1
Introduction
• There is a strong possibility you will be
called to respond to a flammable gas or
liquids emergency during ...
Course Objectives
• Provide the student with information on the
characteristics and hazards of Flammable Liquids
and Gases...
NFPA 1001 Standards Addressed
4
4-3.3(a) Prerequisite Knowledge
Characteristics of pressurized flammable gases, elements
o...
NFPA 1001 Standards Addressed
5
4-3.3(b) Prerequisite Skills
The ability to execute effective advances and retreats, apply...
Oregon OSHA Requires Full PPE
for this training
• Boots
• Pants
• Coat
• Hood
• Helmet
• Gloves
• SCBA
6
Safety Notice
7
All students participating in the FLAG program are
required to meet the OROSHA Respiratory Standards,
Div....
Unit Objectives
1. The student will identify the properties and
characteristics of flammable and combustible
liquids.
2. T...
Characteristics of
Flammable Liquids
8
Video
Characteristics of
Flammable Liquids
FLAMMABLE LIQUIDS
Liquids having a flash point less than 100°F (38°C)
9
• Gasoline
• ...
Characteristics of
Flammable Liquids
10
COMBUSTIBLE LIQUIDS
Liquids having a flash point above 100°F (38°C)
Fuel Oils
• Di...
Characteristics of
Flammable Liquids
11
Hydrocarbons
(Petroleum Products)
Will Not Mix With Water
Kerosene Gasoline Diesel
Characteristics of
Flammable Liquids
12
Polar Solvent
Will Mix With Water
Alcohols Ketones Lacquers
Acetone Ethanol
Characteristics of
Flammable Liquids
13
Ethanol
Polar Solvent
Will Mix With Water
Baltimore MD. May 2007 EERC
Note:
Lack o...
Pacific Ethanol Boardman, OR
15
RR Loading Dock
Plant Site
Barge Loading Dock
14
Ethanol Fuels
• Distillation of corn - 200 Proof Alcohol
– Denatured with Gasoline for shipment.
• Further blended at the ...
Ethanol Fuel
17
Guide Page 127
Polar/Water-Miscible
Evacuation Distances
• Initial Large Spill
1000’ Downwind
(300 Meters)...
Ethanol Fuels
Key Points
• You are more likely to encounter a spill
• When ethanol Burns the flame is invisible
• Consider...
DOT Hazard Class 3
19
Gasoline
1203
Diesel
1993
Hydrocarbons
20
Flammable Range
7.6%
1.4%
Too Lean
Too Rich
LEL
UEL
100%
Gasoline
Flammable Range
Too Lean
Too Rich
5%
.7%...
Ethanol
21
Flammable Range
19%
3.3%
Too Lean
Too Rich
LEL
UEL
100%
0%
Polar Solvent
Hazards of Flammable Liquids
22
• Potential for BLEVE
• PPE - Wicking effect on contact with product
• Vapors generally he...
Steel Tank Support Assembly
23
Flammable & Combustible Liquids
• Always contact pipeline company or
distribution plant manager prior to
shutting off any ...
Unit Objectives
1. The student will identify the characteristics of
flammable gases.
2. The student will understand the ch...
Characteristics of
Flammable Gases
26
Characteristics of
Flammable Gases
27
Flammable Gases Do Not have a Flash Point
they are ready to burn without any outside...
28
Characteristics of
Flammable Gases
Shipped as a liquid, under pressure at normal temperatures:
Propane Butane Propylene...
Compressed Natural Gas
29
Type III DOT
3600 psi
Liquefied Natural Gas
30
Liquefied Petroleum Gas
• Common Synonyms
– Dimethyl methane (technical name)
• Propane
• LPG - the most common
31
Liquefied Gases
• Propane (Odorless)
– C3H8
– Ethyl Mercaptan
• Anhydrous Ammonia
– NH3
• Chorine
– CL
32
Liquefied Petroleum Gas
• UN / DOT designation
• Liquid: 1075
• Vapor: 1978
• Hazard Class: 2
33
Liquefied Petroleum Gas
NFPA 704 Classification
Special Consideration
34
Liquefied Petroleum Gas
NFPA 704 Classification
0 - None
1 - Low
2 - Medium
3 - High
4 - Extreme
35
1
4
0
Propane
Liquefied Petroleum Gas
• Physical and Chemical Properties:
– Boiling Point: - 43.3°F (vaporizes @)
– Specific Gravity: .5...
Liquefied Petroleum Gas
37
– Will not react with or pollute water
– 36.83 Cu Ft. Vapor per Gallon @ 65°F
– 8.66 Cu Ft. Vap...
Hazards of Flammable Gases
Flame:
• Burns YELLOW - ORANGE or BLUE
• Can be invisible behind water fog screen
• Extremely h...
39
Always
Reference
Guide Page 115
Evacuation Distances
• Initial Large Spill
½ Mile Downwind
(800 Meters)
• Fire Involvin...
Flammable Limits Propane
40
Flammable Range
9.6%
2.15%
Too Lean
Too Rich
LEL
UEL
Most
Violent
@ 2.5%
1 Part
Gas to
40 Part...
Liquefied Petroleum Gas
• Shipping
– Grade of Purity: 97%
– Storage Temperature: Ambient
• Outdoor Temperature
– Venting: ...
Hazards of Flammable Gases
• When involved in fire:
– Containers may explode (BLEVE)
– Flashback along vapor trail may occ...
Vehicle Fuels 2012 (Liquids & Gasses)
43
Property Gasoline Ethanol Propane Natural Gas Hydrogen
Flammable
Range
1.4 - 7.6%...
Unit Objectives
• The student will identify the basic methods of Fire
control for Class “B” Fires
• The student will under...
Class B Fires; Control with Water
45
Safety Point
Hydrocarbons; Gasoline, kerosene, and diesel
are not water soluble .
Pol...
Water to Control Class “B” Fires
46
• As a Cooling Agent
• As a Mechanical Tool
• As a Protective Cover
47
Application in droplet form
in sufficient quantities to
absorb the heat produced.
•Applied to a container or steel
supp...
48
To move class B fuels to safe areas; to be
burned or to limit ignition sources
Use water fog patterns for radiant heat
...
49
50
As a protective cover from
Radiant Heat and Flames for
teams advancing to shut off
valves
51
Apex point of Fog Patterns
Unit Objectives
• The student will identify the tactics to use on a
flammable gas leak and on flammable gas fires
• The st...
Tactical Considerations
for Flammable Gases
• Always wear full personal protective equipment (PPE)
• Form a plan of operat...
• Check surrounding areas and remove all
ignition sources
• Establish Attack Lines
• (2) 1 ½” hose lines @ 95gpm
• Five pe...
Tactics
• (1) 1 ½” hose line @ 95gpm
• Three personnel
– 1 Officer
– 2 Firefighters
55
A Safety Line Is Mandatory
Tactics
• Assign a Safety Officer (CFR 1910.120)
• Always Approach with Caution
• Monitor Changing Tank Conditions
• Liste...
Tactics
57
 Isolate area after shut-off - until gas
disperses
– Continue to use fog streams!
 If gas cannot be shut-off
...
Ignition Sources
• Remove ignition sources starting downwind
58
Tactics
59
– DO NOT SHUT OFF VALVES
– Contact pipeline company
– Contact plant manager or facility engineer
– Never exting...
Safety Points for Fire Attack
– If fire is impinging on vessel for 5+ minutes and relief
valve is venting - evacuate (aban...
Safety Points for Fire Attack
• Limit exposure of personnel
(use unmanned master streams)
• Always approach the tank from ...
62
Approach
Zone
Approach
Zone
DANGER
ZONEDANGER
ZONE
DANGER
ZONE
Blast Zone
Procedures For Leak On Pipeline
• In addition to previous instructions, add the
following dynamics:
– If valve is leaking,...
Leak Involving Pipe Or Vessel
• Do not walk in liquid!
• If crew is exposed to liquid, flush with copious
amounts of water...
Unit Objectives
1. The student will describe a BLEVE and how it
occurs.
2. The student shall describe the indicators
leadi...
BLEVE
66
.
Boiling Liquid Expanding Vapor
Explosion
The explosive release of internal vessel pressure,
pieces of the tank,...
Indicators for Potential BLEVE
67
• Increased noise from a discharging relief valve
• Increased in size of fire plume at r...
BLEVE SITUATIONS
• Methods of coping with potential BLEVE
• Large amounts of water at point of flame
impingement
• Tank si...
BLEVE SITUATIONS
• Methods of coping with potential BLEVE:
– Tank size less than 1,000 gallons:
(500 gpm for 3 minutes)
– ...
70
71
72
• Flammable Liquids have a Flash Point ?
Below 100° F (38° C)
• What is the most common flammable liquid ?
Gasoline
• M...
73
• What is the expansion ration for LPG ?
270:1
• Name the 3 methods of water application for Class “B”
fires ?
Protecti...
74
• What is the minimum evacuations distance when
you suspect a potential BLEVE ?
1 Mile in all directions
• What is ERG ...
75
76
77
Flammable Liquids Spill Prop
78
79
80
81
82
83
84
85
86
87
88
•Team Leader Calls the shots
• Continual Communication
Everyone needs to know
Keys to Success
89
• Isolate Shut Off Valve From Fire
• Have a Plan & Work Together
• Keep Fog Application Steady!
• Never Allow the Fog P...
90
91
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Flag pp 2012

  1. 1. 1
  2. 2. Introduction • There is a strong possibility you will be called to respond to a flammable gas or liquids emergency during your career as an emergency responder. This course will prepare and assist you to respond to and act in a SAFE manner should an incident of this type of occur. 2
  3. 3. Course Objectives • Provide the student with information on the characteristics and hazards of Flammable Liquids and Gases • Provide the student with methods and procedures on handling Flammable Liquids and Gases • Provide the student with an opportunity to use control methods on Flammable Liquids and Gases 3
  4. 4. NFPA 1001 Standards Addressed 4 4-3.3(a) Prerequisite Knowledge Characteristics of pressurized flammable gases, elements of a gas cylinder, effects of heat and pressure on closed cylinders, boiling liquid expanding vapor explosion (BLEVE) signs and effects, methods for identifying contents, how to identify safe havens before approaching flammable gas cylinder fires, water stream, usage and demands for pressurized cylinder fires, what to do if the fire is prematurely extinguished, valve types and their operation. Alternative actions related to various hazards and when to retreat.
  5. 5. NFPA 1001 Standards Addressed 5 4-3.3(b) Prerequisite Skills The ability to execute effective advances and retreats, apply various techniques for water application, assess cylinder integrity and changing cylinder conditions, operate control valves, choose effective procedures when conditions change. A4-3.3 Controlling flammable gas cylinder fires can be a very dangerous operation. The Fire fighter II should act as a team member, under the direct supervision of an officer, during these operations.
  6. 6. Oregon OSHA Requires Full PPE for this training • Boots • Pants • Coat • Hood • Helmet • Gloves • SCBA 6
  7. 7. Safety Notice 7 All students participating in the FLAG program are required to meet the OROSHA Respiratory Standards, Div. 2L 1910.134. The standard requires all personnel who wear SCBA to have been fit tested and meet the medical evaluation requirements for respirator use. If you have visible facial hair between your skin and the seal area of the face piece we ask you to not participate in the hands-on training. You are most welcome to participate in the classroom session Only.
  8. 8. Unit Objectives 1. The student will identify the properties and characteristics of flammable and combustible liquids. 2. The student will understand the characteristics of Flammable and Combustible Liquids when released from their containers. 3. The student will understand the safety issues associated to working with flammable and combustible liquids during emergency operations. 8
  9. 9. Characteristics of Flammable Liquids 8 Video
  10. 10. Characteristics of Flammable Liquids FLAMMABLE LIQUIDS Liquids having a flash point less than 100°F (38°C) 9 • Gasoline • Ethanol • Acetone
  11. 11. Characteristics of Flammable Liquids 10 COMBUSTIBLE LIQUIDS Liquids having a flash point above 100°F (38°C) Fuel Oils • Diesel • Kerosene • Vegetable Oil
  12. 12. Characteristics of Flammable Liquids 11 Hydrocarbons (Petroleum Products) Will Not Mix With Water Kerosene Gasoline Diesel
  13. 13. Characteristics of Flammable Liquids 12 Polar Solvent Will Mix With Water Alcohols Ketones Lacquers Acetone Ethanol
  14. 14. Characteristics of Flammable Liquids 13 Ethanol Polar Solvent Will Mix With Water Baltimore MD. May 2007 EERC Note: Lack of black smoke
  15. 15. Pacific Ethanol Boardman, OR 15 RR Loading Dock Plant Site Barge Loading Dock 14
  16. 16. Ethanol Fuels • Distillation of corn - 200 Proof Alcohol – Denatured with Gasoline for shipment. • Further blended at the distribution terminal site. 16 Ethanol-blended fuels may include blends of gasoline and ethanol in any ratio, today there are three common ethanol-blended fuels. E-98/E-95 • denatured with 2–5 % unleaded gasoline - fuel-grade ethanol or denatured ethanol • number one freight rail commodity in the U.S. • Placard 1987 E-10 • 90 percent gasoline/10 percent ethanol blend • May be labeled as RFG or oxygenated gasoline • Placard 1203 E-85 • 85 percent fuel ethanol and 15 percent gasoline • Flexible-Fuel Vehicles (FFV) only • Placard 3475
  17. 17. Ethanol Fuel 17 Guide Page 127 Polar/Water-Miscible Evacuation Distances • Initial Large Spill 1000’ Downwind (300 Meters) • Fire Involving Rail car or truck ½ Mile All Directions (800 Meters) Gasoline with 10% or more Ethanol
  18. 18. Ethanol Fuels Key Points • You are more likely to encounter a spill • When ethanol Burns the flame is invisible • Consider Tank Failure • Polar Solvents require higher rates of foam application - AR-AFFF Recommended • Water application forces separation of product 18
  19. 19. DOT Hazard Class 3 19 Gasoline 1203 Diesel 1993
  20. 20. Hydrocarbons 20 Flammable Range 7.6% 1.4% Too Lean Too Rich LEL UEL 100% Gasoline Flammable Range Too Lean Too Rich 5% .7% Fuel Oil 0%
  21. 21. Ethanol 21 Flammable Range 19% 3.3% Too Lean Too Rich LEL UEL 100% 0% Polar Solvent
  22. 22. Hazards of Flammable Liquids 22 • Potential for BLEVE • PPE - Wicking effect on contact with product • Vapors generally heavier than air (ignition sources & low areas) • Be aware of runoff into drains & storm sewers • Atomization of fuel • Flame impingement of tank support assemblies
  23. 23. Steel Tank Support Assembly 23
  24. 24. Flammable & Combustible Liquids • Always contact pipeline company or distribution plant manager prior to shutting off any valves or pipe lines on incidents involving flammable or combustible liquids. 24
  25. 25. Unit Objectives 1. The student will identify the characteristics of flammable gases. 2. The student will understand the chemical properties and how they relate to combustion. 3. The student will be able to identify safety hazards through the use of the DOT Placards and the NFPA 704 signage on arrival at and emergency scene. 25
  26. 26. Characteristics of Flammable Gases 26
  27. 27. Characteristics of Flammable Gases 27 Flammable Gases Do Not have a Flash Point they are ready to burn without any outside heating required They Do Have a Flammable Range
  28. 28. 28 Characteristics of Flammable Gases Shipped as a liquid, under pressure at normal temperatures: Propane Butane Propylene Butadiene Vinyl Chloride Shipped in gaseous state under pressure: Methane Ethane Acetylene CNG Hydrogen
  29. 29. Compressed Natural Gas 29 Type III DOT 3600 psi
  30. 30. Liquefied Natural Gas 30
  31. 31. Liquefied Petroleum Gas • Common Synonyms – Dimethyl methane (technical name) • Propane • LPG - the most common 31
  32. 32. Liquefied Gases • Propane (Odorless) – C3H8 – Ethyl Mercaptan • Anhydrous Ammonia – NH3 • Chorine – CL 32
  33. 33. Liquefied Petroleum Gas • UN / DOT designation • Liquid: 1075 • Vapor: 1978 • Hazard Class: 2 33
  34. 34. Liquefied Petroleum Gas NFPA 704 Classification Special Consideration 34
  35. 35. Liquefied Petroleum Gas NFPA 704 Classification 0 - None 1 - Low 2 - Medium 3 - High 4 - Extreme 35 1 4 0 Propane
  36. 36. Liquefied Petroleum Gas • Physical and Chemical Properties: – Boiling Point: - 43.3°F (vaporizes @) – Specific Gravity: .504 (liquid) – Vapor Density: 1.5 (gas) – Vapor Pressure: 127 PSIG @ 70°F 205 PSIG @ 100° F 36
  37. 37. Liquefied Petroleum Gas 37 – Will not react with or pollute water – 36.83 Cu Ft. Vapor per Gallon @ 65°F – 8.66 Cu Ft. Vapor per lb @ 60°F – Ignition Temperature in Air = 920°-1120°F – Max Flame Temperature in Air = 3595°F – BTU’s per Gallon = 91,502
  38. 38. Hazards of Flammable Gases Flame: • Burns YELLOW - ORANGE or BLUE • Can be invisible behind water fog screen • Extremely hot (may cause major burns) • Radiant heat can be deceptive • Usually located at source of leak 38
  39. 39. 39 Always Reference Guide Page 115 Evacuation Distances • Initial Large Spill ½ Mile Downwind (800 Meters) • Fire Involving Tank car or truck 1 Mile (5280 ft.) (1600 Meters) Propane
  40. 40. Flammable Limits Propane 40 Flammable Range 9.6% 2.15% Too Lean Too Rich LEL UEL Most Violent @ 2.5% 1 Part Gas to 40 Parts Air 100% 0%
  41. 41. Liquefied Petroleum Gas • Shipping – Grade of Purity: 97% – Storage Temperature: Ambient • Outdoor Temperature – Venting: Safety Relief Valve • Set to relieve at 250 psig – 375 psig • Note: Expansion Ratio of 270:1 41 “The amount of gas produced by the evaporation of one volume of liquid at a given temperature”
  42. 42. Hazards of Flammable Gases • When involved in fire: – Containers may explode (BLEVE) – Flashback along vapor trail may occur – Vapor may explode if ignited in enclosed area - (Flammable Range) – Burns with a loud pressurized flame 42
  43. 43. Vehicle Fuels 2012 (Liquids & Gasses) 43 Property Gasoline Ethanol Propane Natural Gas Hydrogen Flammable Range 1.4 - 7.6% 3.3 - 19% 2.15 - 9.6% 5.0 - 15.0% 4.0 - 74.0% Ignition Temp 536°-853°F 685°F 871°F 999°F 923°F Flame Visible Visible Visible Visible Nearly Physical State Liquid Liquid Gas Gas Gas Vapor Density 3 - 4 ↓ 1.59 ↓ 1.52 ↓ 0.70 ↑ 0.07 ↑ Odor Yes Yes (Wine or Whiskey) Added Added Odorless Color Yellow Clear No No No Toxicity Yes No No No No Flame Temperature 1,997° C 3200° C 1,980° C 1,957° C 2,045° C Specific Gravity 0.8 .08 0.5 0.56 ↑
  44. 44. Unit Objectives • The student will identify the basic methods of Fire control for Class “B” Fires • The student will understand the three types of water application for fire control of class “B” Fires • The student will understand how to position and how to use nozzle patterns for protection when shutting valves off for class ”B” fires. 44
  45. 45. Class B Fires; Control with Water 45 Safety Point Hydrocarbons; Gasoline, kerosene, and diesel are not water soluble . Polar solvents; alcohols and lacquers are miscible in water Identify the product and know how to extinguish it
  46. 46. Water to Control Class “B” Fires 46 • As a Cooling Agent • As a Mechanical Tool • As a Protective Cover
  47. 47. 47 Application in droplet form in sufficient quantities to absorb the heat produced. •Applied to a container or steel supports to cool and prevent a BLEVE or collapse from direct flame impingement. Note: Do not use foam during cooling operations – foam insulates the tank.
  48. 48. 48 To move class B fuels to safe areas; to be burned or to limit ignition sources Use water fog patterns for radiant heat protection and to prevent “Plunging” the stream into the liquid,
  49. 49. 49
  50. 50. 50 As a protective cover from Radiant Heat and Flames for teams advancing to shut off valves
  51. 51. 51 Apex point of Fog Patterns
  52. 52. Unit Objectives • The student will identify the tactics to use on a flammable gas leak and on flammable gas fires • The student will understand the requirement for a Safety Officer 52
  53. 53. Tactical Considerations for Flammable Gases • Always wear full personal protective equipment (PPE) • Form a plan of operation have an IAP prior to acting • Have all needed equipment readily available 53
  54. 54. • Check surrounding areas and remove all ignition sources • Establish Attack Lines • (2) 1 ½” hose lines @ 95gpm • Five personnel – 1 Officer (Team Leader) – 4 Firefighters Tactics 54
  55. 55. Tactics • (1) 1 ½” hose line @ 95gpm • Three personnel – 1 Officer – 2 Firefighters 55 A Safety Line Is Mandatory
  56. 56. Tactics • Assign a Safety Officer (CFR 1910.120) • Always Approach with Caution • Monitor Changing Tank Conditions • Listen for Safety Warnings 56
  57. 57. Tactics 57  Isolate area after shut-off - until gas disperses – Continue to use fog streams!  If gas cannot be shut-off – isolate area and continue to disperse vapor (with fog stream) until container is empty – One line positioned at the point of release – Two lines 50ft to 75ft downwind – Approach vapor cloud with wind at your back
  58. 58. Ignition Sources • Remove ignition sources starting downwind 58
  59. 59. Tactics 59 – DO NOT SHUT OFF VALVES – Contact pipeline company – Contact plant manager or facility engineer – Never extinguish an LPG fire unless the fuel supply can be shut off – If leak cannot be controlled, use water to cool area until gas can be remotely shut off and/or dissipates
  60. 60. Safety Points for Fire Attack – If fire is impinging on vessel for 5+ minutes and relief valve is venting - evacuate (abandon) the area – If not venting, apply large amounts of water on vessel 60 Apply water at the top 10% (vapor space ) of the tank this allows the water to cascade down the sides of the tank and cool the tank shell » Large tank 1000 GPM with 500 GPM directed at the point of flame contact » Small tank 500 GPM at the point flame contact Vapor Space
  61. 61. Safety Points for Fire Attack • Limit exposure of personnel (use unmanned master streams) • Always approach the tank from the sides — never from the ends 61
  62. 62. 62 Approach Zone Approach Zone DANGER ZONEDANGER ZONE DANGER ZONE Blast Zone
  63. 63. Procedures For Leak On Pipeline • In addition to previous instructions, add the following dynamics: – If valve is leaking, do not shut off until approved by pipeline company – If this is a leak in a pipe, shutting down the system may occur miles away—and may take hours to completely disperse product – Continue to disperse vapor cloud with fog stream 63
  64. 64. Leak Involving Pipe Or Vessel • Do not walk in liquid! • If crew is exposed to liquid, flush with copious amounts of water. Do not rub affected areas!!! • If liquid is on the ground, flush with water • Note: Vapor clouds will form and are a common occurrence. 64
  65. 65. Unit Objectives 1. The student will describe a BLEVE and how it occurs. 2. The student shall describe the indicators leading to a BLEVE. 3. The student will identify those safety precautions required in dealing with a BLEVE situation 65
  66. 66. BLEVE 66 . Boiling Liquid Expanding Vapor Explosion The explosive release of internal vessel pressure, pieces of the tank, liquid product, expanding vapor, and a characteristic fireball with radiant heat and shockwave. Generally involves flammable gases
  67. 67. Indicators for Potential BLEVE 67 • Increased noise from a discharging relief valve • Increased in size of fire plume at relief valve • Observed color changes on vessel • Changes in tank shape; depression or bulges • Flame impingement for longer than 5 minutes A Sealed pressure vessel with direct flame impingement above the liquid level .
  68. 68. BLEVE SITUATIONS • Methods of coping with potential BLEVE • Large amounts of water at point of flame impingement • Tank size 1000 gallons or more: –500 gpm for 5 minutes • If still venting, evacuate immediately – (5,280 ft radius) 68
  69. 69. BLEVE SITUATIONS • Methods of coping with potential BLEVE: – Tank size less than 1,000 gallons: (500 gpm for 3 minutes) – If still venting, evacuate immediately (5,280 ft. – 1 Mile radius ) 69
  70. 70. 70
  71. 71. 71
  72. 72. 72 • Flammable Liquids have a Flash Point ? Below 100° F (38° C) • What is the most common flammable liquid ? Gasoline • Methanol is classified as a? Flammable Liquid; Polar Solvent • When Methanol burns the flame may be? The flame from Methanol may be invisible • What is the most common flammable gas ? Propane (LPG)
  73. 73. 73 • What is the expansion ration for LPG ? 270:1 • Name the 3 methods of water application for Class “B” fires ? Protection Cover Cooling Agent Mechanical Tool • What is the function of a relief valve on a LPG tank ? A safety device to relieve internal tank pressure • What does the term BLEVE stand for ? Boiling Liquid Expanding Vapor Explosion
  74. 74. 74 • What is the minimum evacuations distance when you suspect a potential BLEVE ? 1 Mile in all directions • What is ERG used for ? A reference for emergency responders • What is the minimum GPM required for direct flame impingement ? 500 Gallons per minute
  75. 75. 75
  76. 76. 76
  77. 77. 77 Flammable Liquids Spill Prop
  78. 78. 78
  79. 79. 79
  80. 80. 80
  81. 81. 81
  82. 82. 82
  83. 83. 83
  84. 84. 84
  85. 85. 85
  86. 86. 86
  87. 87. 87
  88. 88. 88 •Team Leader Calls the shots • Continual Communication Everyone needs to know Keys to Success
  89. 89. 89 • Isolate Shut Off Valve From Fire • Have a Plan & Work Together • Keep Fog Application Steady! • Never Allow the Fog Pattern “To Be Broken”
  90. 90. 90
  91. 91. 91

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