also refer to expressive culture, which includesplastic and graphic arts, such as sculpturesand painting, and language when utilized asan artistic medium according to sociologists and anthropologists,culture refers to the total and distinctive wayof life or designs for living of any society it is the sum total of human creations—intellectual, technical, artistic, physical andmoral
is a people’s social heritage; it refers tothe customary ways in which groupsorganize their ways of behaving, thinkingand feeling is the aspect of our existence which isfamiliar to some people but different toothers
Forms of Culture Material Culture--refers to the concrete and tangibleobjects that humans create, use and shareserving as buffers against the variouselements in the environmento Nonmaterial Culture-- consists of knowledge, social norms,beliefs and sanctions which are abstractand intangible creations that influencehuman behavior
Components of Culture Norms Sanctions Values Symbols Language
Norms Norms are established standards of behaviormaintained by a society Formal norms have been written down and involvestrict rules or punishmentof violators
Norms Informal norms are generally understoodbut are not precisely recorded Examples: standards of proper dress orproper behavior at school
Types of Norms (according totheir relative importance tosociety) Folkways are norms governing everydaybehavior whose violation might cause adirty look, rolled eyes, or disapprovingcomment Example: Walking up a “down” escalatorin a department store challenges ourstandards of appropriate behavior
Types of Norms (according totheir relative importance tosociety) Mores are norms deemed highlynecessary to the welfare of a society,often because they embody the mostcherished principles of people Each society demands obedience to itsmores (violation can lead to severepenalties Examples: murder, child abuse
Types of Norms (according totheir relative importance tosociety) Taboos are norms that are so deeply heldthat even the thought of violating themupset people In the U.S. There is a taboo against eatinghuman flesh
Sanctions Sanctions are penalties and rewards forconduct concerning a social norm Conformity to a norm can lead to positivesanctions such as pay raise, a medal, aword of gratitude, or a pat on a back
Values are collective concepts of what is consideredgood, desirable, and proper-or bad, undesirable,and improper- in a culture Values indicate what people find important andmorally right (or wrong) Values influence peoples behavior and serve ascriteria for evaluation the actions of others
Symbols Anything that stands for (or shared meaningattached to it) something else“something to which people attach meaning andthat they then use to communicate with oneanother” (Henslin 2007a:39) Any word, gesture, image, sound, physicalobject, event can serve as a symbol as long aspeople recognize that it carries a particularmeaning Ex. Class ring, word hello, handshake = all symbols Symbols vary from culture to culture
Language Is one of the most significant culturaluniversals (others include marriage andart). Languages are complex systems ofcommunication, which are fundamentalto human social life as they free us fromour immediate environments.
Characteristics of Culture1. Culture is learned.2. Culture is transmitted.3. Culture is social, collective, and learned.4. Culture is ideational.5. Culture is gratifying.6. Culture is adaptive.7. Culture is an integrated whole.