Until the 1980’s, project management focused primarily on providing schedule and resource data to top management in the military, computer and construction industries. Today, project management involves much more and people from every industry and every country manage projects. New technologies have become a significant factor in many businesses. Computer hardware, software, networks, and the use of interdisciplinary and global work teams have radically changed the work environment.
Project vs. OperationsOperations – work done by the organization to keep the business going.Operations are not temporaryProjects can be large or small and involve one person or thousands of people. They can bedone in one day or take years to complete.Properties:Has a unique purposeTemporaryDeveloped using progressive elaborationRequires resourcesHas a primary customer or sponsorInvolves uncertainty
Sample IT Projects: Replacing hardware components of computers/machinesDeveloping new softwareUpgrading existing technologyAdding new features/functionalities to existing system
Gartner, Inc., a prestigious consulting firm identified the top strategic technologies today:Green IT – or green computing, involves developing and using computer resources in an efficient way to improve economic viability, social responsibility, and environmental impact.Unified Communications - migrate from PBX (private branch exchange) to IP (Internet protocol) telephonyBusiness Process Modeling -Enterprise and process architects, senior developers, and business process analysts must work together to help organizations effectively use IT to improve processesVirtualization - hides the physical characteristics of computing resources from their users, such as making a single server, operating system, application, or storage device appear to function as multiple virtual resources.Social Software - use of online social networking sites such as MySpace, Facebook, LinkedIn, and YouTube to collaborate with others
Every project is constrained in the different ways by time, cost and scope.Time – duration, schedule, tracking schedule performance, changes in scheduleCost – total cost, project budget, tracking of costs, changes in budgetScope – what work will done, product, service or result expected, verification of scope
Quality – Risk-Customer Satisfaction-
Skills:The Project Management Body of Knowledge• Application area knowledge, standards, and regulations• Project environment knowledge• General management knowledge and skills• Soft skills or human relations skills
Project managersIdentify them Determine their requirements Determine their expectations Communicate with them Manage their influence
Scope – defining and managing all the work requiredTime – duration, schedule, time completionCost – preparing and managing budgetQuality – ensuring satisfaction of stated needsHuman resource – effective use of peopleCommunication - generating, collecting, disseminating, and storing project information.Risk - identifying, analyzing, and responding to risksProcurement - acquiring or procuring goods and services
Initiating – definition of a project or project phasePlanning – establishment of scope, define and refine objectives and development of the course of action required to attain themExecuting – integration of people and other resources to complete the work required in the planMonitoring and Controlling – Track, review, and regulate the progress and performance of the project; identify any areas in which changes to the plan are required; and initiate the corresponding changes Closing – finalize all activities across all process groups to formally close the project, project phase, or a contractual obligation
A problem manager position gives an employee quite a bit of power and responsibility. It is part of their job to be faced with different ethical issues and concerns in their field. Aside from that, it is also part of the role of the project manager to ensure that his or her subordinates behave ethically whether in dealing with personal work ethics or broader ethical considerations.
Preferring those with greater experience or with longer history in the field or with better communication skills.For example, company can earn more money by doing the job poorlyProfit and staff motivation are often paramount to their job. Problem managers are faced with more temptations than regular employees because of the power the position gives them. Use of position to delegate all the work among subordinates and take credit for itUse of position to get sensitive information from company or stealing the work of other teams, thereby sabotaging internal competition
Some stipulations in contracts may violate ethical beliefs and values. Ex: Projects regarding the US military have defense contracts that stipulate the members of the project team to be of a certain race or origin to qualify to work on a project.-ex: “What is the ethical or right thing to do?Sometimes a practice that is permissible in the foreign country is not at home. Will making a payment to a foreign government official to obtain permits, licenses or police protection be seen as a bribe or just “facilitating” and “expediting” to get things done?- Corruption and bribery
As such, a project manager must recognize his or her bias when the interests of subordinates conflict despite the temptation to simply go with the easy choice. This can be ethical because it aims to protect the country’s top secret initiatives. It can also be unethical because it would be an example of discrimination of a certain race or ethnicity.
-Follow the companies set of best practices or code of conduct to assist when working in foreign lands. Some countries such as the U.S. have a legal framework (The Foreign Corrupt Practices Act – FCPA, since 1977) for conducting business abroad. For instance, it states with respect to bribery that it is a crime for a bribe to be made to a foreign official or political party for the purpose of obtaining or retaining business or for directing business to another person even if this flows through an intermediary or consultant. However, not all payments are defined as “bribes”. Payments for “routine” government action are allowed under the FCPA including the dispensing of permits, licences and police protection as noted in the example.
Problem Management Institute (PMI)’s approved code to guide project management practitioners to conduct their work in an ethical manner. Even if you are not affiliated with PMI, these guidelines can help you conduct your workin an ethical manner, which helps the profession earn the confidence of the public, employers, employees, and all project stakeholders. The PMI Code of Ethics and Professional Conduct includes short chapters addressing vision and applicability, responsibility, respect, fairness, and honestly.
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ethics and it project management
IT Project ManagementComputer Ethics and IT Project Management
Project Management Application of knowledge, skills, tools and techniques to project activities to meet the project requirements.
IT Project Management IT project management is a sub-discipline of project management in which information technology projects are planned, monitored and controlled
Some ITPM Statistics Total global spending on technology goods, services, and staff in 2007 was projected to have an 8% increase in 2008. In the US, unemployment rates in many information technology occupations were among the lowest in the labor force at only 2.3 percent in 2008.
Some ITPM Statistics In 2007, the total compensation for the average senior project manager in US dollars was $104,776/year in the US, $111,412 in Australia, and $120,364 in the UK. The average total compensation of a program manager was $122,825 in the US, $133,718 in Australia, and $165,489 in the UK. The average total compensation for a Project Management Office (PMO) Director was $134,422 in the US, $125,197 in Australia, and $210,392 in the UK.
Some ITPM Statistics The number of people earning their Project Management Professional (PMP) certification continues to increase each year. More than 16 million people regard project management as their profession.
Project A temporary endeavor undertaken to create a unique product, service, or result
IT Projects IT projects involve using hardware, software, and/or networks to create a product, service, or result.
Top Strategic Technologies Green IT Unified Communications Business Process Modeling Virtualization Social Software
Project Manager Person assigned by the organization to achieve the project objectives Must strive to meet and balance the specific goals and constraints of the project Must facilitate the entire process to meet the needs and expectations of the people involved in or affected by project activities
Stakeholders Anyone positively or negatively impacted by the project people involved in or affected by project activities and include the project sponsor, project team, support staff, customers, users, suppliers, and even opponents of the project.
Knowledge Areas Scope management Time management Cost management Quality management Human resource management Communication management Risk management Procurement management
Advantages Better control of financial, physical and human resources Improved customer relations Shorter development times Lower costs and improved productivity Higher quality and increased reliability
Advantages Higher profit margins Better internal coordination Positive impact on meeting strategic goals Higher working morale
Ethics in Project ManagementEthical issues and dilemmas
Ethical Issues and Dilemmas Favoritism between subordinates. The company is asking the problem manager and his/her team to do something unethical. Use of position to slack off in their work. Use of position to put the blame to subordinates. Use of position to acquire sensitive material or work of other teams.
Ethical Issues and Dilemmas Hard choices regarding contracts between parties. Doing business in a different country is ambiguous and may contradict practices done at home. Other people are trying to influence the PM’s behavior toward them.
Guidelines for Ethical Practices“Treat every project as if it will end up in court.” – Morley Selver
Solutions to EthicalProblems PMs should make sure that their team members are all equally supported and their opinions heard. If PM is at fault for an the unsuccessful venture of project completion, he/she must admit this wrong. PMs should have a strong sense of ethics and lead his/her subordinates by example.
Solutions to EthicalProblems There is no “I” in the team. If a project is unsuccessful, the most ethical outcome is that the whole team failed. Before signing a contract, the company should make sure to ask questions and make sure they are willing to cut ties with certain people in the project team to replace them with others given based on the contract.
Solutions to EthicalProblems Distinguish between what is acceptable and unacceptable when doing business abroad by noting the various laws of both your own country and those in your host country. Do not be influenced by anyone. Make decisions that give you a clear conscience. You should be reliable, fair, honest and ethical.
The PMI Code of Ethics andProfessional Conduct Be responsible — take ownership of decisions including their consequences. This includes knowing and meeting all legal requirements, reporting unethical or illegal conduct to appropriate management, fulfilling commitments and protecting proprietary and confidential information. Be respectful of yourself, listen to others and protect resources entrusted to us. Be fair and transparent in decisions including disclosing conflicts of interest to appropriate stakeholders. Be honest in communications and conduct.
Guiding Principles Are you following rules that are generally understood and accepted for the task taking place? For example, in poker, bluffing is accepted as part of the game. Are you comfortable publicly discussing and defending your action? Would you be comfortable if your friends were aware of it? Your family? On the front page of a newspaper? Would you want someone to do it to you? To your family? What if everyone acted that way? Would the resulting society be desirable? Are their alternatives that rest on firmer ground?