List of Postcards3-4: History of ID5-6: Definition of ID7-8: Notion of “systems”9-10: Use of Models11-12: Constructivism13-14: Empiricism15-16: Behaviorism17-18: Information Processing Theory19-20: Relate ID & EDTECH21: APA References
History of ID Instructional design appears to have its origins at Michigan State University in the early 1960s and later in the World War II era. The early systematic process that took place at Michigan State University did so to improve college courses. The model studied at this time was the Barson model. This model is believed to have provided a demand for early research on instructional design. Although there are other known works earlier than the 1960s they do not seem to use the specific term of instructional development. I chose the pyramid scene in the prior slide to illustrate that something created years ago still has an impact in today’s day just as instructional design is still used and implemented today.http://flic.kr/p/4xH8eD
ID Definition Instructional design in my eyes is the process of creating a lesson that will make someone’s knowledge of that topic more proficient, effective, and engaging. It takes much work to create such lessons. A common model that is used by many is the ADDIE model with it’s five phases including analysis, design, development, implementation, and evaluation. I chose the image in the prior slide because It appears that the man is in the midst of deep thought but if you look closer there is a butterfly that he is staring at in the trees. It is a hidden gem. The life of a butterfly in a way represents the process of instructional design that inevitably ends up as a thing of beauty if properly implemented.http://flic.kr/p/cpMFsw
Notions of Systems I believe that the systematic portion of instructional design implies the organizational process. Systematic suggests that there are steps that must take place. The design, in a way follows a more general template. However, this does not make systematic instructional designs all the same. There is still creativity when making such designs for a lesson. A systematic instructional design can still produce excellent implementations. The camera image reminds me of a process that must be taken in order for a picture to be completed by the click of a button.http://flic.kr/p/q5KGF
Use of Models Models are useful to many people for any task at hand. An instructional designer may feel in the same way. This does not make the design a “cookie cutter” design but instead guides it in a specific direction. The model that I like best is the ADDIE model. Following the ADDIE model comes naturally to most people. I would follow this model when designing lessons even before I knew it existed. Models help instructors make sure that a lesson is designed in the best way possible without missing any key points mainly because of its embedded organization. I chose the pillars as a visual metaphor because although they appear quite natural it was put together by an intricate plan. Initially there was a plan at hand to place them there and now nature is taking it’s course to transform them but inevitably keep them in their original locations.http://flic.kr/p/bc7MWK
Constructivism Constructivism dates back to Jean Piaget who believed that “knowledge is not transmitted: it is constructed” (Smith & Ragan, 2005). There are many different theories within the philosophy of constructivism. For instance, some philosophers believe that learners must recreate knowledge whereas others believe that knowledge is a combination of knew and prior experiences. This knowledge is apparent in both social and individual situations. The image I chose to portray constructivism was a person standing on books. The books represent the man’s prior knowledge that is still evident in his present and future life.http://flic.kr/p/5bmw4d
EmpiricismEmpiricism is another philosophical perspective of instructional design. This theoryis based on knowledge being learned through experience. These theorists believethat you must experience your knowledge in order for it to be recollected whenneeded later in life. The slide prior to this one shows an infant experiencing waterfor the first time and therefore learning that it is wet. He or she will never forgetthat bit of knowledge. Senses play a huge part when learning according to anempiricist. And this infant learned it first hand.
Behaviorism The theory of behaviorism is the most extreme. Behaviorists believe that learning may only be studied if a behavior can also be observed. Hence, why it is termed behaviorism. A person’s behavior determines how he or she can learn and by observing that behavior we can better design lessons for that individual. A memorable behaviorist that I have studied in the past is Ivan Pavlov. Pavlov was a famous Russian physiologist. One of his studies entailed conditioning a dog to salivate from the chime of a bell. He succeeded in his conditioning because he would initiate the dog’s feeding with a bell and soon enough he conditioned the dog to think every time the dog heard the bell that it would associate it with food. Pavlov’s design was solely based on observation hence why I chose my image for behaviorism. I was conditioned to search for images with bells and a dog and combined the searches to present the taco bell dog .http://flic.kr/p/5cEZii
Information Processing Theory Contrasting the behaviorist theories, the information processing theories concentrate on the processing that takes place within an individual’s brains. This theory concentrates on the cognitive aspect of learning and how the brain can be organized into different compartments. Within an individual’s brain there is a working memory that can be increased and advanced through learning experiences. Therefore increasing a person’s cognitive development. The information processing theory also believes that our senses are converted into receptors and stored within our brains. This theory takes on a more scientific roll to learning and explains how people are able to absorb knowledge. By studying the parts of the brain that are affected through learning, designers can be able to appeal to as many compartments as possible in order for learning to be retained. I chose a Ferris wheel to represent the information processing theory because the individual carts remind me of the different components of the brain. The Ferris wheel is also a scientific marvel. It is amazing how such a small generator can power an enormous object just like our brain does for us.http://flic.kr/p/5edtTy
Instructional Design & EDTECH Instructional design is not only a key component in a classroom setting but also within the online world. Educational Technology and Instructional Design go hand and hand. Without a properly thought out design, education will not be successful in our technological world. The technological aspect of a course has to be extremely thought out and designed prior to any implementation. Every aspect of a course needs to be able to be tied to the learner. Not only does the design need objectives and assessments, but it also needs numerous types of instruction for all types of students of different knowledge base. Designing within the educational world may require much more planning than within a classroom. It is necessary to back up everything that is created along with making sure everyone may access the resources that are required with proper direction. The image I chose was an easy correlation for me. I find that education is being designed more thoroughly in order to relate to anyone around the world. The drive for technology within a learning environment allows learners to not be restricted on how or who they can learn from. The world is endless and hence technology integrates an endless learning environment for all.http://flic.kr/p/9T3DWn
APA ReferencesGustafson, Kent L.; Branch, Robert Maribe. (2002). Survey of InstructionalDevelopment Models.Reiser, Robert A. A History of Instructional Design and Technology: Part II: A History ofInstructional Design.Smith, Patricia L.; Ragan, Tillman J. (2005). Instructional Design. Third Edition. 3-23.Molenda, Michael. (2003). The ADDIE Model. A Kovalchick & Dawson, Ed’s, EducationalTechnology: An Encyclopedia. Copyright by ABC-Clio, Santa Barbara, CA.