From Frustration To Freedom

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A description of Eastview High School's reading intervention program presented to Minneapolis South literacy teachers on December 1st, 2009

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  • Share about me too.
  • How I get started down this road District literacy initiative. . .
  • Red—who I started studying (still informally following as they’ll be seniors) Black—focus of THIS dissertation—class of 2012
  • )--Highlighted Today b/c we have statistically significant evidence that it is working to accelerate student growth in reading. Opine about Reading Lab (and share success we’ve had, though!)
  • Share a story or two!
  • Introduce video. . . Assignment—in 2 minutes, show us what Academic Literacy 9 is to you. . . Completely student created. . All their choices. They were given flip videos and digital cameras and access to video creation software. . .
  • Comprehension strategy theory- licensed and expert teachers direct instruction small class sizes The problem is not illiteracy, but comprehension” (Biancarosa & Snow, 2004, p. 10). The work of Jeanne Chall(1983; 1986) introduced the reading community to the notion that children learn to read in grades kindergarten through three, and then read to learn from grades three on up. In reality, as the demands of the content and the difficulty levels of the text as well as the vast amount of information the child must navigate as they make their way through each subject during school, the reader must be able to not only read the words on the page, but understand and attach meaning to those words. In order to do so, the reader must be able to construct meaning of difficult vocabulary, sift through the many details to determine what is most important, activate prior knowledge to attach new learning with previous learning, think critically, and do all of this while continuing through the text fluently.( Allington, 2006; Irvin, et al., 2007; Snow & Biancarosa, 2003). Zone of Proximal Development—individualized, customized instruction. . .scaffolding to support students through the process. I do, we do , you do Formative Assessment to determine zone. . .strengths, areas to improve, etc. Engagement/self-efficacy Dweck and Kohn—Performance vs. growth mindsets, meaningful feedback, Guthrie and Wigfield and Guthrie: choice, control, relevance, Obrien and Vacca— I can because I think I can “ Students who struggle the most re-engaged and REDEFINED themselves as competent when engaged in activities they viewed as relevant using digital tools and popular media” ~ O’Brien, 2008 Research base: Eccles, Wigfield, & Schiefele, 1998: Guthrie, 2008; Smith & Wilhelm, 2002; Strickland & Alverman, 2004) Confidence building is KEY—students must see themselves as academic. . .successful. . .often Striving students sometimes view themselves as outsiders at EVHS—pull them IN
  • ANOVA— simply tell us –yes there is a difference somewhere in these three groups. Scheffe will tell us where exactly those differences exist.
  • Discuss why—control and al9 similar populations of students all id’d striving readers, adolescent reading growth is slow. . .research has shown can’t catch up in one year (Allington, 2009) Practical significance—gap between AL9 and Gen9 is narrower than between Control group and Gen9
  • NPR—important b/c it is what we use to id students. Based on national norms—50% means right smack in the middle compared to students across the nation. . .important to note that general population is skewed to the left w/ mean 71.9% (50 th percentile RIT=223) Practical significance—40 th percentile no longer id’d as striving reader. . .
  • Discuss why—control and al9 similar populations of students all id’d striving readers, adolescent reading growth is slow. . .research has shown can’t catch up in one year (Allington, 2009) Practical significance—gap between AL9 and Gen9 is narrower than between Control group and Gen9 Important implication—in order to narrow reading gap must accelerate reading growth (Allington). Important note: In 8 th grade, Con had negative growth (went backwards); AL9 remained flat (no digression or growth); and general population made approx 4 point gain. . .
  • Define engagement, fluency, and comprehension. . .
  • Scores: Engagement Fall: 3.4 Spring Engagement: 5.3 Fall Fluency: 9.9 Spring Fluency: 12.3 Fall Comprehension: 13 Spring Comprehension: 17.2 Fall Total: 26 Spring Total: 34.9 Goal is to get students out of instructional zone and into independent 6/8; 12/16 Fluency; 18/24 Comprehension Formative Assessment: Conferencing. . .
  • From Frustration To Freedom

    1. 1. FROM FRUSTRATION TO FREEDOM: INTERVENTION FOR STRIVING READERS Jen McCarty Plucker, Ed.D. Reading Specialist and Literacy Coordinator Eastview High School Jennifer McCarty Plucker, Ed. D
    2. 2. Let’s start with YOU <ul><li>Tell us: </li></ul><ul><li>Your name </li></ul><ul><li>Your Role (especially as it relates to literacy) </li></ul><ul><li>Why you are here or what you hope to get from this presentation </li></ul>Jennifer McCarty Plucker, Ed. D
    3. 3. Today’s Objectives <ul><li>To describe Eastview High School’s Systematic Intervention for Striving Readers </li></ul><ul><ul><li>~Definition of a Striving Reader </li></ul></ul><ul><li>~Ours and our students’ experiences </li></ul><ul><li>Typical Day in AL9 </li></ul><ul><li>To illuminate our process for designing and implementing the courses </li></ul><ul><li>To encourage you to be teacher leaders in your building to intervene on the behalf of these readers. </li></ul>Jennifer McCarty Plucker, Ed. D
    4. 4. A child’s excitement for reading (literacy) is not necessarily the secondary educator’s reality. The focus on early literacy has resulted in the needs of older readers being largely unmet (Vacca; 1998; Vacca & Alvermann, 1998) Jennifer McCarty Plucker, Ed. D
    5. 5. Jennifer McCarty Plucker, Ed. D
    6. 6. <ul><li>“ Identify, prioritize, and target individual students and groups of students for literacy outreach” (p.20). </li></ul><ul><li>Taylor and Collins (2003), p. 20 </li></ul>Jennifer McCarty Plucker, Ed. D
    7. 7. Background Jennifer McCarty Plucker, Ed. D Creation of Striving Reader cohort English/Speech 10 9-12 Reading Intervention Program 9 th Grade Academic Literacy 9 (FOCUS of THIS STUDY) 10 th Grade SR Cohort 11 th Grade Literature Cohort 10 th -12 th Grade Reading Lab 2006-07—Examination of EV Readers Class of 2010
    8. 8. Definition of a Striving Reader <ul><li>A secondary striving reader in ISD196 is a student who scores at or below the 40 th percentile nationally in reading on at least two, preferably three, standardized test(s) (ISD 196, 2006). </li></ul><ul><li>Minnesota Department of Education: A Model Secondary (6-12) Plan for Reading Intervention and Development. January, 2006 </li></ul>Jennifer McCarty Plucker, Ed. D
    9. 9. Intervention at EVHS <ul><li>9 th Grade: </li></ul><ul><li>Academic Literacy 9 (4 quarter) </li></ul><ul><li>10 th Grade: </li></ul><ul><li>Reading Lab (1 quarter) </li></ul><ul><li>Striving Reader Cohort (10 th grade English and US History team) </li></ul><ul><li>11 th Grade: </li></ul><ul><li>Reading Lab (1 quarter) </li></ul><ul><li>Striving Reader Cohort (Literature of the Americas—college bound course) </li></ul><ul><li>12 th Grade: </li></ul><ul><li>Reading Lab (1 quarter) </li></ul><ul><li>Customized elective selection </li></ul>Jennifer McCarty Plucker, Ed. D
    10. 10. The process <ul><li>Participated in district committees </li></ul><ul><li>Created a vision </li></ul><ul><li>Worked collaboratively (fun) </li></ul><ul><li>Applied for grants </li></ul><ul><li>Donated our own time (and money) </li></ul><ul><li>Accepted the “spotlight” from administration and staff </li></ul><ul><li>Continued to collaborate, reflect, revise, advocate, and celebrate </li></ul>Jennifer McCarty Plucker, Ed. D
    11. 11. Participants <ul><li>All are Eastview High School 9 th graders </li></ul><ul><li>Treatment Group ( n=28): </li></ul><ul><li>Academic Literacy 9 students </li></ul><ul><li>4 sections with approximately 7 students in each. </li></ul><ul><li>(necessary to exclude students who started program mid year, or moved out of program mid year) </li></ul><ul><li>Control Group ( n=21): students identified as striving readers—not enrolled in treatment program. </li></ul><ul><li>Sample from General Population of 9 th grade ( n=257): Students in regular 9 th grade classes, excluding treatment and control group students and honors students. </li></ul>Jennifer McCarty Plucker, Ed. D
    12. 12. Demographics: Treatment Group (AL9) <ul><li>______________________________________________________________________________________ </li></ul><ul><li>  </li></ul><ul><li>Special Limited </li></ul><ul><li>Ethnicity Gender Education English Identification Proficiency </li></ul><ul><li>______________________________________________________________________________________ </li></ul><ul><li>  </li></ul><ul><li>n=28 </li></ul><ul><li>  </li></ul><ul><li>American Indian 0.0% Male 54% 28.5% 3.5% </li></ul><ul><li>Asian/Pacific Islander 3.5% </li></ul><ul><li>Hispanic 14.2% Female 46% </li></ul><ul><li>African American 10.9% </li></ul><ul><li>Caucasian 71.4% </li></ul><ul><li>_______________________________________________________________________________________ </li></ul><ul><li>  </li></ul>Jennifer McCarty Plucker, Ed. D
    13. 13. Demographics: Control Group (Con) <ul><li>____________________________________________________________________________ </li></ul><ul><li>  </li></ul><ul><li>Special Limited </li></ul><ul><li>Ethnicity Gender Education English </li></ul><ul><li>Identification Proficiency </li></ul><ul><li>_____________________________________________________________________________ </li></ul><ul><li>  </li></ul><ul><li>N=21 </li></ul><ul><li>  </li></ul><ul><li>American Indian 0.0% Male 52% 62% 4.0% </li></ul><ul><li>Asian/Pacific Islander 9.5% </li></ul><ul><li>Hispanic 5.0% Female 48% </li></ul><ul><li>African American 9.5% </li></ul><ul><li>Caucasian 76.0% </li></ul><ul><li>______________________________________________________________________________ </li></ul>Jennifer McCarty Plucker, Ed. D
    14. 14. Demographics: Sample of General Population (Gen9) <ul><li>____________________________________________________________________________________ </li></ul><ul><li>  </li></ul><ul><li>Special Limited </li></ul><ul><li>Ethnicity Gender Education English </li></ul><ul><li>Identification Proficiency </li></ul><ul><li>____________________________________________________________________________________ </li></ul><ul><li>  </li></ul><ul><li>N=257 </li></ul><ul><li>  </li></ul><ul><li>American Indian 0.3% Male 51% 7.3% 0.7% </li></ul><ul><li>Asian/Pacific Islander 4.2% </li></ul><ul><li>Hispanic 5.1% Female 49% </li></ul><ul><li>African American 2.4% </li></ul><ul><li>Caucasian 88.0% </li></ul><ul><li>___________________________________________________________________________________ </li></ul>Jennifer McCarty Plucker, Ed. D
    15. 15. Academic Literacy 9: Treatment Program <ul><li>Based on A Model Secondary (6-12) Plan for Reading Intervention and Development (MN Dept. of Ed, 2006). </li></ul><ul><li>Belief Statements and Curriculum Frameworks Developed by ISD 196 team of Reading Specialists. </li></ul><ul><li>Vision of Reading Teachers at EVHS (video) </li></ul>Jennifer McCarty Plucker, Ed. D
    16. 16. Academic Literacy: Student Perspective Jennifer McCarty Plucker, Ed. D
    17. 17. R.E.SC.U.E. our Readers! <ul><li>R is for Relate </li></ul><ul><li>E is for Expect </li></ul><ul><li>SC is for Scaffold </li></ul><ul><li>U is for Uplift </li></ul><ul><li>E is for Engage </li></ul>Jennifer McCarty Plucker, Ed. D
    18. 18. Systematic Strategic Reading Intervention: The Treatment (Academic Literacy 9) <ul><li>Theoretical Framework: </li></ul><ul><li>Comprehension Strategy Theory (Chall, 1983, 1996; Harvey & Goudvis, 2000, 2007). </li></ul><ul><li>“ Zone of Proximal Development”; Just Right Challenge and Gradual Release of Responsibility (Vygotsky, 1978). </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Formative Assessment Research (Afflerbach, 2007; Stiggens, Arter, Chappuis & Chappuis, 2006). </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Engagement/Self-efficacy Theories (Dweck, 2007; Guthrie & Wigfield, 2000; Guthrie, 2008; Kohn, 1999; O’Brien, 2008; Vacca, 2006; and Wilhelm, 1997). </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Multi-Literacy and Digital Literacy Research (Alvermann, 2001; Alverman & Eakle, 2007; Antsey & Bull, 2006; New London Group, 1996; O’Brien, 2006). </li></ul></ul>Jennifer McCarty Plucker, Ed. D
    19. 19. Comfortable Reading Spaces with Teen Appeal (Atwell, 2007) Jennifer McCarty Plucker, Ed. D
    20. 20. Book Flood (Gallagher, 2009) Jennifer McCarty Plucker, Ed. D
    21. 21. Time to Read and Write (Allington, 2006) Jennifer McCarty Plucker, Ed. D
    22. 22. Students Engaged with Technology (Alvermann, 2001; O’Brien, 2006) Podcasting, glogster, Moodle, animoto, wikis, poll everywhere, movie maker, digital photography, i-tunes, flip video cameras, the Internet. . . Jennifer McCarty Plucker, Ed. D
    23. 23. Formative Assessment (Afflerbach, 2007; Stiggens, Arter, Chappuis & Chappuis, 2006). Jennifer McCarty Plucker, Ed. D
    24. 24. Instrumentation <ul><li>Measures of Academic Progress test from Northwest Evaluation Association (NWEA, 2003) </li></ul><ul><li>Pretest—Spring of 2008; Posttest—Spring of 2009 </li></ul><ul><li>Computerized Adaptive Reading Assessment </li></ul><ul><li>Untimed, approximately 50 minute test </li></ul><ul><li>Customized based on pre-test MAP score </li></ul><ul><li>Gives RIT score (typically ranging between 180—250 for 9 th grader) </li></ul>Jennifer McCarty Plucker, Ed. D
    25. 25. Research Question #1 <ul><li>To what extent have students in Academic Literacy 9 improved their reading scores as measured by the MAP test in comparison to the control group and a sample of the ninth grade general population? </li></ul>Jennifer McCarty Plucker, Ed. D
    26. 26. Quasi-Experimental Design <ul><li>MAP RIT Score, National Percentile Rank, and Growth (Posttest minus the Pretest score) </li></ul><ul><li>Variance of Analysis (ANOVA) to determine if statistically significant difference in means (averages) exist between groups. </li></ul><ul><li>Post hoc analysis (Scheffe) to determine which means are significantly different from which other means </li></ul>AL9 (n=28)— treatment group Con (n=21)— control group Gen9 (n=257)— sample from general population Jennifer McCarty Plucker, Ed. D
    27. 27. Mean Comparisons: MAP RIT <ul><li>ANOVA: Statistically significant mean difference detected at the .01 level </li></ul><ul><li>Scheffe: Mean difference is significant at the .01 level for the following pairs: </li></ul><ul><li>AL9 and Gen9 </li></ul><ul><li>Con and Gen 9 </li></ul><ul><li>No statistical significance for: </li></ul><ul><li>AL9 and Con </li></ul>Jennifer McCarty Plucker, Ed. D
    28. 28. Mean Comparisons: National Percentile Ranks <ul><li>ANOVA: Statistically significant mean difference detected at the .01 level </li></ul><ul><li>Scheffe: Mean difference is significant at the .01 level for the following pairs: </li></ul><ul><li>AL9 and Gen9 </li></ul><ul><li>Con and Gen 9 </li></ul><ul><li>No statistical significance for: </li></ul><ul><li>AL9 and Con </li></ul>Jennifer McCarty Plucker, Ed. D
    29. 29. Mean Comparisons <ul><li>ANOVA: Statistically significant mean difference detected at the .01 level </li></ul><ul><li>Scheffe: Mean difference is significant at the .01 level for the following pairs: </li></ul><ul><li>AL9 and Gen9 </li></ul><ul><li>AL9 and Control </li></ul><ul><li>No statistical significance for: </li></ul><ul><li>Gen9 and Control </li></ul>Jennifer McCarty Plucker, Ed. D
    30. 30. Instrumentation <ul><li>Developmental Reading Assessment (DRA2) </li></ul><ul><li>(Beaver & Carter, 2006). </li></ul><ul><li>One-on-One Reading Assessment </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Engagement (series of questions about reading experiences, reading goals, and plans for obtaining goals </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Fluency (oral reading assessment) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Comprehension (during, and post reading activities). </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Scored with a standardized rubric </li></ul><ul><li>Pearson Trains Reading Specialists to Use the Assessment. </li></ul><ul><li>Pretest—September, 2008 </li></ul><ul><li>Posttest—April, 2009 </li></ul>Jennifer McCarty Plucker, Ed. D
    31. 31. DRA2 Comparison of Means t tests reveal statistically significant mean gains for all areas at the .01 level Jennifer McCarty Plucker, Ed. D
    32. 32. Frequency Bar Plot for DRA2 Growth (AL9) Jennifer McCarty Plucker, Ed. D
    33. 33. Conclusions <ul><li>Adolescent Striving Readers need a Double Dose of Literacy Instruction </li></ul><ul><li>One Year of Strategic Intervention is not Enough for Most Striving Readers </li></ul>Jennifer McCarty Plucker, Ed. D
    34. 34. Academic Literacy 9 <ul><li>An Individualized Intense and Strategic intervention class for students reading 2+ levels below grade. </li></ul><ul><li>A double dose of literacy instruction (in addition to core classes). </li></ul><ul><li>A year long class with its’ own curriculum taught by licensed reading teachers. </li></ul><ul><li>An opportunity for students to practice (daily) reading and writing at their instructional level (zone of proximal development). </li></ul><ul><li>An opportunity for students to receive background knowledge for core subjects through guided reading lessons. </li></ul>Jennifer McCarty Plucker, Ed. D
    35. 35. Academic Literacy 9: day at a glance <ul><li>Independent reading—the reading zone </li></ul><ul><li>Status of the class (running records) </li></ul><ul><li>Goal setting and resetting </li></ul><ul><li>Book Browse/Book Sharing </li></ul><ul><li>Reader’s Response Journals </li></ul><ul><li>Mini-lessons—large or small group </li></ul><ul><li>Digital Literacy (Moodle) </li></ul><ul><li>Whole class read aloud </li></ul><ul><li>Word games </li></ul><ul><li>*A typical day includes 2-3 of the preceding activities </li></ul>Jennifer McCarty Plucker, Ed. D
    36. 36. Priority #1: Independent Reading <ul><li>Pair students with books of their choice </li></ul><ul><li>book browse </li></ul><ul><li>teacher suggestions based on interest inventory </li></ul><ul><li>Book Trailers (created by past students—example at the end if time) </li></ul>Jennifer McCarty Plucker, Ed. D
    37. 37. Grab their attention with high interest reads Jennifer McCarty Plucker, Ed. D
    38. 38. So they have a book… how do we know they are reading? <ul><li>Status of the Class </li></ul><ul><li>Running records of student progress </li></ul><ul><li>Tracks book titles and pace of reader </li></ul><ul><li>Also can include student engagement and ability to establish reading zone </li></ul><ul><li>Can be a collaboration between student self-evaluation and teacher observation </li></ul>Jennifer McCarty Plucker, Ed. D
    39. 39. Jennifer McCarty Plucker, Ed. D
    40. 40. Reader’s Response Journals <ul><li>Ask students to show their thinking </li></ul><ul><li>Push them beyond summary </li></ul><ul><li>Establish a format for entries </li></ul><ul><li>Supply students with notebooks ($1) </li></ul><ul><li>Can also respond on Moodle </li></ul><ul><li>Entries not expected every day </li></ul><ul><li>Average # of entries: 2-3 per week </li></ul><ul><li>Goal = to make thinking processes more automatic eliminating the need for RRJs </li></ul>Jennifer McCarty Plucker, Ed. D
    41. 41. <ul><li>“ I hate reading, but this book is making me wanna keep reading it. I wish I would have found some books like this one before because then I think I would probably [have] read a little bit more when I was younger.” </li></ul><ul><li>~Jon, September, 2008 </li></ul>Sample Prompts This reminds me of… I wonder why… I need to reread the part where… A golden line for me is… A conclusion I’m drawing is… The most important message is… Jennifer McCarty Plucker, Ed. D
    42. 42. Reading is thinking Jennifer McCarty Plucker, Ed. D
    43. 43. Break Down the Barriers!! <ul><li>Do you know these students? </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Tardy Tracy—isn’t there a clock on your cell phone? </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Absent Abigail—MIA… a lot. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Bobby Belligerent—the answer is always “NO!” </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Jack Jokester—lots of jokes; often inappropriate </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Sleepy, Dopey, Droopey… wait, are those dwarves? </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Sneezy Sally—frequent visits to Nurse Peggy </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Charlie Charmer—everybody’s buddy </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Forgetful Fay—no pencil, no notebook, no problem </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Billy Bladder—suspiciously well-hydrated </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Celine Cell—so many texts, so little time </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Messy Melissa—something could be living in that backpack </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>I-could-care-less Chris—surprisingly indifferent about everything </li></ul></ul>Jennifer McCarty Plucker, Ed. D
    44. 44. Strategic Instruction (customized and individualized) <ul><li>Mini Lessons—large or small group </li></ul><ul><li>Large group (7-13 students) </li></ul><ul><li>Small group (2-4 students) </li></ul><ul><li>Lesson objectives based on students’ needs </li></ul><ul><li>10-15 minutes maximum </li></ul>Jennifer McCarty Plucker, Ed. D
    45. 45. Sample mini-lessons <ul><li>Reading with a question in mind </li></ul><ul><li>Self monitoring: clicks and clunks </li></ul><ul><li>RRJ Zoom </li></ul><ul><li>Thick and thin questions </li></ul><ul><li>Coding the text </li></ul><ul><li>Reading with expression </li></ul><ul><li>Suffixes and prefixes: Making Words </li></ul>Jennifer McCarty Plucker, Ed. D
    46. 46. Read Alouds <ul><li>A shared text experience </li></ul><ul><li>5-10 minutes per day </li></ul><ul><li>Fluency example </li></ul><ul><li>Can double as a mini-lesson for pre-, during, or post-reading strategies </li></ul><ul><li>The Boy in the Striped Pajamas —Jon Boyne </li></ul><ul><li>Stuck in Neutral —Terry Trueman </li></ul>Jennifer McCarty Plucker, Ed. D
    47. 47. Word Games <ul><li>Great way to reward students </li></ul><ul><li>Scrabble, Buzz Word, Scattergories </li></ul><ul><li>Online: Text Twist, freerice.com </li></ul>Jennifer McCarty Plucker, Ed. D
    48. 48. <ul><li>“ Reading Proficiency is at the very heart of the democratic educational enterprise, and is rightly called the ‘new civil rights frontier.’” </li></ul><ul><li>From Why Do We Have a Knowledge Deficit by E.D. Hirsch, Jr. </li></ul>Jennifer McCarty Plucker, Ed. D
    49. 49. “ A capacity and taste for reading gives access to whatever has already been discovered by others.”  - Abraham Lincoln Materials and PowerPoint will be made available at: www.jmplucker.blogspot.com Jennifer McCarty Plucker, Ed. D
    50. 50. Book Trailer Example Jennifer McCarty Plucker, Ed. D
    51. 51. References <ul><li>Afflerbach, P. (2007). Understanding and using reading assessment K-12 . Newark: Delaware. International Reading Association. </li></ul><ul><li>Allington, R. (2006). What really matters for struggling readers: designing research-based programs . 2 nd ed. Boston, MA: Pearson Education, Inc. </li></ul><ul><li>Alverman, D.E. (2001). Effective literacy instruction for adolescents. National Reading Conference Literacy Research Review . White paper. Retrieved July 11, 2008 from http://www.nrconline.org/publications/alverwhite2.pdf   </li></ul><ul><li>Alvermann, D. E., & Eakle, A. J. (2007). Challenging literacy theories and practices from the outside. In J. Lewis & G. Moorman (Eds.), Adolescent literacy instruction: Policies and promising practices (pp. 64-81). Newark, DE: International Reading Association. </li></ul><ul><li>  Antsey, M. & Bull, G. (2006). Teaching and learning multiliteracies: changing times, changing literacies. Kengsington Gardens, SA, Australia: Australian Literacy Educators’ Association . </li></ul><ul><li>  Atwell, N. (2007). The reading zone: How to help kids become skilled, passionate, habitual, critical readers . New York: Scholastic, Inc. </li></ul>Jennifer McCarty Plucker, Ed. D
    52. 52. References continued. . . <ul><li>Beaver, J. & Carter, M. (2006). Developmental reading assessment 4-8. 2 nd ed. Celebration Press. Pearson Learning Group. Parsippany, NJ. </li></ul><ul><li>Beers, K. (2009, March). The genteel unteaching of America’s youth. An NCTE report. Urbana, IL: National Council of Teachers of English. Retrieved July 20, 2009 from www.ncte.org/library/NCTEFiles/Press/Beers.pdf </li></ul><ul><li>Chall, J.S. (1983) Stages of reading development . New York: McGraw-Hill.  </li></ul><ul><li>Chall, J. S. (1996) Learning to read : The great debate. Fort Worth, TX: Harcourt Brace. </li></ul>Jennifer McCarty Plucker, Ed. D
    53. 53. References cont. . . <ul><li>Ferraro, J., Klund, S., Hexum-Platzer, S., Houck, B. & Vortman-Smith, J. (2006) A model secondary (6-12) plan for reading intervention and development . Roseville, MN: Minnesota Department of Education and Quality Teaching Network: Reading (QTN: R). Retrieved from www.eric.ed.gov/ERICDocs/data/ericdocs2sql/content_storage_01/00000 19b/80/1b/e3/fa.pdf – </li></ul><ul><li>Gallagher, K. (2009). Readicide: How schools are killing reading and what you can do about it. Portland, ME: Stenhouse Publishers. </li></ul><ul><li>Guthrie, J. T. (2008). Engaging adolescents in reading. Thousand Oaks, CA: Corwin Press. </li></ul><ul><li>Guthrie, J.T, & Wigfield, A. (2000). Engagement and motivation in reading. In M.L. Kamil, P. Mosenthal, P.D. Pearson, & R. Barr (Eds.), Handbook of reading research. (Vol. 3. pp. 403-422). Mahwah, NJ: Erlbaum. </li></ul><ul><li>ISD 196 (n.d.) District 196 policy and procedures . Retrieved July 28, 2009 from http://www.district196.org/District/SchoolBoard/PRPs.cfm#100 </li></ul><ul><li>Stiggens, R.J., Arter, J.A., Chappuis, J., & Chappuis, S. (2006). Classroom assessment for student learning. Princeton, NJ: Educational Testing Services.   </li></ul><ul><li>Taylor, R. & Collins, V.D. (2003). Literacy leadership for grades 5-12. Alexandria, VA: ASCD Publications. </li></ul><ul><li>Vacca, R. (2006, February). They can because they think they can: Instruction that lifts struggling readers’ sense of self-efficacy prepares them to face even difficult texts. Educational Leadership. ASCD. . </li></ul>Jennifer McCarty Plucker, Ed. D
    54. 54. References cont. . . <ul><li>Harvey, S. & Goudvis, A. (2007) Strategies that work: Teaching comprehension to enhance understanding and engagement (2 nd ed). Portland, ME: Stenhouse Publishers.  </li></ul><ul><li>Kohn, A. (1999) Punished by rewards: The trouble with gold stars, incentive plans, A's, praise, and other bribes . 2 nd ed. New York: Houghton Mifflin Company. </li></ul><ul><li>O’Brien, D. (2008, August 13). Engaging struggling adolescent readers: Research on improving achievement while boosting perceptions of competence. PowerPoint lecture presented at the annual Minnesota Council of Reading Research conference. University of Minnesota campus. </li></ul><ul><li>O’Brien, D. G. (2006). “Struggling” adolescents’ engagement in multimediating: Countering the institutional construction of incompetence. In D. E. Alvermann, K. A. Hinchman, D. W. Moore, S. F. Phelps, & D. R. Waff (Eds.), Reconceptualizing the literacies in adolescents’ lives (pp. 29-45). Mahwah, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum. </li></ul><ul><li>New London Group (1996). A pedagogy of multiliteracies: designing social futures. Harvard Educational Review, 66, 60-92. Retrieved July 15, 2009 from http://wwwstatic.kern.org/filer/blogWrite44ManilaWebsite/paul/articles/A_Pedagogy_of_Multiliteracies_Designing_Social_Futures.htm </li></ul><ul><li>Vygotsky, L. (1978). Mind in society: The development of higher psychological processes ( M. Cole, V. John-Steiner, S. Scribner, E. Souberman, Eds.) Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press.  </li></ul><ul><li>Wilhelm, J. (1997). You gotta BE the book: Teaching engaged and reflective reading with adolescents . New York. Teachers College Press.  </li></ul><ul><li>Wilhelm, J. & Smith, M.W. (2006). Going with the flow: Engaging boys (and girls) in their literacy learning. Portsmouth, NH: Heinemann </li></ul>Jennifer McCarty Plucker, Ed. D

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