Saponification Presentation

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Saponification Presentation

  1. 1. Saponification <ul><li>Separations & Reaction Engineering Lab </li></ul><ul><li>April 04, 2006 </li></ul>Kate Cannady Christopher Miller Matt Mobily Jennifer Pratt
  2. 2. Today’s Schedule <ul><li>Introduction & Applications </li></ul><ul><li>Design Challenge </li></ul><ul><li>Apparatus & Methods </li></ul><ul><li>Theory </li></ul><ul><li>Preliminary Data & Results </li></ul><ul><li>Conclusions & Future Plans </li></ul><ul><li>References </li></ul>
  3. 3. What is Saponification? A process in which esters in fats are hydrolyzed with sodium or potassium hydroxide (NaOH or KOH) to produce a carboxylate anion which can act as a surfactant, i.e. soap.
  4. 4. How Soaps Work <ul><li>Suspends oil and/or dirt within its structure to clean surfaces </li></ul><ul><ul><li>molecules have hydrocarbon chain attached to carboxylate head </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>form micelles </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>when oil/grease present with soap in H 2 O attracted to non-polar center of micelle </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>entire structure can be rinsed away resulting in clean surface </li></ul></ul>
  5. 5. Uses <ul><li>Used heavily in both domestic and industrial settings </li></ul><ul><ul><li>personal hygiene </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>detergents </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>industrial & household cleansers </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>paints </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>adhesives </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>ski & snowboard wax </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>herbicides & insecticides </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Also refers to the conversion of fat and soft tissues in corpses </li></ul><ul><ul><li>produces waxy film that protects against decomposition </li></ul></ul>
  6. 6. Design Challenge <ul><li>Determine the kinetic rate constants of the saponification reaction using sodium hydroxide and ethyl acetate at different temperatures </li></ul><ul><li>Produces sodium acetate (soap) and ethanol (byproduct) </li></ul>
  7. 7. Apparatus & Methods <ul><li>Prepared solutions </li></ul><ul><ul><li>0.25M ethyl acetate (C 4 H 8 O 2 ) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>0.20M sodium hydroxide (NaOH) </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Calibration curve </li></ul><ul><li>Experimental Runs </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Desired temperatures set on water bath apparatus </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>15 ° C<T<25 ° C </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Solutions to desired temperature in water bath </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Solutions mixed and conductivity measured over course of reaction </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Kinetics determined form conductivity data </li></ul>conductivity meter conductivity probe water bath temperature controls
  8. 8. Theory <ul><li>Na + OH - + CH 3 COOC 2 H 5 </li></ul><ul><li>CH 3 COO - Na + + C 2 H 5 OH </li></ul><ul><li>1 st order with respect to each component </li></ul><ul><li>2 nd order overall </li></ul><ul><li>Rate expression is defined as </li></ul>-r A = kC A C B
  9. 9. More Theory <ul><li>Θ = C Bo /C Ao C A = C Ao (1-x A ) </li></ul>By combining these equations with the rate equation we get -r A = kC A C B -rA = kC Ao 2 (1-x A )( θ -x A ) C B = C Bo -C Ao x A
  10. 10. More Theory -rA = kC Ao 2 (1-x A )( θ -x A ) = dC A /dt Separating, Integrating, and Linearizing gives or and is in the form y=mx+b where C Ao ( θ -1)k is the slope of the line
  11. 11. More Theory <ul><li>Reaction progress can also be determined by using conductivity </li></ul>Once C A is determined, conversion can be calculated by which yields conversion at some time t Using all this information we can calculate k
  12. 12. More Theory <ul><li>Finally we can check for Arrhenius behavior </li></ul><ul><ul><li>change in kinetic constants in response to increase or decrease in temperature of the reaction </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>allows for determination of kinetic constant at any temperature </li></ul></ul>Plot 1/T vs lnk – if linear, then follows behavior
  13. 13. Data & Results 0.264 25 0.264 20 0.128 15 k (L/mol*s) Temperature ( o C)
  14. 14. Conclusions & Future Plans <ul><li>Verify our calculations. </li></ul><ul><li>Compare the calculated K values with accepted values. </li></ul><ul><li>Possibly repeat experiment at 20 o c. </li></ul><ul><li>Scale up this specific saponification process. </li></ul>
  15. 15. References <ul><li>Mendes, A.L. et al (Summer 2004). An Integrated Chemical Reaction Engineering Lab Experiment. Chemical Engineering Education. 228-235. </li></ul>
  16. 16. ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ?

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