Successfully reported this slideshow.

A & p holes' nervous i

426 views

Published on

Published in: Education
  • Be the first to comment

A & p holes' nervous i

  1. 1. Warm up – On the handout provided fill in each of the structures. 14 1 13 12 2 3 11 10 9 7 8 4 6 5 1
  2. 2. Neuron Structure 2
  3. 3. PowerPoint Lecture Outlines to accompany Hole’s Human Anatomy and Physiology Eleventh Edition Modified by Mrs. Fiser Shier  Butler  Lewis Chapter 10 Fat Book Chapter 9 Skinny BookCopyright © The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Permission required for reproduction or display. 3
  4. 4. Chapter 9 Nervous System ICell Types of Neural Tissue • neurons • neuroglial cells 4
  5. 5. Divisions of the Nervous System• Central Nervous System • brain • spinal cord• Peripheral Nervous System • nerves • cranial nerves • spinal nerves 5
  6. 6. Divisions of Peripheral Nervous SystemSensory Division • picks up sensory information and delivers it to the CNSMotor Division • carries information to muscles and glandsDivisions of the Motor Division • Somatic – carries information to skeletal muscle • Autonomic – carries information to smooth muscle, cardiac muscle, and glands 6
  7. 7. Divisions Nervous System 7
  8. 8. 8
  9. 9. Functions of Nervous SystemSensory Function • sensory receptors gather information • information is carried to the Motor Function CNS • decisions are acted uponIntegrative Function • impulses are • sensory information used to carried to effectors create • sensations • memory • thoughts • decisions 9
  10. 10. Neuron Structure 10
  11. 11. Myelination of AxonsWhite Matter • contains myelinated axonsGray Matter • contains unmyelinated structures • cell bodies, dendrites 11
  12. 12. Classification of Neurons – Structural DifferencesBipolar • two processes • eyes, ears, noseUnipolar • one process • gangliaMultipolar • many processes • most neurons of CNS 12
  13. 13. Classification of Neurons – Functional DifferencesSensory Neurons • afferent • carry impulse to CNS • most are unipolar • some are bipolarInterneurons • link neurons • multipolar • in CNSMotor Neurons • multipolar • carry impulses away from CNS • carry impulses to effectors 13
  14. 14. Types of Neuroglial Cells in the PNSSchwann Cells • produce myelin found on peripheral myelinated neurons • speed neurotransmissionSatellite Cells • support clusters of neuron cell bodies (ganglia) 14
  15. 15. Types of Neuroglial Cells in the CNSAstrocytes • CNS • scar tissue • mop up excess ions, etc • induce synapse formation • connect neurons to blood vessels Oligodendrocytes Ependyma • CNS • CNS • myelinating cell • ciliated Microglia • line central canal of spinal • CNS cord • phagocytic cell • line ventricles of brain 15
  16. 16. Types of Neuroglial Cellshttp://learn.genetics.utah.edu/content/addiction/reward/cells.html 16
  17. 17. Astrocytes 17
  18. 18. Oligodendrocytes 18
  19. 19. Microglial Cells 19
  20. 20. Ependymal Cells 20
  21. 21. CNS Neuroglial CellsSketch Structure:Microglial Oligodendrocytes Astrocytes EpendymalFunction:________________ ________________ _________________ _______________________________ ________________ _________________ _______________________________ ________________ _________________ _______________________________ ________________ _________________ _______________________________ ________________ _________________ _______________________________ ________________ _________________ _______________ 21________________ ________________ _________________ _______________
  22. 22. PNS Neuroglial CellsSketch Structure:SchwannFunction:________________ ________________ _________________ _______________________________ ________________ _________________ _______________________________ ________________ _________________ _______________________________ ________________ _________________ _______________________________ ________________ _________________ _______________________________ ________________ _________________ _______________ 22________________ ________________ _________________ _______________
  23. 23. NEUROGLIAL CELL ADVERTISEMENT You are an ad executive for a major marketing firm. You must createa billboard that will “sell” the type of neuroglial cell that you have beenassigned. Your “billboard” will be constructed on a piece of posterboard. It must include the following information about your neuroglialcell: name, part of nervous system to which it belongs, its “importance”or what it does, and an illustration. All of this information must bepresented within the context of an advertising theme.Your project will be scored according as follows:CONTENT (50 POINTS)•Name of neuroglial cell•Part of nervous system to which it belongs•Importance/function•Description/illustrationCREATIVITY (30 POINTS) (unique, slogan, artwork)NEATNESS (10 POINTS)TEAMWORK (10 POINTS) 23
  24. 24. SchwannOliogodendrocyteMicroglialAstrocytesEpendymal 24
  25. 25. The SynapseNerve impulses passfrom neuron toneuron at synapses 25
  26. 26. Synaptic TransmissionNeurotransmitters arereleased when impulsereaches synaptic knob 26
  27. 27. Resting Membrane Potential• inside is negativerelative to the outside• polarized membrane• due to distribution ofions• Na+/K+ pump 27
  28. 28. Local Potential Changes 28
  29. 29. Action Potentials• at rest membrane ispolarized• threshold stimulusreached• sodium channelsopen and membranedepolarizes• potassium leavescytoplasm andmembrane repolarizes 29
  30. 30. Action Potentials 30
  31. 31. Action Potentials 31
  32. 32. Animations• http://highered.mcgraw- hill.com/sites/0072437316/student_view0/chapter 45/animations.htmlhttp://www.blackwellpublishing.com/matthews/actio np.html 32
  33. 33. All-or-None Response• if a neuron responds at all, it responds completely• a nerve impulse is conducted whenever a stimulus ofthreshold intensity or above is applied to an axon• all impulses carried on an axon are the same strength 33
  34. 34. Impulse Conduction 34
  35. 35. Neurotransmitters 35
  36. 36. Neurotransmitters 36
  37. 37. Impulse Processing• way the NS processes nerve impulses and acts upon them•Neuronal Pools•Convergence•Divergence 37
  38. 38. Neuronal Pools•groups of interneurons that make synaptic connectionswith each other• interneurons work together to perform a commonfunction• each pool receives input from other neurons• each pool generates output to other neurons 38
  39. 39. Convergence• neuron receives input fromseveral neurons• incoming impulses representinformation from differenttypes of sensory receptors• allows nervous system tocollect, process, and respond toinformation• makes it possible for a neuronto sum impulses from differentsources 39
  40. 40. Divergence• one neuron sendsimpulses to severalneurons• can amplify animpulse• impulse from a singleneuron in CNS may beamplified to activateenough motor unitsneeded for musclecontraction 40
  41. 41. Clinical Application Drug Addiction• occurs because of the complex interaction of neurons,drugs, and individual behaviors• understanding how neurotransmitters fit receptorscan help explain the actions of certain drugs• drugs have different mechanisms of action• several questions remain about the biological effectsof addiction, such as why some individuals becomeaddicted and others do not•http://learn.genetics.utah.edu/content/addiction/drugs/mouse.html 41

×