of minds helping a the members of one organisation to differ
themselves from the other one. (Hofstede, 1980) It is a collection of diverse values and behaviours
able to increase performance. (Schein, 1990) Other scientist argued that the culture is defined as "a
set of norms and values that are widely shared and strongly held throughout the organisation"
(O'Reilly and Chatman, 1996: 166) It is important to understand and share a culture in an
organisation. Culture is helpful to reconstruct the cognition and decisions of employees and has a
variety of beliefs, values and assumptions required for each organisation to conduct its business.
(Pettigrew,
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Organizational Culture
Three general types of organizational culture–constructive, passive–defensive, aggressive–
defensive: The organizational cultural inventory measures 12 sets of normative beliefs or shared
behavioral expectations associated with three general types of cultures, Constructive, Passive–
Defensive, and Aggressive–Defensive. Constructive cultures–in which members are encouraged to
interact with others and approach tasks in ways that will help them meet their higher–order
satisfaction needs, are characterized by Achievement, Self–actualizing, Humanistic–Encouraging,
and Affiliative norms. Constructive styles strongly associated with satisfaction and low stress
(Cooke & Szumal, 1993).  Achievement: pursuing a standard of excellence.  ... Show more
content on Helpwriting.net ...
Elite: +Values: Authority, performance, Reward –Values: Teamwork, Leadership, Participation,
Commitment, Normative, Affiliation. (Unequal Power & Equitable) Meritocratic: +Values:
Teamwork, Participation, Commitment, Performance, Reward, Normative, Affiliation –Values:
Authority, Leadersip. (Equal power & Equitable) Leadership: +Values: Authority, Leadership,
Teamwork, Commitment, Performance, Reward, Affiliation. –Values: Participation, Normative.
(Unequal Power & Egalitarian) Collegial: +Values: Teamwork, Participation, Commitment,
Performance, Reward, Affiliation. –Values: Authority, leadership, Performance, Reward. (Equal
Power & Egalitarian) For example, the Elite type represents a "pure" unequal type with unequal
power values combined with inequality–oriented equity values. The Elite value structure emphasizes
unequal power relations (authority); de–emphasizes egalitarian power values (participation,
normative), and de–emphasizes cohesion values (affiliation, teamwork, commitment, leadership),
while emphasizing performance and reward. On the other hand, the Leadership type represents a
"mixed", compensatory pattern which, while it retains the Elite types' unequal power orientation,
superimposes on the Elite value structure a set of cohesion values that are nevertheless consistent
with unequal power relations, namely leadership, teamwork, commitment, and affiliation.
Leadership
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Downsizing And Organizational Culture

  • 1. Downsizing and Organizational Culture Downsizing and Organizational Culture By Joe Gonzalez Sociology 100 Dr. Mario Reda Table of Contents Chapter 1........................................................................................................................1 Chapter 2........................................................................................................................2 Organizational Culture Defined........................................................................2 Downsizing Defined............................................................................................3 Culture Change..................................................................................................4 Connecting the ... Show more content on Helpwriting.net ... How do you connect downsizing, which is one of a number of actions being taken, with corporate culture, which is only one of a number of "crises" being solved in a manner and to a level that establishes a positive relationship? Another reason that it is difficult to draw a specific link between downsizing and organizational culture is that there are many different variations and approaches to downsizing. A distinction has been made between proactive downsizing, which is planned in advance and usually integrated with a larger set of objectives, and reactive downsizing, which would be typified by cost–cutting as a last resort after a prolonged period of inattention to looming problems by management5. Work force reductions can range from forceful in nature, i.e., involuntary reductions, to the milder approaches, such as resignation incentives and job sharing 6. There are different ways of deciding "who stays, who goes" from the outwardly arbitrary to criterion–based 7. There are different modes of planning, ranging from secretive sessions to open discussions and solicitation of ideas from employees. There are different standards of notice of terminations, including relatively harsh same day terminations as well as more generous 90 day or longer notices. There are even differences in intentionality, i.e., reductions can be planned to present employees with as little a break ... Get more on HelpWriting.net ...
  • 2.
  • 3. Organizational Culture and Structure Organizational Culture and Structure The structure of an organization determines the allocation of roles, regulations, and responsibilities, and therefore builds a basis for the culture in an organization. There is a constant relationship between organizational structure and organizational culture that provides a theme within an organization. Both can be difficult to clearly define and distinguish when analyzing an organization. Organization culture is a perspective into the company's personality; it provides descriptive values, principals, traditions, and a way of doing things that effect how members view the organization (Robbins, DeCenzo, & Coulter, 2013). The organizational structure builds the ... Show more content on Helpwriting.net ... Stories of innovation inspire creativity and help build the strength of an organization's culture. A strong organizational culture holds key values that are shared with all members. It is the responsibility of leaders to uphold an organization's culture to ensure that there is a proper foundation that binds the structure. Organizational Structure Any organization should have its own operating structure in order to reach success. Organizational structure is defined as a hierarchy of people that determine roles of authority, communications, and the duties of an organization (Robbins et al., 2013). Organizations must organize their structure to meet the needs of that particular organization, and assure that it resembles the values instilled by the organizational culture. The development of culture through an organization is a natural process that is dependent upon the instilled values of the leaders and members in the organization (O'Neil, 2011). Leaders can still influence the culture by sticking to their values and implementing a strong and effective organizational structure. There are several models that organizations can utilize to structure the elements within the organization. The structure of an organization can be divided into two generic organization structure models. Below is a chart as presented by Robbins et al. (2013) ... Get more on HelpWriting.net ...
  • 4.
  • 5. The Importance Of Culture And Organizational Culture The importance of culture in the organization The organization culture as a leadership concept has been identified as one of the many components that leaders can use to grow a dynamic organization. Leadership in organizations starts the culture formation process by imposing their assumptions and expectations on their followers. Once culture is established and accepted, they become a strong leadership tool to communicate the leader 's beliefs and values to organizational members, and especially new comers. When leaders promote ethical culture, they become successful in maintaining organizational growth, the good services demanded by the society, the ability to address problems before they become disasters and consequently are competitive against rivals. The leader 's success will depend to a large extent, on his knowledge and understanding of the organizational culture. The leader who understands his organizational culture and takes it seriously is capable of predicting the outcome of his decisions in preventing any anticipated consequences. What then is organizational culture? The concept of organizational culture has been defined from many perspectives in the literature. There is no one single definition for organizational culture. The topic of organizational culture has been studied from many perspectives and disciplines, such as anthropology, sociology, organizational behavior, and organizational leadership to name a few. Deal defines organizational culture as values, ... Get more on HelpWriting.net ...
  • 6.
  • 7. Organizational Culture And Its Impact On Business Performance Organisational culture refers to a structure of shared perceptions, ideologies and beliefs that present the suitable and unsuitable behaviours to the organisation's employees. .These principles have a huge effect on employee attitudes and overall organisational performance. Corporate culture could become one of the organisation's strongest assets or its biggest liability, based on strategies utilised by managers to share customs and values with employees. . The culture, traditions and shared values within an organisation could lead to in enhanced corporate performance. Researchers have discovered that a relationship between corporate culture and company performance, regarding indicators that includes revenues, sales volume, market share and stock prices. This was reflected in the 2007 survey conducted by Bain and Company exhibited results that identified business culture is an important strategy for its corporate success An organisation's corporate culture would have a great influence on several of its managerial decisions. These include planning, organising, leading and controlling. Strong work place cultures serve as an asset to the organisation, providing them greater that will allow the firm to enhance its organisational performance. In contrast a weak culture serve as detrimental to organisational growth, depleting the level of organisational accomplishments. Cultures with elements such as widely shared values, employee awareness of the culture, strong relationship ... Get more on HelpWriting.net ...
  • 8.
  • 9. Organizational Culture Essay Organizational culture Culture is something that encompasses all of us. It helps us to understand how things are created, acknowledged, developed and managed. In this context, culture helps to define and understand an organisation and how it works and manages. Organizational culture is a shared value system derived over time that guides members as they solve problems, adapts to the external environment, and manage relationship (Schein in Wooten and Crane 2003, Vol. 21(6), p.276). Organisational culture is about how things get done subtly without people watching so that the organisation runs smoothly. Organisational culture is needed so that company can run without hiccups and run efficiently. It shows organisation structural ... Show more content on Helpwriting.net ... (Schein 1992). In nursing, it is believed that patient safety comes first before others in the nursing line. They are the most deeply held beliefs of the group (Neuhauser, Bender and Stromberg 2000 p5). Such beliefs are the ones that influence the actions of the nurses. Layer 2 involves behaviours and habits that changes frequently as the environment changes (Neuhauser, Bender and Stromberg 2000 p5). This layer is about the norms of the organisation. This layer shows the way the organisation staff does their work. It ranges from formal policies and procedures to the informal habits and tactics employees use to function effectively within the company (Neuhauser, Bender and Stromberg 2000 p5). Example of formal policies and procedures is when nurses are to ensure patient safety at all times when they come in contact with patients. Informal habits and tactics include junior nurses being tactful to senior nurses or nursing managers when communicating with them. By understanding the way senior staff act, new or junior staff can distinguish which actions are appropriate. The third layer includes symbols and language of the organisation staff that changes frequently as environment and business strategy changes (Neuhauser, Bender and Stromberg 2000 p5). These are the parts of culture that can be visibly be seen, felt or heard. Examples include nursing home logos, uniform and workplace layout. By understand an ... Get more on HelpWriting.net ...
  • 10.
  • 11. Organizational Culture And Structure The cognitive components, beliefs and values constitute Organizational Culture and Structure. Other beliefs on the subject argue that they include artifacts and behaviors between the visible and the invisible aspects of organizational culture, leading to a common distinction, that a distinction is basically the response to the climate or culture of the organization. Other theorists distinguished multiple levels in comparison to the visible and hidden levels of the company. Schein (1985) as an expert in Organizational Culture identifies more levels: a) Fundamental Assumptions b) Values c) Behavioral Norms d) Patterns of Behavior e) Artifacts and Symbols The most important and core aspect of the subject is Fundamental Assumptions that constitute ... Get more on HelpWriting.net ...
  • 12.
  • 13. Leadership and Organizational Culture Essay House et al. (2007) discovers that leadership and Organisational culture are closely linked together as leaders influence the culture of their organisations. Researches talk about a range of leadership definitions but it is not easy to define. (E.g. Western, 2008; Yukl, 2010). However, Cohen (2009) critically analyses definitions from Dracker (1996), Eisenhower (1969), Northouse (2004) and finally summarised the definition of leadership constitutes five elements. First of all, ask question to set direction, which means effective leaders need to listen to followers' voice respectfully and then share the common goals and ideas with them. In addition, leaders need to seek insights and allocate resources optimally; act ethically; allow their ... Show more content on Helpwriting.net ... Initially, the big five traits contains Surgency, Conscientiousness, Agreeableness, Adjustment and Intellectance. With regard to conscientiousness, it involves dependability (loyalty) and need for achievement. According to Kellaway (2010), she indicates that Lord Sugar asks his employees for absolute loyalty. After the interview with him, she turned to his Personal assistant (PA) who commented Alan Sugar as a polite man instead of bullying in public views. Then Kellaway supposed she was probably afraid to say so and this may be the only reason why she could still work for him. Another interview (with BBC Journalist), Alan Sugar acknowledged himself as "got a strong work ethic and dislike people who work him for nothing" which freshly shows his tough requirements of achievement–oriented. The implication of these traits is positively encourage his followers to make their efforts to do the right thing in their positions but it will also make them feel a sense of pressure due to they had no chance to show efforts but results (E.g. in "The Apprentice", candidates will be sentenced by the final achievements rather than what they did during the project). In addition, the final 14 candidates of "The apprentice" were elected from massive rigorous selection procedures; therefore, apparently, Alan sugar as a boss must have the same traits as these candidates. For example, one ... Get more on HelpWriting.net ...
  • 14.
  • 15. Organizational Culture and the Development of... ORGANIZATIONAL CULTURE AND THE DEVELOPMENT OF ORGANIZATIONAL CULTURE 1. INTRODUCTION One of the significant elements while discussing about organization development is to discuss its own existing culture as the culture itself is part of organization behavior that gives significant role in shaping organizational sustainability. Above all there is a need to recognize the right culture for any organization to achieve excellence. Peters and Waterman (1982) clearly described organizational culture as the human side of an organization with managers' key role being to shape culture by making meaning for employees out of the confusing place that some organization can be. It is no doubt one of the absolute function of any ... Show more content on Helpwriting.net ... While preparing the planned change, an organization must be able to identify its own culture. According to Md Zabid Abdul Rashid, Sambasivan and Azmawani Abdul Rahman (2003) organizational culture is associated with attitudes towards organizational change. Different types of organizational culture have different level of acceptance on attitude towards organizational change. Organizational culture gives impacts on organizational change process. While referring to the transformational type of change, there is no doubt that the transformation process, which regarded as the most complex and comprehensive type of change process requires radical shift that covers change in culture, behaviour and mindset of all the components within the organization. Thus it is clearly understood here that complete understanding of organizational culture will lead to and rightful approaches to tackle any organizational development and change process. Organizational culture decides the way its members make decisions, the way they make interpretation, manage and operate. In other words, organizational culture affects organization's competitive position. Inability to manage organizational culture will give negative consequences on organization's performance. 4. FACTORS SHAPING CULTURE IN ORGANIZATION Understanding organizational culture means to know what, how
  • 16. ... Get more on HelpWriting.net ...
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  • 18. Defining Organizational Culture : An Organization Defining Organizational Culture With numerous meanings given to organizational culture, scholars claim that the field is grounded in the shared assumptions, attitudes, and behaviors accepted and enacted by employees within an organization, which affect its performance and overall welfare (Belias & Koustelios, 2014). Another widespread definition of organizational communication often used by organizational scholars states that: "Organizational culture is the pattern of basic assumptions that a group has invented, or discovered in learning to cope with its problems of external adaptation and internal integration, and that have worked well enough to be considered valid and, therefore, to be taught to new members as the correct way to perceive, think, and feel in relation to those problems" (Schein, 2004, p.3). A simpler definition of organizational culture claims that the culture of an organization is the study of specific systems of meaning within an organizational setting (Gabriel, 2010). Tharp (2009) explains how most definitions of organizational culture include the concept of shared meaning, which shows that organizational culture can only be developed within groups. Secondly, organizational culture is socially constructed according to the location of the organization, its history, the working environment, and certain events that surround it (Tharp, 2009). Finally, most definitions claim that organizational culture is multidimensional and involves both cognitive and ... Get more on HelpWriting.net ...
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  • 20. Organizational Culture and Structure ORGANIZATIONAL CULTURE & STRUCTURE Outline Prepared By: Marnela Kathleen V. Pasamba, RN MSN I I. Organizational Culture A. Definitions 1. Gareth Morgan: set of beliefs, values and norms, together with symbols like dramatized events and personalities, that represents the unique character of the organization and provides the context for action in it and by it. 2. Edgar Schein: a pattern of shared basic assumptions that the group has learned as it solved its problems that has worked well enough to be considered as valid and is passed on to the new members as the correct way to perceive, think and feel in relation to these problems. B. Types of Organizational Culture According to Professor John Paul Kotter 1. "Tough guy" or ... Show more content on Helpwriting.net ... Disadvantages i. High operating and managing costs ii. Poor communication between divisions iii. Conflicts among divisions 3. Matrix a. Definition i. a complex form of organization used to control their activities results in matrix structure ii. simultaneously groups people into two ways – by the function of which they are member and by the product team on which they are currently working iii. have two bosses: functional boss and product boss b. Coordination Advantages i. Facilitates rapid product development ii. Maximizes cooperation and communication between members iii. Facilitates innovation and creativity iv. Facilitates face–to–face problem solving v. Provides a work setting in which managers can decide to solve non–programmed problems vi. Facilitates frequent product changes of membership in product teams c. Motivation Advantages i. Freedom and autonomy to take responsibility for their work activities d. Disadvantages i. Increase role conflict and role ambiguity ii. High levels of work stress iii. Limited opportunities for promotion III. The Relationship Between Organizational Structure and Culture A. Organizational structure is a mechanism through which effort and work is coordinated with
  • 21. supervision to produce the results that are hoped for from organizational culture. B. The structure seems to be the conduits or lines of authority, the system set into place through which individuals can come together to fulfill the expectations of ... Get more on HelpWriting.net ...
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  • 23. Organizational culture "Organization culture comprises the deep, basic assumptions and beliefs, as well as the shared values that define organization membership, as well as the member's habitual ways of making decisions, and presenting themselves, and their organization to those who come in contact with it." Clegg, Kornberger and Pitsis, 2008 The dictionary definition of a culture is "the ideas, customs, and social behaviour of a particular group of people or a society". An organisation is made up of individuals and the culture of an organization defines how things are done in an organisation and what behaviour and actions are considered as acceptable or not acceptable. Hofstede defines culture as the collective programming of the mind that distinguishes ... Show more content on Helpwriting.net ... Thus the culture of an organisation has an influence and to an extent acts as a driver for everyone who forms a part of an organisation whether it is at an individual level or a group level. This view is supported by Harrison and Stokes when they say that "Culture impacts most aspects of organizational life, such as how decisions are made, who makes them, how rewards are distributed, who is promoted, how people are treated, how the organization responds to its environment, and so on"(9) In fact, these assumptions, beliefs, norms and values which are shared by the organisation's members that can significantly affect strategy formulation and implementation. (10) Organisational cultural is in every sense just that, a culture. So not only does it act as an internal binding force which keeps the organisation together and in harmony, but it also defines how an individual should present himself and his organisation when he represents it. For example Price Waterhouse Coopers takes pride in the ever increasing diversity of its workforce and works to instil the idea of flexible but diligent working. This ideology could be considered as values forming part of PWC's organisational culture. So whenever an employee comes in touch with a client these values will be automatically be reflected in ... Get more on HelpWriting.net ...
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  • 25. Organisational Culture And Organizational Culture Organisational culture refers to 'the shared beliefs and values guiding the thinking and behavioural styles of members' (Cooke and Rousseau, 1988, in Bratton 2010: 334), indicating that employees who accept the common values of an organisation and put great effort on commitments are likely to build up a strong culture to an organisation. Edgar Schein (2004) proposed three levels of organisational culture. As employees go through changes, they gain experiences from the past, adapt to a new environment and develop ability to solve problem. The first level is artefacts, which include all visible characteristics of an organisation, for instance, the architectures/furniture in the office, uniforms of employees and language. These are the observable elements of an organisational culture and might influence the way and attitude of how the employees work. The second level is espoused values in which the influence patterns of observable behaviour at work can be recognised. Each member will impose dominant values and rules of conduct about the culture and these affect employees' certainty to work under a particular area. The perceived value that can demonstrate reliability and be scientifically tested will be transformed into assumption. It then comes to the third stage of basic assumptions which are taken into granted and are difficult to change. When an assumption or belief about human nature was supported to be worked successfully, this frames how the reality should be and shapes ... Get more on HelpWriting.net ...
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  • 27. The Term Organizational Culture Essay Introduction A look at simply a couple of works that utilization the term organizational culture will uncover huge variety in the meaning of this term and much all the more in the utilization of the term society has no altered or extensively importance even in human sciences, however variety in its utilization is particularly discernible in the writing on hierarchical society. This is mostly identified with solid contrast in the reason and profundity of books and articles. Be that as it may, likewise the wide variety of logical teaches and exploration introduction included in organizational culture studies makes the field extremely heterogeneous. The idea of society appears to fit altogether different uses as aggregately imparted manifestations of, for instance, thoughts and insight, as images and meanings, as qualities and belief systems, as guidelines and standards, as feelings and expressiveness, as the aggregate unconscious, as conduct examples, structures and practices, and so forth, all of which may be made focuses of study. Obviously, culture is not special thusly. Really, most if not all noteworthy idea in association studies and sociology has a tendency to be joined by an assortment of diverse implications and definition. (Alvesson,2013,P.1) "Culture is the collective programming of the human mind that distinguishes the members of one human ... Get more on HelpWriting.net ...
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  • 29. Organizational Culture and Its Importance There is no single definition for organizational culture. The topic has been studied from a variety of perspectives ranging from disciplines such as anthropology and sociology, to the applied disciplines of organizational behaviour, management science, and organizational communication. Some of the definitions are listed below: A set of common understandings around which action is organized; finding expression in language whose nuances are peculiar to the group (Becker and Geer 1960). A set of understandings or meanings shared by a group of people that are largely tacit among members and are clearly relevant and distinctive to the particular group which are also passed on to new members (Louis 1980). A system of knowledge, of standards ... Show more content on Helpwriting.net ... To understand culture, we must understand all three levels. One additional aspect complicates the study of culture: the group or cultural unit which "owns" the culture. An organization may have many different cultures or subcultures, or even no discernible dominant culture at the organizational level. Recognizing the cultural unit is essential to identifying and understanding the culture. Organizational cultures are created, maintained, or transformed by people. An organization's culture is, in part, also created and maintained by the organization's leadership. Leaders at the executive level are the principle source for the generation and re–infusion of an organization's ideology, articulation of core values and specification of norms. Organizational values express preferences for certain behaviours or certain outcomes. Organizational norms express behaviours accepted by others. They are culturally acceptable ways of pursuing goals. Leaders also establish the parameters for formal lines of communication and message content–the formal interaction rules for the organization. Values and norms, once transmitted through the organization, establish the permanence of the organization's culture. ORGANIZATIONAL CULTURE IS ALSO A SYNTHESIS OF SUBCULTURES Sociologists discuss how distinct societies are composites of interacting subcultures rather than a single overarching culture. Organizations consist of subgroups that ... Get more on HelpWriting.net ...
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  • 31. Organizational Culture And Ethical Conduct The purpose of this document is to provide a brief description of the organization for the consulting services. Next, the consultant will recommend key steps that the organization can take to create a strong culture. The consultant will develop an introductory paragraph to the survey explaining the tie between organizational culture and ethical conduct. Designate at least two (2) groups within the organization who will take the survey and provide a rationale as to why these two (2) groups should complete the survey. After the two groups have been identified, develop a brief overview of the participates in the form of an invitation to participate in the survey explaining the purpose and intended use of the survey. Develop criteria for conducting the ethical climate survey of the organization. The criteria will identify: A. Who the target audience is; B. The method by which the consultant will administer the survey; C. Instructions for participants on accessing and completing the survey. D. Construct at least three (3) sample questions that address each of the following areas (12 questions total). At least two (2) of the twelve (12) questions which include the require an open– ended response. E. Determine the organizational culture of the business F. Examine the ethical climate of the organization G. Examine the impact of existing ethics training program(s) H. Determine the overall satisfaction of employees with the management on leading the organization in an ethical manner ... Get more on HelpWriting.net ...
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  • 33. Organizational Culture And Its Functions INTRODUCTION Organizational culture involves systems of beliefs and values that guide the behavior of individuals within the organization and how they shape behavior (Kummerow, 2013). Organizational structures, on the other hand, dictate the assignment, coordination and control of roles and responsibilities to achieve organizational goals (Pathak 2011). For a company to perform effectively it needs to grow, organizational development is one element of growth that focuses on practice an research focused in expanding effectiveness and the knowledge of individuals. In order to grow, a firm needs to transfer, create ad retain knowledge within its staff members and people affiliated to it through organizational. The aim of this paper is to analyze the concepts of organizational, culture, structure, development, and learning and evaluate how this concept relates to Jaguar Company. ORGANIZATIONAL CULTURE AND ITS FUNCTIONS According to Kummerow and Kirby (2013), organizational culture is patterns of shared values, beliefs and assumptions developed by an organization as it looks for ways to cope with issues of internal integration and external adaptation. Consequently, it will govern how individual behave within the organization and the culture is tough to any new member of the organization so that they know the correct way to think, feel and perceive issues within the organization. Culture is an important part of any company, it provides and controls the way staff members behave in ... Get more on HelpWriting.net ...
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  • 35. What Is Schein's Model Of Organizational Culture This issue can be explained with the model developed by Edgar Schein for understanding the organizational culture. Schein's model of organizational culture identifies three distinct levels in organizational cultures; 1. Artifacts and behaviors include any tangible, overt or verbally identifiable elements in an organization such as architecture, furniture, dress code, office jokes etc. 2. Espoused values include organization's stated values and rules of behavior such as how the members represent the organization expressed in official philosophies and public statements etc. 3. Shared Basic Assumptions are the deeply embedded, taken–for–granted behaviors which are usually unconscious, but constitute the essence of culture. These assumptions are typically so well integrated in the office dynamic that they are hard to recognize from within. Illustration of Schein's model of organizational culture According to Schein explained, once an organization culture is based on shared basic assumption of not valuing integrity, it is clear to burst cross– cultural issues with officers who do not have such assumptions even though ... Show more content on Helpwriting.net ... Further, the actions of Mr. Sundara were also with many defects in bringing the all officers for the change in terms of organizing, leading, communicating and other management aspects. He acted as a police officer and tried to control the system through the tools in traditional enforcement theories of change. The approaches of Mr. Sundara as well as Director General were direct and obvious actions relating to enforcement, judgement, emphasis, presentation etc. In terms of the Nudge Theory of Change, the failure of change can be attributed to the above mentioned facts reviewed in light of the Nudge theory elements such as indirect, enablement, non judgement, translation, educate, heuristics ... Get more on HelpWriting.net ...
  • 36.
  • 37. Organizational Culture : An Organization Organizational Culture is defined according to Kreitner and Kinicki (2013, p. 62) as, " the set of shared, taken–for–granted implicit assumptions that a group holds and that determines how it perceives, thinks about, and reacts to its various environments." In addition to the core definition, organizational culture encompasses three critical layers that build off one another. The three layers are Observable Artifacts, Espoused Values, and Basic Assumptions. By, defining what organizational culture is in turns helps me to perform the job I have been hired to do. With the culture we have in place it prepares me for accomplishing the mission and vision of the organization. According to Rose (2014), there are three vital building elements that help creates your organizational culture and helps your organization to exist and function. The core components are mission, vision and values. Furthermore, when these vital building blocks are welcomed, observed, and performed in your daily walk and carried out by management, , it promotes an environment that is essential to building your organization identity into something beneficial and positive. The organizational culture instituted in my job is comprised of being a workplace that has established itself as a well known brand with a reputable reputation. Many aspire to work for this organization. I have witnessed that the culture here is a well diversified mixture of backgrounds and cultures. Moreover, it is infused with a ... Get more on HelpWriting.net ...
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  • 39. Toyota Organizational Culture Different and many definitions about "organizational culture" have been given since managers started to use this term at late of 80s , when it became widely known. The term of organizational culture is defined as the whole of ideas, company mission, values, expectations, goals and behavioral theories or spiritual parameters shared by a group of people or members of the organization. According to Edgar Schein (2006) "organizational culture is a structure of common assumptions that are distributed among all members of the group to solve internal and external problems of an organization and to share their knowledge with new members." But why the culture is important for a company? As culture is not the only factor determining the success ... Show more content on Helpwriting.net ... – Better customer service. Toyota Motor Corporation starting from April 16 of 2016, has unveiled a new management structure with which it aims to create a product–based rather than function–based organization in order to streamline work processes on a company–wide basis. TMC is confident that significant value can be added through this new management structure, in which nine product– and region–based business units will compete with and learn from one another, while operating alongside TMC's Head Office. When a large organization such as TMC produces products for different markets, this structure works because each department is an autonomous group. For that purpose TMC will create seven product– based in –house companies and will be responsible for short– to mid–term product strategy and development. That will give a lot of control over operations and will not dependent on another, separate functional area to get things done. Also TMC's existing region–based business units, Toyota Nº 1 and Nº 2, will serve to check and balance the operations of the new product–based in–house ... Get more on HelpWriting.net ...
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  • 41. Organizational Culture Essay Edgar Schein, a famous theorists dealing with organizational culture, provides the following definition for the term: "A pattern of shared basic assumptions that the group learned as it solved its problems that has worked well enough to be considered valid and is passed on to new members as the correct way to perceive, think, and feel in relation to those problems." (organizationalculture101) However, organizational culture is more than sharing assumptions used by a group to solve problems; it is the combination of the points of view, ineffectual processes, education, backgrounds of all the staff which are part of an organization way of doing things. Corporation culture should uncover from the board of the directors to the rest of ... Show more content on Helpwriting.net ... Since organization culture is the combination of many factors there are several factors that could affect it. Among the internal factors to consider are the company's approaches to their processes, is the company more into results and profits or product quality and employee's safety. Management style is another important feature that affects corporate culture micromanage companies tend to have less motivated employees. Technology these days influence organizations at all levels as the company's approach to technology will go hand on hand with bettering processes. New factor affecting corporate culture these days is the different work arrangements that are needed these days with the implementation of flexing time and tele–working had commuting acceptable. The management approach to work environment, communication style will definite affect organization culture. Strong culture is said to exist where staff respond to stimulus because of their alignment to organizational values. Conversely, there is Weak Culture where there is little alignment with organizational values and control must be exercised through extensive procedures and ... Get more on HelpWriting.net ...
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  • 43. Organizational Culture Is The Most Important Variable That... 1.0 Introduction As a result of the accelerating pace of globalization, business environments in which organizations operate are increasingly turbulent and there is an unprecedented level of competition between rival firms (News.bbc.co.uk, 2016). Owing to this persistent rise in competition, organizations are faced with the dilemma of creating a viable competitive advantage. One way of developing such advantage is by constructing a captivating organizational culture. Organizational culture creates a unique identity that diversifies an organization from its opposition. Ogbonna & Lloyd (p, 32, 2002) defines organizational culture as "the collective sum of beliefs, values, meanings and assumptions that are shared by a social group and that ... Show more content on Helpwriting.net ... Then, data obtained from an observation day at doc's shipping Ltd combined with a questionnaire given to employees and two interviews will be analysed. Finally, my findings are compared with the already established literature on culture. 2.0 Background 2.1 Brief background on Doc's shipping Doc's Shipping Ltd is a small organization that is run by the founder. The organization is setup as a direct response to the emerging trends in the dynamic Maritime/Oil and Gas industry of the West African Sub region. Additionally, Doc's shipping takes advantage of the Nigerian Coastwise trade and the Maritime and Oil Gas sector of the economy (Austensgroup.com, 2016). It has a relatively small workforce of only 45 employees. 2.2 Organizational Culture There is no single way to describe culture, rather there are numerous. According to Schein (p. 12, 1992), Organizational culture is defined as "a pattern of shared basic assumptions learned by a group as it solves its problems of external adaptation and internal integration which has worked well enough to be considered valid and therefore, to be taught to new members as the correct way to perceived, think, and feel in relation to those problems." Another way to describe this concept is that it is "a system of assumptions, beliefs, values and behavioural norms which have been developed and adopted by ... Get more on HelpWriting.net ...
  • 44.
  • 45. Target's Organizational Culture "Culture consists of the symbols, rituals, language, and social dramas that highlight organizational life, including myths, stories, and jargon. It includes the shared meanings associated with the symbols, rituals, and language. Culture combines the philosophy of the firm with beliefs, expectations, and values shared by members. It contains the stories and myths about the company's founder and its current leading figures. Organizational culture consists of a set of shared meanings and values held by a set of members in an organization that distinguish the organization from other organizations. An organization's culture determines how it perceives and reacts to the larger environment (Becker, 1982; Schein, 1996). Culture determines the nature ... Show more content on Helpwriting.net ... Target makes sure that their team members are balanced in five key well–being elements to help better their guest. Those five–elements are physical health, financial security, social relationships, career engagement and community involvement. Giving employees something in return for their hard work and making sure they do not go unnoticed helps create a better flowing and well round team to keep a company moving forward. Target encourages wellness and promotes preventive care, offering many benefits and resources to help team members and their families lead healthy, balanced lives, feeling happy, challenged and fulfilled at work is the essence of career well–being, social well–being is about building strong relationships and enjoying life both inside and outside of work, financial well–being is about making good financial decisions today and planning for the future, and Target's legacy of local community involvement and corporate social responsibility is a hallmark of their brand, and a source of pride for our ... Get more on HelpWriting.net ...
  • 46.
  • 47. ORGANIZATIONAL CULTURE ORGANIZATIONAL CULTURE Culture consists of beliefs and behavior. It is cultivated behavior in the sense that it is learnt from the other members of the society. According to Henry Mintzberg, an internationally renowned author on Business and Management, "culture is the soul of the organization – the beliefs and values, and how they are manifested. I think of the structure as the skeleton, and as the flesh and blood. And culture is the soul that holds the thing together and gives it life force." These lines portray how critical is a culture in an organization. Some theorists looked upon organizations as having many of the features of cultures (Brown, 1995). Martins and Martins (2003) defined organizational culture as "a system of ... Show more content on Helpwriting.net ... Therefore, managers and employees do not behave in a value–free vacuum; they are governed, directed and tempered by the organization's culture (Brown, 1998). Employees' behavior includes their commitment to their respective organizations. For example, if the culture encourages innovativeness, any problem will make people take initiative and risks as well as try out new ways of doing things. On the other hand, if the organizational culture is security oriented, the same problem situation would cause people to start looking for rules, procedures as a mode of response. Organizational culture is also known as "corporate culture" that has a major impact on the performance of organization and especially on the quality of work life experienced by the employees. If people in the organization follow the same culture and accept the cultures as well, there would be unity formed within the organization that would lead to higher levels of efficiency resulting in an increase in the levels of performance. It is known that an increase in performance can lead to the development of a culture, which could lead to culture homogeneity in the way the organization works. A common culture results in having a common goal. People would agree to the decisions made more easily and be motivated to work, as the decisions made are the same as the ... Get more on HelpWriting.net ...
  • 48.
  • 49. Organizational Culture and Its Themes International Journal of Business and Management December, 2008 Organizational Culture and Its Themes Shili Sun School of Foreign Languages, Ludong University No.186 Hongqi Middle Road, Zhifu District, Yantai 264025, Shandong Province, China Tel: 86–535–668–1098 Abstract E–mail: shilisun@hotmail.com As one of the key 'stable factors', culture within an organization is playing a critical role in the organization's everyday operations. Although the culture literature has at times focused on the culture of an organization as shared basic assumptions (Schein, 1985), or as metaphors within organizations (Morgan, 1986, 1997), it is not sufficient to attempt to understand and measure them. This paper explores organizational culture ... Show more content on Helpwriting.net ... 3, No. 12 International Journal of Business and Management Whereas Hofstede (1984) wrote of "the collective programming of the mind which distinguishes the members of one human group from another" as the meaning of the term organizational culture, which seems an interesting way of understanding the notion, and despite he 'discovered' four areas of work related value differences at that time (power distance; uncertainty avoidance; individualism/collectivism; masculinity/femininity), however, in 1992, Hofstede used the term 'practices' to refer to social and cultural phenomena, and in Hofstede's perspective, it is quite important to locate the deeply held values of organization members at the very center of the organization's culture. In reality, for some organization members, these values will be so deeply held that they will not be possible to change at all. However, how we choose to define culture has considerable implications for how we attempt to examine and study it, different authorities in the literature has introduced different interpretations. In practice, no matter what size or nature it is, an organization might have its own culture ... Get more on HelpWriting.net ...
  • 50.
  • 51. The Organizational Culture of Quinlan's The Organizational Culture of Quinlan's Introduction Quinlan has been UK's foremost retail giant for a long period of time. By end of 1998 there was evidence of a crisis and since then the company has been on a decline. The company has been ignoring market changes and trying to maintain its corporate image and identity. This has caused the customers to drift to more fashionable brands causing huge loss of business to Quinlan. Presently the company is on a restructuring exercise to improve sales with particular emphasis on customer satisfaction and marketing. Organisation culture at Quinlan's Organisation culture can be defined as the set of key values, beliefs, understandings and ... Show more content on Helpwriting.net ... This culture gives prominence to achievement and competitiveness. Employees usually work long hours to achieve certain goals. c) Clan – This culture is reflected in organisations that emphasise on employee's participation in meeting changes of the environment. Particular attention is paid to employee well welfare. d) Bureaucratic – This type of culture is visible in organisations that follow a well–defined way of doing things. Employees are not encouraged to take risks and rewarded for following rules. This is suitable for a stable environment that is hard to find in these modern days. It is visible that Quinlan's culture was bureaucratic. In particular Quinlan had: a) Properly defined rules and procedures to function in a predictable and routine manner b) Roles were clearly defined and labour was divided based on these roles c) A hierarchical chain of command d) Clear separation of ownership and control
  • 52. Culture and organisation success Daft, Management, 2003, chapter 3 explains that an organisation has two main environments: the external and internal. The external environment includes elements that exist outside the boundary but have the ability to affect the organisation. Eg. competitors, resources, technology, customers. The internal environment consists of ... Get more on HelpWriting.net ...
  • 53.
  • 54. The Three Levels Of Organizational Culture Organizational Culture is an anthropological term that refers to the values, belief, norms and ways of doing things that are shared by the organizational members (Knights and Willmott, 2012). While Schein (1992) stated that there are three levels of culture. The first level is Surface manifestations, refers to cultural artefacts or observable culture which are the tangible phenomena such as traditions, ritual, technology, architecture, logos, heroes, myths, stories, and types of person employed represent the organizational culture. The other two less visible levels are Organizational Values refer to the belief about how things are done; and Basic assumptions are invisible, unconscious and taken for granted understanding held by individuals such as behaviour of human and the nature of reality (Schein, 1922). ... Show more content on Helpwriting.net ... 'Has' is the critical variable that can be managed while 'Is' is approximately difficult to manage or change and known as root metaphor (Smircich, 1983). Strong and weak culture are possible to differentiate, if most of the employees show response to the management surveys and have the same opinions about the organization's values and missions means that the culture is strong but if the opinions differ extensively, then the culture is weak (Robbins and Judge, ... Get more on HelpWriting.net ...
  • 55.
  • 56. Development Of Definitions Of Organizational Culture And... 2. Literature Review The purpose of this chapter is to make readers comprehend the development of definitions of organizational culture and project management in different dimensions. And within the content of project management, the criteria of the success of project management will be demonstrated. Furthermore, the previous studies about the relationship between organizational culture and the success of project management will be referred to. Eventually, some problems unanswered on this filed or some gaps that missed by former studies will be indicated. 2.1 Organizational Culture A well–known fact that organizational culture is hard to define because of its complexity, and it seems that most of existing definitions are general and macroscopic. For example, organizational culture supplies members of organization with principles of behaviors with the help of essential, common values in the organization, and these principles are usually approved and accepted by internal members (Baird et al. 2007; Chatman & Jehn, 1994; Deshpandé & Webster, 1989; Narver & Slater, 1998; as cited in Cynthia Webster & Allyn White, 2010). And organizational culture means correspondingly fixed faiths, manners and norms that are agreed by organizational members commonly (Williams, Dobson & Walters, 1993; as cited in Catherine T. Kwantes & Cheryl A. Boglarsky, 2007). Organizational culture is also defined as "shared normative beliefs and shared behavioural expectations" or "a particular set of ... Get more on HelpWriting.net ...
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  • 58. Concept Of Organizational Culture Shift This movie illustrates the ability for organizational change to influence success, and widely accepted societal norms to be defied, through the combined efforts of a group of individuals. In this particular instance, a "lowly rated" baseball team in a small market and inauspicious financial setting is able to undergo a transformative change, primarily due to their beliefs. This illustrates to organizations that change can be beneficial and is usually required in order to remain competitive, and it is often a preferred route to follow in order to achieve desired goals. "Change is important in organizations as it allows employees to learn new skills, explore new opportunities and exercise their creativity in ways that ultimately benefit the organization through new idea generation and increased commitment" (Leigh & Demand, n.d., para. 6). The concept of organizational culture shift can be viewed as a process that is undertaken for growth and success, as it creates room for new opportunities and risk taking. The purpose of the paper which highlights the need for organizational and cultural change, and its intrinsic benefits, will be achieved through an analysis of the internal culture and the influence of external environment, by observing the benefits of incorporating change in an organization. Furthermore, I will discuss the advantages and disadvantages of adapting to changes and the competitive edge it provides to organizations. This paper will begin with a synopsis, which ... Get more on HelpWriting.net ...
  • 59.
  • 60. Organizational Culture And Organisational Culture There are many different interpretations on what organizational culture is; it can be defined as ... This essay will be discussing and explaining organizational culture and change, furthermore how culture can have an influence on behaviour at work. In addition there will be an discussion on the organizational culture of two UK businesses, as well Organisational Culture Organisational culture is described as a company's personality or DNA. (Education Portal) has defined organisational culture as 'a system of shared assumptions, values, and beliefs, which governs how people behave in organizations'. There are seven dimensions or characteristics of organisational culture. The Organisational Culture Profile (OCP) is one of many typologies that businesses use, to help them not only to describe its culture, but also identify, measure and managing it more effectively. Each organisation has a unique culture; every company will have a different value for each of the characteristics; furthermore when they are combined they define the organisations culture. The difference between strong and weak culture is that if a business has a weak culture, then there will be a wide variety of opinions, whereas if a business has a strong culture than majority of the employees will have and share the same beliefs and values of the organisation. This will not only have an impact but will also influence the behaviour of the members of the business, as they know what is required of them; therefore the ... Get more on HelpWriting.net ...
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  • 62. Nordstrom Organizational Culture In the 1980's business experts began to realize the root to organizational success or failure is through its culture. The culture of an organization is the belief that guides each employee in knowing what to do and what not to do and it also affect the public perception of the organization's brand. Therefore culture is the shared social knowledge within an organization regarding the rules, norms and values (Colquitt, Lepine, & Wesson, 2012). Although, no two cultures are alike, there are components and characteristics that help business experts to define an organization's culture. Edgar Schein offers direct and indirect mechanisms that helps decipher the organization's culture: observable artifacts, espoused values, and basic underlying ... Show more content on Helpwriting.net ... A ritual generally contributes to the process of an organization. However, it does have symbolic role which personifies the values of the organization. There are several rites and rituals that helps cultivate Nordstrom's market and service culture. Ex. 1: Recognizing and celebrating top sellers (Nordstrom, Inc, 2017). Ex. 2: Organizational leaders engage with employees by holding "prep rallies (Nordstrom, Inc, 2017)." Communication The MNE reinforces their service culture by emphasizing excellent customer service in their employee handbook–– a 5 ½ x 7 ½ card that states; "Our number one goal is to provide outstanding customer service, and for this they have only one rule: "Use good judgment in all situations (Nordstrom, Inc, 2017)." The true testament of Nordstrom's philosophy is best illustrated by its organizational chart that is readily displayed in the employees' break room. This chart also depicts another of Nordstrom's philosophy, it empowers frontline employees by placing them at the top of the organizational pyramid. This suggest that frontline employees have the freedom to create their own career paths and be creative when it comes to providing excellent customer service. Adaptive ... Get more on HelpWriting.net ...
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  • 64. Questions On Organizational Culture And Leadership Schein, E (1992). Organizational Culture and Leadership. 2nd ed., San Francisco, CA: Jossey–Bass Edgar Schein outlines those characteristics in better understanding and assessing the culture and climate of an organization. A lot energy and emphasis is focused on the identification and application of an organization's guiding principles. Schein suggests that our guiding values and principles are important, but it is in the organizations structure, culture, action that describes the true character of an organization. He spends time focusing on artifacts, indicators of an organizations true culture, values and beliefs. When someone better understands an organization, they know that observation is a key to find out their true make up. This will also lead to finding about some of the reinforcing and extinguishing characteristics of the organization. His book is very applicable when attempting to better understand the true make up of an organization like the Mississippi Army National Guard. He uses key values that describe the organization and its makeup. His article is considered valid and reliable. Arthur, J. (2010) Of Good Character Exploration of Virtues and Values in 3–25 Year Olds. Charlottesville, VA: Imprint Academic, Philosophy Documentation Center The focus of the author is to explore the values of educating leaders in two specific ways. The first way is to provide research results in the area of moral and character value traits. The second way attempts to ... Get more on HelpWriting.net ...
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  • 66. The Impact of Organizational Culture on Employee... Generated by Foxit PDF Creator © Foxit Software http://www.foxitsoftware.com For evaluation only. The Impact of Organizational Culture On Employee Satisfaction and Productivity 1 Generated by Foxit PDF Creator © Foxit Software http://www.foxitsoftware.com For evaluation only. The Impact of Organizational Culture on Employee Satisfaction and Productivity Submitted to Emranul Huq Senior Lecturer School of Business United International University Submitted by Emam Hossan Noshin Riaz Shanaz Murshed Naz Abdul Halim Rubayia Rafi 111072049 111072090 111072161 111073090 111072036 Sec: B January, 2009 2 Generated by Foxit PDF Creator © Foxit Software http://www.foxitsoftware.com For evaluation only. Certification ... Show more content on Helpwriting.net ... ..........................10 Sources of Data Limitation ..........................................................................................10 Chapter– 2 Literature Review...............................................................................................11 Definition of Organizational Culture................................................................................12 Organizational Culture.................................................................................................13 Analyzing Organizational Culture....................................................................................15 Organizational Culture Profile .........................................................................................16 Type of Organizational Culture .......................................................................................17 Elements of Organization Culture....................................................................................18 Healthy Organizational Culture .......................................................................................20 Organizational Culture Questionnaire
  • 67. ..............................................................................22 What Is A Healthy Organizational Culture?.....................................................................23 Organizational Culture Perspective..................................................................................24 Definition of Socialization ... Get more on HelpWriting.net ...
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  • 69. Organizational Culture Essay Introduction The concept of organizational cultures was first raised in 1970s, and soon became a fashionable topic. Organizational culture is the shared beliefs, values and behaviours of the group. Theorists of organizations believe that organizational culture represents the pattern of behaviours, values, and beliefs of an organization. Hence, studies around organizational culture have been seen as great helpful and essential for understanding organizations and their behaviours. Additionally, organizational culture has been considered to be an important determinant of organizational success. Therefore, leaders and managers pay more than more attentions on this topic, focusing on constructing and managing organizational cultures. This ... Show more content on Helpwriting.net ... Deal and Kennedy (1982:21) believe that the core of organizational culture is `Value', which are shared by the members within an organization. And the upper level which is `Behaviour' is guided by shared values. The invisible values provide a common direction for all members to behave towards the goal of the organization. Moreover, Schein (1985) has expanded the concept including fundamental assumptions, artefacts and symbols. (Schein 1980; Schein 1985) In Schein's theory, the most visible/outer level is behaviour and artefacts. This is the observable level of cultures, and consists of behaviours patterns and outward cultural manifestations: such as flags, dress codes, myths, stories, products and services, level of technology utilized, type of operations process, and the physical layout of work spaces. These are all visible factors that presenting the cultures of an organization. At the next level of culture are values. Values underlie and to a large extent determine behaviour, but they are not directly observable ... Get more on HelpWriting.net ...
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  • 71. The Importance Of Organizational Culture The Business Dictionary defines organizational culture as values and behaviors based on "shared attitudes, beliefs, customs, and written and unwritten rules that have been developed over time" ("Organizational Culture", 2017). Simply put, organizational culture is how people learn, think and act on a daily basis within an organization. But if organizational culture is only unique social and psychological environments within a business, then how is it possible that it can be just as influential as business strategy? Research suggests that a strong organizational culture is a key competitive advantage of business because it can be the driving force behind innovation and alignment of goals, help motivate and engage employees, and generate fierce customer loyalty. Organizational culture, also referred to as corporate culture, is a key competitive advantage of business because it can be the driving force behind innovation and alignment of goals. Innovation is the foundation upon which most businesses are built. It allows businesses to offer a new or improved product or provide a service in a way that sets them apart from competitors. Because consumer tastes are always changing, businesses have to align innovation with their business strategy to stay competitive. Any company can simply proclaim that their strategy will focus on innovation but if its employees are discouraged from being creative, if output quantity drives their paycheck, or if the company's hierarchical ... Get more on HelpWriting.net ...
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  • 73. Organizational Culture Organizational culture influences many aspects of work life. Workplace cultures that are grounded in strong and formally articulated values and modes of behavior define an organization. Well– communicated values influence employee behavior and drive how employees relate with all stakeholders within the organization—from co–workers, management and members of the board to clients, shareholders and the community at large. When organizations seek to change their culture, HR—as change agent and educator of the change process—plays a significant role in this endeavor. In addition, HR's role is both up front and in the background, by leading, supporting, coaching, encouraging, measuring and evaluating the change during the process and over time. ... Show more content on Helpwriting.net ... The 2,000–member leadership team was first trained in immersion meetings before communicating the new vision and values to their own teams. Throughout the rollout, the communication team evaluated the mindsets and levels of interest and refined the content and delivery methods. Post– meetings surveys found that 100% of participants viewed the change initiative as effective to align and focus the organization. Going forward, changes in company programs and new initiatives are first evaluated through the PVB filter to link with the new cultural guidelines. As a leader and a follower, I believe that in order to promote organizational culture change, three essentials should be kept in mind. First, culture change should be tied to organizational business goals and, going forward, be linked to key organizational strategies. Second, throughout the process, the use of feedback mechanisms provides information to evaluate what is working and what needs to be improved. Third, by communicating regular updates to management and employees about the progress and benefits of the organizational change initiative, Human Resource's can continue to keep the workforce engaged throughout the cultural ... Get more on HelpWriting.net ...
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  • 75. Analysis Of Lincoln Electric Organizational Culture Analysis of Lincoln Electric organizational culture Lincoln Electric was founded at the end of the 19–th century by John C. Lincoln. He was a talented engineer who invested 200 dollars in his product electrical motors. Soon he was replaced by his younger brother James F. Lincoln, and the founder of Lincoln Electric dedicated his time to engineering activities and inventions. James F. Lincoln was a different type of inventor. He was a good manager with the nice strategic point of view over manufacturing. At the beginning of the 20th century, the company started manufacturing welding machines which become their iconic product. That is not the only thing Lincoln electric became famous for. The incentive management plan was one of a kind at that time and was the first step of creating company culture with a high focus on the employees, something unheard among the other manufacturers at that time of the century. Both Lincoln brothers were inventors and this was crucial for the earlier company development. Both were pioneers and the vision and the mission that was integrated especially from James Lincoln played a major role in the dramatic company development during the World War II. The start of the pioneering in the management was the creation of an advisory board from elected employees. The advisory board had meetings twice a month during which they made the voice of the employees be heard. For about a decade many changes become effective and the working conditions changed ... Get more on HelpWriting.net ...
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  • 77. University of Phoenix Organizational Culture Organizational culture can be defined as the system of attitudes, beliefs and values that are collectively expressed in support of organizational structure. Organizational culture is a pattern of shared basic assumptions that dictate the behavior of individuals within an organization. Culture determines which practices are appropriate and which are not, effectively developing standards, guidelines, and expectations for individuals within an organization. Although they work hand in hand, there is a definite distinction in the beliefs and the values that make up organizational culture. The beliefs of an organization are assumptions of the way things are, while values are an assumption about the way things should be. By that definition, ... Show more content on Helpwriting.net ... As the stock prices were inflated, the liquidity of the company was spread very thin. Through the individual business ventures of these highly educated individuals, Enron took out loans and spread their finances thin. Additionally, there was an intense culture of competition within Enron. Skilling implemented an intense employee evaluation system (PRC 360–degree review) in which employees were judged on the profits of their projects. The bottom 10% of employees according to this evaluation were often fired or demoted. This created a state of individual paranoia at Enron in which individuals, in order to keep their jobs, were forced into using shady accounting practices and not worrying about the future considerations of a deal as long as it turned a short term profit. Because of this intense culture of internal competition, employees at Enron (even the ones who felt they were using unethical practices) were reluctant to speak up. The corporate culture made it hard for ethical objections to be heard or taken seriously. In an employee 's recollection of his experience at Enron it was noted that "saying things like 'This doesn 't make sense ' was unofficially sanctioned ...I got the idea that not many people actually knew what was going on, and asking questions would further show this lack of knowledge." Furthermore, Enron 's message about their values was demonstrated through the actions ... Get more on HelpWriting.net ...
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  • 79. Organizational Culture : The Best Organizational Performance The objective of this essay is to critically discuss that the 'best ' organisational cultures lead to the 'best ' organisational performance using concepts and examples trough analysis of empiric studies. Many studies have proved that organisational culture has a deep influence on many different aspects of an organisational process, employees and their performance. (Lim,1995) A variety of studies occupies that the performance is increased to achieve the organisations goals when employees acknowledge the same norms and values of the organisation. The cultures differ and have a certain complexity. Nevertheless, it is indispensable for the management to initialise each employee to the organisational norms, values, objectives in order to achieve the commitment, which increases the productivity. Culture is collective conditioning of minds helping a the members of one organisation to differ themselves from the other one. (Hofstede, 1980) It is a collection of diverse values and behaviours able to increase performance. (Schein, 1990) Other scientist argued that the culture is defined as "a set of norms and values that are widely shared and strongly held throughout the organisation" (O'Reilly and Chatman, 1996: 166) It is important to understand and share a culture in an organisation. Culture is helpful to reconstruct the cognition and decisions of employees and has a variety of beliefs, values and assumptions required for each organisation to conduct its business. (Pettigrew, ... Get more on HelpWriting.net ...
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  • 81. Organizational Culture Three general types of organizational culture–constructive, passive–defensive, aggressive– defensive: The organizational cultural inventory measures 12 sets of normative beliefs or shared behavioral expectations associated with three general types of cultures, Constructive, Passive– Defensive, and Aggressive–Defensive. Constructive cultures–in which members are encouraged to interact with others and approach tasks in ways that will help them meet their higher–order satisfaction needs, are characterized by Achievement, Self–actualizing, Humanistic–Encouraging, and Affiliative norms. Constructive styles strongly associated with satisfaction and low stress (Cooke & Szumal, 1993).  Achievement: pursuing a standard of excellence.  ... Show more content on Helpwriting.net ... Elite: +Values: Authority, performance, Reward –Values: Teamwork, Leadership, Participation, Commitment, Normative, Affiliation. (Unequal Power & Equitable) Meritocratic: +Values: Teamwork, Participation, Commitment, Performance, Reward, Normative, Affiliation –Values: Authority, Leadersip. (Equal power & Equitable) Leadership: +Values: Authority, Leadership, Teamwork, Commitment, Performance, Reward, Affiliation. –Values: Participation, Normative. (Unequal Power & Egalitarian) Collegial: +Values: Teamwork, Participation, Commitment, Performance, Reward, Affiliation. –Values: Authority, leadership, Performance, Reward. (Equal Power & Egalitarian) For example, the Elite type represents a "pure" unequal type with unequal power values combined with inequality–oriented equity values. The Elite value structure emphasizes unequal power relations (authority); de–emphasizes egalitarian power values (participation, normative), and de–emphasizes cohesion values (affiliation, teamwork, commitment, leadership), while emphasizing performance and reward. On the other hand, the Leadership type represents a "mixed", compensatory pattern which, while it retains the Elite types' unequal power orientation, superimposes on the Elite value structure a set of cohesion values that are nevertheless consistent with unequal power relations, namely leadership, teamwork, commitment, and affiliation. Leadership ... Get more on HelpWriting.net ...