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From Frustration To Freedom


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A description of Eastview High School's reading intervention program presented to Minneapolis South literacy teachers on December 1st, 2009

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From Frustration To Freedom

  1. 1. FROM FRUSTRATION TO FREEDOM: INTERVENTION FOR STRIVING READERS Jen McCarty Plucker, Ed.D. Reading Specialist and Literacy Coordinator Eastview High School Jennifer McCarty Plucker, Ed. D
  2. 2. Let’s start with YOU <ul><li>Tell us: </li></ul><ul><li>Your name </li></ul><ul><li>Your Role (especially as it relates to literacy) </li></ul><ul><li>Why you are here or what you hope to get from this presentation </li></ul>Jennifer McCarty Plucker, Ed. D
  3. 3. Today’s Objectives <ul><li>To describe Eastview High School’s Systematic Intervention for Striving Readers </li></ul><ul><ul><li>~Definition of a Striving Reader </li></ul></ul><ul><li>~Ours and our students’ experiences </li></ul><ul><li>Typical Day in AL9 </li></ul><ul><li>To illuminate our process for designing and implementing the courses </li></ul><ul><li>To encourage you to be teacher leaders in your building to intervene on the behalf of these readers. </li></ul>Jennifer McCarty Plucker, Ed. D
  4. 4. A child’s excitement for reading (literacy) is not necessarily the secondary educator’s reality. The focus on early literacy has resulted in the needs of older readers being largely unmet (Vacca; 1998; Vacca & Alvermann, 1998) Jennifer McCarty Plucker, Ed. D
  5. 5. Jennifer McCarty Plucker, Ed. D
  6. 6. <ul><li>“ Identify, prioritize, and target individual students and groups of students for literacy outreach” (p.20). </li></ul><ul><li>Taylor and Collins (2003), p. 20 </li></ul>Jennifer McCarty Plucker, Ed. D
  7. 7. Background Jennifer McCarty Plucker, Ed. D Creation of Striving Reader cohort English/Speech 10 9-12 Reading Intervention Program 9 th Grade Academic Literacy 9 (FOCUS of THIS STUDY) 10 th Grade SR Cohort 11 th Grade Literature Cohort 10 th -12 th Grade Reading Lab 2006-07—Examination of EV Readers Class of 2010
  8. 8. Definition of a Striving Reader <ul><li>A secondary striving reader in ISD196 is a student who scores at or below the 40 th percentile nationally in reading on at least two, preferably three, standardized test(s) (ISD 196, 2006). </li></ul><ul><li>Minnesota Department of Education: A Model Secondary (6-12) Plan for Reading Intervention and Development. January, 2006 </li></ul>Jennifer McCarty Plucker, Ed. D
  9. 9. Intervention at EVHS <ul><li>9 th Grade: </li></ul><ul><li>Academic Literacy 9 (4 quarter) </li></ul><ul><li>10 th Grade: </li></ul><ul><li>Reading Lab (1 quarter) </li></ul><ul><li>Striving Reader Cohort (10 th grade English and US History team) </li></ul><ul><li>11 th Grade: </li></ul><ul><li>Reading Lab (1 quarter) </li></ul><ul><li>Striving Reader Cohort (Literature of the Americas—college bound course) </li></ul><ul><li>12 th Grade: </li></ul><ul><li>Reading Lab (1 quarter) </li></ul><ul><li>Customized elective selection </li></ul>Jennifer McCarty Plucker, Ed. D
  10. 10. The process <ul><li>Participated in district committees </li></ul><ul><li>Created a vision </li></ul><ul><li>Worked collaboratively (fun) </li></ul><ul><li>Applied for grants </li></ul><ul><li>Donated our own time (and money) </li></ul><ul><li>Accepted the “spotlight” from administration and staff </li></ul><ul><li>Continued to collaborate, reflect, revise, advocate, and celebrate </li></ul>Jennifer McCarty Plucker, Ed. D
  11. 11. Participants <ul><li>All are Eastview High School 9 th graders </li></ul><ul><li>Treatment Group ( n=28): </li></ul><ul><li>Academic Literacy 9 students </li></ul><ul><li>4 sections with approximately 7 students in each. </li></ul><ul><li>(necessary to exclude students who started program mid year, or moved out of program mid year) </li></ul><ul><li>Control Group ( n=21): students identified as striving readers—not enrolled in treatment program. </li></ul><ul><li>Sample from General Population of 9 th grade ( n=257): Students in regular 9 th grade classes, excluding treatment and control group students and honors students. </li></ul>Jennifer McCarty Plucker, Ed. D
  12. 12. Demographics: Treatment Group (AL9) <ul><li>______________________________________________________________________________________ </li></ul><ul><li>  </li></ul><ul><li>Special Limited </li></ul><ul><li>Ethnicity Gender Education English Identification Proficiency </li></ul><ul><li>______________________________________________________________________________________ </li></ul><ul><li>  </li></ul><ul><li>n=28 </li></ul><ul><li>  </li></ul><ul><li>American Indian 0.0% Male 54% 28.5% 3.5% </li></ul><ul><li>Asian/Pacific Islander 3.5% </li></ul><ul><li>Hispanic 14.2% Female 46% </li></ul><ul><li>African American 10.9% </li></ul><ul><li>Caucasian 71.4% </li></ul><ul><li>_______________________________________________________________________________________ </li></ul><ul><li>  </li></ul>Jennifer McCarty Plucker, Ed. D
  13. 13. Demographics: Control Group (Con) <ul><li>____________________________________________________________________________ </li></ul><ul><li>  </li></ul><ul><li>Special Limited </li></ul><ul><li>Ethnicity Gender Education English </li></ul><ul><li>Identification Proficiency </li></ul><ul><li>_____________________________________________________________________________ </li></ul><ul><li>  </li></ul><ul><li>N=21 </li></ul><ul><li>  </li></ul><ul><li>American Indian 0.0% Male 52% 62% 4.0% </li></ul><ul><li>Asian/Pacific Islander 9.5% </li></ul><ul><li>Hispanic 5.0% Female 48% </li></ul><ul><li>African American 9.5% </li></ul><ul><li>Caucasian 76.0% </li></ul><ul><li>______________________________________________________________________________ </li></ul>Jennifer McCarty Plucker, Ed. D
  14. 14. Demographics: Sample of General Population (Gen9) <ul><li>____________________________________________________________________________________ </li></ul><ul><li>  </li></ul><ul><li>Special Limited </li></ul><ul><li>Ethnicity Gender Education English </li></ul><ul><li>Identification Proficiency </li></ul><ul><li>____________________________________________________________________________________ </li></ul><ul><li>  </li></ul><ul><li>N=257 </li></ul><ul><li>  </li></ul><ul><li>American Indian 0.3% Male 51% 7.3% 0.7% </li></ul><ul><li>Asian/Pacific Islander 4.2% </li></ul><ul><li>Hispanic 5.1% Female 49% </li></ul><ul><li>African American 2.4% </li></ul><ul><li>Caucasian 88.0% </li></ul><ul><li>___________________________________________________________________________________ </li></ul>Jennifer McCarty Plucker, Ed. D
  15. 15. Academic Literacy 9: Treatment Program <ul><li>Based on A Model Secondary (6-12) Plan for Reading Intervention and Development (MN Dept. of Ed, 2006). </li></ul><ul><li>Belief Statements and Curriculum Frameworks Developed by ISD 196 team of Reading Specialists. </li></ul><ul><li>Vision of Reading Teachers at EVHS (video) </li></ul>Jennifer McCarty Plucker, Ed. D
  16. 16. Academic Literacy: Student Perspective Jennifer McCarty Plucker, Ed. D
  17. 17. R.E.SC.U.E. our Readers! <ul><li>R is for Relate </li></ul><ul><li>E is for Expect </li></ul><ul><li>SC is for Scaffold </li></ul><ul><li>U is for Uplift </li></ul><ul><li>E is for Engage </li></ul>Jennifer McCarty Plucker, Ed. D
  18. 18. Systematic Strategic Reading Intervention: The Treatment (Academic Literacy 9) <ul><li>Theoretical Framework: </li></ul><ul><li>Comprehension Strategy Theory (Chall, 1983, 1996; Harvey & Goudvis, 2000, 2007). </li></ul><ul><li>“ Zone of Proximal Development”; Just Right Challenge and Gradual Release of Responsibility (Vygotsky, 1978). </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Formative Assessment Research (Afflerbach, 2007; Stiggens, Arter, Chappuis & Chappuis, 2006). </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Engagement/Self-efficacy Theories (Dweck, 2007; Guthrie & Wigfield, 2000; Guthrie, 2008; Kohn, 1999; O’Brien, 2008; Vacca, 2006; and Wilhelm, 1997). </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Multi-Literacy and Digital Literacy Research (Alvermann, 2001; Alverman & Eakle, 2007; Antsey & Bull, 2006; New London Group, 1996; O’Brien, 2006). </li></ul></ul>Jennifer McCarty Plucker, Ed. D
  19. 19. Comfortable Reading Spaces with Teen Appeal (Atwell, 2007) Jennifer McCarty Plucker, Ed. D
  20. 20. Book Flood (Gallagher, 2009) Jennifer McCarty Plucker, Ed. D
  21. 21. Time to Read and Write (Allington, 2006) Jennifer McCarty Plucker, Ed. D
  22. 22. Students Engaged with Technology (Alvermann, 2001; O’Brien, 2006) Podcasting, glogster, Moodle, animoto, wikis, poll everywhere, movie maker, digital photography, i-tunes, flip video cameras, the Internet. . . Jennifer McCarty Plucker, Ed. D
  23. 23. Formative Assessment (Afflerbach, 2007; Stiggens, Arter, Chappuis & Chappuis, 2006). Jennifer McCarty Plucker, Ed. D
  24. 24. Instrumentation <ul><li>Measures of Academic Progress test from Northwest Evaluation Association (NWEA, 2003) </li></ul><ul><li>Pretest—Spring of 2008; Posttest—Spring of 2009 </li></ul><ul><li>Computerized Adaptive Reading Assessment </li></ul><ul><li>Untimed, approximately 50 minute test </li></ul><ul><li>Customized based on pre-test MAP score </li></ul><ul><li>Gives RIT score (typically ranging between 180—250 for 9 th grader) </li></ul>Jennifer McCarty Plucker, Ed. D
  25. 25. Research Question #1 <ul><li>To what extent have students in Academic Literacy 9 improved their reading scores as measured by the MAP test in comparison to the control group and a sample of the ninth grade general population? </li></ul>Jennifer McCarty Plucker, Ed. D
  26. 26. Quasi-Experimental Design <ul><li>MAP RIT Score, National Percentile Rank, and Growth (Posttest minus the Pretest score) </li></ul><ul><li>Variance of Analysis (ANOVA) to determine if statistically significant difference in means (averages) exist between groups. </li></ul><ul><li>Post hoc analysis (Scheffe) to determine which means are significantly different from which other means </li></ul>AL9 (n=28)— treatment group Con (n=21)— control group Gen9 (n=257)— sample from general population Jennifer McCarty Plucker, Ed. D
  27. 27. Mean Comparisons: MAP RIT <ul><li>ANOVA: Statistically significant mean difference detected at the .01 level </li></ul><ul><li>Scheffe: Mean difference is significant at the .01 level for the following pairs: </li></ul><ul><li>AL9 and Gen9 </li></ul><ul><li>Con and Gen 9 </li></ul><ul><li>No statistical significance for: </li></ul><ul><li>AL9 and Con </li></ul>Jennifer McCarty Plucker, Ed. D
  28. 28. Mean Comparisons: National Percentile Ranks <ul><li>ANOVA: Statistically significant mean difference detected at the .01 level </li></ul><ul><li>Scheffe: Mean difference is significant at the .01 level for the following pairs: </li></ul><ul><li>AL9 and Gen9 </li></ul><ul><li>Con and Gen 9 </li></ul><ul><li>No statistical significance for: </li></ul><ul><li>AL9 and Con </li></ul>Jennifer McCarty Plucker, Ed. D
  29. 29. Mean Comparisons <ul><li>ANOVA: Statistically significant mean difference detected at the .01 level </li></ul><ul><li>Scheffe: Mean difference is significant at the .01 level for the following pairs: </li></ul><ul><li>AL9 and Gen9 </li></ul><ul><li>AL9 and Control </li></ul><ul><li>No statistical significance for: </li></ul><ul><li>Gen9 and Control </li></ul>Jennifer McCarty Plucker, Ed. D
  30. 30. Instrumentation <ul><li>Developmental Reading Assessment (DRA2) </li></ul><ul><li>(Beaver & Carter, 2006). </li></ul><ul><li>One-on-One Reading Assessment </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Engagement (series of questions about reading experiences, reading goals, and plans for obtaining goals </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Fluency (oral reading assessment) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Comprehension (during, and post reading activities). </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Scored with a standardized rubric </li></ul><ul><li>Pearson Trains Reading Specialists to Use the Assessment. </li></ul><ul><li>Pretest—September, 2008 </li></ul><ul><li>Posttest—April, 2009 </li></ul>Jennifer McCarty Plucker, Ed. D
  31. 31. DRA2 Comparison of Means t tests reveal statistically significant mean gains for all areas at the .01 level Jennifer McCarty Plucker, Ed. D
  32. 32. Frequency Bar Plot for DRA2 Growth (AL9) Jennifer McCarty Plucker, Ed. D
  33. 33. Conclusions <ul><li>Adolescent Striving Readers need a Double Dose of Literacy Instruction </li></ul><ul><li>One Year of Strategic Intervention is not Enough for Most Striving Readers </li></ul>Jennifer McCarty Plucker, Ed. D
  34. 34. Academic Literacy 9 <ul><li>An Individualized Intense and Strategic intervention class for students reading 2+ levels below grade. </li></ul><ul><li>A double dose of literacy instruction (in addition to core classes). </li></ul><ul><li>A year long class with its’ own curriculum taught by licensed reading teachers. </li></ul><ul><li>An opportunity for students to practice (daily) reading and writing at their instructional level (zone of proximal development). </li></ul><ul><li>An opportunity for students to receive background knowledge for core subjects through guided reading lessons. </li></ul>Jennifer McCarty Plucker, Ed. D
  35. 35. Academic Literacy 9: day at a glance <ul><li>Independent reading—the reading zone </li></ul><ul><li>Status of the class (running records) </li></ul><ul><li>Goal setting and resetting </li></ul><ul><li>Book Browse/Book Sharing </li></ul><ul><li>Reader’s Response Journals </li></ul><ul><li>Mini-lessons—large or small group </li></ul><ul><li>Digital Literacy (Moodle) </li></ul><ul><li>Whole class read aloud </li></ul><ul><li>Word games </li></ul><ul><li>*A typical day includes 2-3 of the preceding activities </li></ul>Jennifer McCarty Plucker, Ed. D
  36. 36. Priority #1: Independent Reading <ul><li>Pair students with books of their choice </li></ul><ul><li>book browse </li></ul><ul><li>teacher suggestions based on interest inventory </li></ul><ul><li>Book Trailers (created by past students—example at the end if time) </li></ul>Jennifer McCarty Plucker, Ed. D
  37. 37. Grab their attention with high interest reads Jennifer McCarty Plucker, Ed. D
  38. 38. So they have a book… how do we know they are reading? <ul><li>Status of the Class </li></ul><ul><li>Running records of student progress </li></ul><ul><li>Tracks book titles and pace of reader </li></ul><ul><li>Also can include student engagement and ability to establish reading zone </li></ul><ul><li>Can be a collaboration between student self-evaluation and teacher observation </li></ul>Jennifer McCarty Plucker, Ed. D
  39. 39. Jennifer McCarty Plucker, Ed. D
  40. 40. Reader’s Response Journals <ul><li>Ask students to show their thinking </li></ul><ul><li>Push them beyond summary </li></ul><ul><li>Establish a format for entries </li></ul><ul><li>Supply students with notebooks ($1) </li></ul><ul><li>Can also respond on Moodle </li></ul><ul><li>Entries not expected every day </li></ul><ul><li>Average # of entries: 2-3 per week </li></ul><ul><li>Goal = to make thinking processes more automatic eliminating the need for RRJs </li></ul>Jennifer McCarty Plucker, Ed. D
  41. 41. <ul><li>“ I hate reading, but this book is making me wanna keep reading it. I wish I would have found some books like this one before because then I think I would probably [have] read a little bit more when I was younger.” </li></ul><ul><li>~Jon, September, 2008 </li></ul>Sample Prompts This reminds me of… I wonder why… I need to reread the part where… A golden line for me is… A conclusion I’m drawing is… The most important message is… Jennifer McCarty Plucker, Ed. D
  42. 42. Reading is thinking Jennifer McCarty Plucker, Ed. D
  43. 43. Break Down the Barriers!! <ul><li>Do you know these students? </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Tardy Tracy—isn’t there a clock on your cell phone? </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Absent Abigail—MIA… a lot. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Bobby Belligerent—the answer is always “NO!” </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Jack Jokester—lots of jokes; often inappropriate </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Sleepy, Dopey, Droopey… wait, are those dwarves? </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Sneezy Sally—frequent visits to Nurse Peggy </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Charlie Charmer—everybody’s buddy </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Forgetful Fay—no pencil, no notebook, no problem </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Billy Bladder—suspiciously well-hydrated </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Celine Cell—so many texts, so little time </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Messy Melissa—something could be living in that backpack </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>I-could-care-less Chris—surprisingly indifferent about everything </li></ul></ul>Jennifer McCarty Plucker, Ed. D
  44. 44. Strategic Instruction (customized and individualized) <ul><li>Mini Lessons—large or small group </li></ul><ul><li>Large group (7-13 students) </li></ul><ul><li>Small group (2-4 students) </li></ul><ul><li>Lesson objectives based on students’ needs </li></ul><ul><li>10-15 minutes maximum </li></ul>Jennifer McCarty Plucker, Ed. D
  45. 45. Sample mini-lessons <ul><li>Reading with a question in mind </li></ul><ul><li>Self monitoring: clicks and clunks </li></ul><ul><li>RRJ Zoom </li></ul><ul><li>Thick and thin questions </li></ul><ul><li>Coding the text </li></ul><ul><li>Reading with expression </li></ul><ul><li>Suffixes and prefixes: Making Words </li></ul>Jennifer McCarty Plucker, Ed. D
  46. 46. Read Alouds <ul><li>A shared text experience </li></ul><ul><li>5-10 minutes per day </li></ul><ul><li>Fluency example </li></ul><ul><li>Can double as a mini-lesson for pre-, during, or post-reading strategies </li></ul><ul><li>The Boy in the Striped Pajamas —Jon Boyne </li></ul><ul><li>Stuck in Neutral —Terry Trueman </li></ul>Jennifer McCarty Plucker, Ed. D
  47. 47. Word Games <ul><li>Great way to reward students </li></ul><ul><li>Scrabble, Buzz Word, Scattergories </li></ul><ul><li>Online: Text Twist, </li></ul>Jennifer McCarty Plucker, Ed. D
  48. 48. <ul><li>“ Reading Proficiency is at the very heart of the democratic educational enterprise, and is rightly called the ‘new civil rights frontier.’” </li></ul><ul><li>From Why Do We Have a Knowledge Deficit by E.D. Hirsch, Jr. </li></ul>Jennifer McCarty Plucker, Ed. D
  49. 49. “ A capacity and taste for reading gives access to whatever has already been discovered by others.”  - Abraham Lincoln Materials and PowerPoint will be made available at: Jennifer McCarty Plucker, Ed. D
  50. 50. Book Trailer Example Jennifer McCarty Plucker, Ed. D
  51. 51. References <ul><li>Afflerbach, P. (2007). Understanding and using reading assessment K-12 . Newark: Delaware. International Reading Association. </li></ul><ul><li>Allington, R. (2006). What really matters for struggling readers: designing research-based programs . 2 nd ed. Boston, MA: Pearson Education, Inc. </li></ul><ul><li>Alverman, D.E. (2001). Effective literacy instruction for adolescents. National Reading Conference Literacy Research Review . White paper. Retrieved July 11, 2008 from   </li></ul><ul><li>Alvermann, D. E., & Eakle, A. J. (2007). Challenging literacy theories and practices from the outside. In J. Lewis & G. Moorman (Eds.), Adolescent literacy instruction: Policies and promising practices (pp. 64-81). Newark, DE: International Reading Association. </li></ul><ul><li>  Antsey, M. & Bull, G. (2006). Teaching and learning multiliteracies: changing times, changing literacies. Kengsington Gardens, SA, Australia: Australian Literacy Educators’ Association . </li></ul><ul><li>  Atwell, N. (2007). The reading zone: How to help kids become skilled, passionate, habitual, critical readers . New York: Scholastic, Inc. </li></ul>Jennifer McCarty Plucker, Ed. D
  52. 52. References continued. . . <ul><li>Beaver, J. & Carter, M. (2006). Developmental reading assessment 4-8. 2 nd ed. Celebration Press. Pearson Learning Group. Parsippany, NJ. </li></ul><ul><li>Beers, K. (2009, March). The genteel unteaching of America’s youth. An NCTE report. Urbana, IL: National Council of Teachers of English. Retrieved July 20, 2009 from </li></ul><ul><li>Chall, J.S. (1983) Stages of reading development . New York: McGraw-Hill.  </li></ul><ul><li>Chall, J. S. (1996) Learning to read : The great debate. Fort Worth, TX: Harcourt Brace. </li></ul>Jennifer McCarty Plucker, Ed. D
  53. 53. References cont. . . <ul><li>Ferraro, J., Klund, S., Hexum-Platzer, S., Houck, B. & Vortman-Smith, J. (2006) A model secondary (6-12) plan for reading intervention and development . Roseville, MN: Minnesota Department of Education and Quality Teaching Network: Reading (QTN: R). Retrieved from 19b/80/1b/e3/fa.pdf – </li></ul><ul><li>Gallagher, K. (2009). Readicide: How schools are killing reading and what you can do about it. Portland, ME: Stenhouse Publishers. </li></ul><ul><li>Guthrie, J. T. (2008). Engaging adolescents in reading. Thousand Oaks, CA: Corwin Press. </li></ul><ul><li>Guthrie, J.T, & Wigfield, A. (2000). Engagement and motivation in reading. In M.L. Kamil, P. Mosenthal, P.D. Pearson, & R. Barr (Eds.), Handbook of reading research. (Vol. 3. pp. 403-422). Mahwah, NJ: Erlbaum. </li></ul><ul><li>ISD 196 (n.d.) District 196 policy and procedures . Retrieved July 28, 2009 from </li></ul><ul><li>Stiggens, R.J., Arter, J.A., Chappuis, J., & Chappuis, S. (2006). Classroom assessment for student learning. Princeton, NJ: Educational Testing Services.   </li></ul><ul><li>Taylor, R. & Collins, V.D. (2003). Literacy leadership for grades 5-12. Alexandria, VA: ASCD Publications. </li></ul><ul><li>Vacca, R. (2006, February). They can because they think they can: Instruction that lifts struggling readers’ sense of self-efficacy prepares them to face even difficult texts. Educational Leadership. ASCD. . </li></ul>Jennifer McCarty Plucker, Ed. D
  54. 54. References cont. . . <ul><li>Harvey, S. & Goudvis, A. (2007) Strategies that work: Teaching comprehension to enhance understanding and engagement (2 nd ed). Portland, ME: Stenhouse Publishers.  </li></ul><ul><li>Kohn, A. (1999) Punished by rewards: The trouble with gold stars, incentive plans, A's, praise, and other bribes . 2 nd ed. New York: Houghton Mifflin Company. </li></ul><ul><li>O’Brien, D. (2008, August 13). Engaging struggling adolescent readers: Research on improving achievement while boosting perceptions of competence. PowerPoint lecture presented at the annual Minnesota Council of Reading Research conference. University of Minnesota campus. </li></ul><ul><li>O’Brien, D. G. (2006). “Struggling” adolescents’ engagement in multimediating: Countering the institutional construction of incompetence. In D. E. Alvermann, K. A. Hinchman, D. W. Moore, S. F. Phelps, & D. R. Waff (Eds.), Reconceptualizing the literacies in adolescents’ lives (pp. 29-45). Mahwah, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum. </li></ul><ul><li>New London Group (1996). A pedagogy of multiliteracies: designing social futures. Harvard Educational Review, 66, 60-92. Retrieved July 15, 2009 from </li></ul><ul><li>Vygotsky, L. (1978). Mind in society: The development of higher psychological processes ( M. Cole, V. John-Steiner, S. Scribner, E. Souberman, Eds.) Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press.  </li></ul><ul><li>Wilhelm, J. (1997). You gotta BE the book: Teaching engaged and reflective reading with adolescents . New York. Teachers College Press.  </li></ul><ul><li>Wilhelm, J. & Smith, M.W. (2006). Going with the flow: Engaging boys (and girls) in their literacy learning. Portsmouth, NH: Heinemann </li></ul>Jennifer McCarty Plucker, Ed. D