Upper is Thebes, Aniba, etc - Lower is Memphis, Roseta, Modern Day Cairo is in Lower Egypt, across from Giza, near Heliopolis
Ra, Horus, Eye of Horus, Annubis (Jackal), Osiris
Symbols, cartouches, Gods, Pharaohs, religious beliefs, belief in magic, etc….This is Queen Nofru and Hinuti, her hairdresser - depicted are often important servants to the pharaohs - hairdressers, manicurists, etc. Often the royal artisans / artists would have a studio right on the royal grounds 2040 BC - middle kingdom
There were many artists/artisans who worked on single works - the designer/overseer of the work, Illustrators/painters of the specific gods, gold inlayers, precious stone specialists, sculptors, architects, etc. Many paintings, scuptures, masks were desgined, painted, inlayed by many different artists from the different specialties/disciplines
Middle Kingdom - shows everyday life of the Egyptians.
Khufu Khephren and Menkaure - king - Giza - old kingdom Limestone and granite -
The use of gold is to honor the sun god, Ra.
Significance of the scarab - where did they get the gold? !!! The scarab beetle is a real beetle, a common beetle. To the ancient Egyptians, this common beetle symbolized hope and the restoration of life. They used the design of a scarab beetle in many ways. The Ankh is the symbol of life, the posession of life, life in the afterlife. An heiroglyphic symbol. Seals were created in the shape of a scarab and used to stamp documents. Artisans made scarab jewelry using precious gems and painted clay. The same design was used to make good luck charms and amulets to ward off evil. In ancient Egypt, scarab jewelry, good luck charms, and amulets were often given as gifts. An inscription was often added with the name of the owner and perhaps a motto or a message, like, &quot;good luck in your new job&quot;. Scarabs came in many designs including winged scarabs. The colors were rich and beautiful. Blue symbolized the Nile River. Red symbolized Ra. There were touches of yellow for the desert and sun. Green was used to emphasis growth. Over time, the scarab became a sacred symbol.
What symbols are in this painting? Animals? What are they carrying? The left side of this painting is filled with heiroglyphics on the background. 1870 bc
Date: / kingdom: 1465BC, New Kingdom
Pectoral neclace is a necklace with a large pendant fallind down on the breast) in the form of a small srhrine with supporting poles and a corniced roof first appeared during the middle kingdom and remained popular throughout the rest of Egyptian history. Contains messages about the king’s supremacy over foreign enemies
Horemheb in the_company_of_the_gods,_valley_of_the_Kings,_Dynasty_XVIII,_1330-_1305_BC New Kingdom
Hieroglyphics in the backgound….
Relief in limestone
They used red and black ink.
cartouche is an oblong, or oval, magical rope which was drawn to contain the ancient Egyptian hieroglyphics that spelt out the name of a King or Queen. The &quot;cartouche&quot; can be found on Egyptian monuments and papyrus documents and the magical rope was used to surround the name and protect it. The use of the cartouche started during the beginning of the Fourth Dynasty under Pharaoh Sneferu.
Rosetta Stone - discovered in the city of Rosetta, by French soldiers in 1799 . It had three different scripts in two languages carved into it- Heiroglyphic, Demonic (common script in Ancient Egypt), and Greek. Cracked the code of Ancient Egyptian heiroglyphics. On the stone it lists how good the pharaoh has been to his people of Egypt.
Egyptians believed that the god Thoth invented hieroglyphics. It was first used by Clement from Alexandria.
Write Like an Egyptian!
Write Like An Egyptian! <ul><li>Ancient Egyptian Art and Culture: Old, Middle, New Kingdoms </li></ul><ul><li>• Ancient symbolic writing: Hieroglyphics </li></ul>
Egyptian Gods Ra Osiris Annubis Horus Eye of Horus
<ul><li>What makes this limestone relief recognizable as Egyptian art? </li></ul><ul><li>What are the unique characteristics of Egyptian art? </li></ul>
Purposes and Characteristics of Egyptian Art <ul><li>Mostly found in tombs </li></ul><ul><li>Direction and order </li></ul><ul><li>Communication with the present and future (afterlife) </li></ul><ul><li>Idealization of Egyptian royalty </li></ul><ul><li>Expressionism - later kingdoms </li></ul><ul><li>To tell a story of this civilization </li></ul><ul><li>To show or predict what the afterlife would be for the soul of the person embalmed… </li></ul>Pallette of K i ng Narmer,first Pharaoh of Egypt, s miting his enemies and The unification of Egypt 1st Dynasty - associated with The god Horus
Sculpture - baking and brewing, wood carved - from a tomb <ul><li>1900 BC, model showing people making bread and first stage of brewing - frequently put into tombs to show people engaged in making everyday items, grinding grain </li></ul>
Pyramids @ Giza - Khufu, Khephren, and Menkaure
King Tut <ul><li>King Tut’s gold mask Valley of the Kings, west bank at Thebes, 1327 BC </li></ul><ul><li>Vulture & Cobra - significance </li></ul><ul><li>Materials used and sophistication </li></ul>
Ankh <ul><li>Mirror Case from King Tut’s tomb what Egyptian symbol is this and what does it symbolize? Do you see more symbols within the design?…. </li></ul>
Relief carvings in limestone <ul><li>Seated guests and processions of offering bearers in tomb of Vizier Ramose </li></ul>
<ul><li>Old Kingdom painting/biased relief of a procession of attendants - from the wall of the tomb of Djehutihotep II. Procession is shown only to depict a group of people, “not to be regarded as a pecularly Egyptian penchant for walking in a line.” </li></ul>
Sculpture… <ul><li>Queen Hatshepsut, from her funerary temple @Dier el Bahri. She is kneeling, holding a vase with the symbol of stability - most likely kneeling to the god Amun..She was only the 3rd or 4th woman to on the Egyptian throne in the first 1500 years of Egyptian history… </li></ul>
Jewelry <ul><li>Pectoral necklace of Princess Mereret, from her tomb in Dashur. Pectorals conveyed messages concerning religion, kingship, and life after death. </li></ul><ul><li>Middle kingdom </li></ul>
Jewelry - can you spot the symbols? Collar of Princess Khnumet, Middle Kingdom
<ul><li>Foreign captives, from funerary temple of Ramesses III </li></ul><ul><li>New Kingdom 1160 B.C. </li></ul><ul><li>This is the depiction the Pharaoh chose to show the people he conquered. </li></ul>
Gaming Discs <ul><li>Old Kingdom </li></ul><ul><li>Hunting scene </li></ul><ul><li>Purpose not known exactly - some kind of game? </li></ul><ul><li>Luxury item </li></ul>
Mummification scene - burial chamber of a workman. Wall painting - Annubis is the embalmer .
Horemeb in the company of the gods, valley of the kings, Dynasty XVIII - New Kingdom
Prince Rahotep and his wife Nofret, from their tomb at Maidum Painted limestone Practically all Old Kingdom statues were painted - colors were black/grey white, red/brown, green, blue, and yellow - rarely any shading or subtlety Rahotep’s skin is darker than his wife’s to show all of the time men spend outside - and women inside -
<ul><li>Dagger of Princess Iti, daughter of Amen - from a tomb in Dahshur </li></ul><ul><li>1890 B.C. (Middle Kingdom) </li></ul>
Eye of Horus <ul><li>Symbol of the god Horus, the Eye is a symbol of protection from evil spirits. Found all over wall paintings, in jewelry used in burial chambers. </li></ul>
Nefertiti <ul><li>Hieroglyphics on the right side of this etching in sandstone - of Nefertiti and her daughter making an offering to Aten </li></ul><ul><li>Nefertiti was the wife of Akhenaten - the ruler who established one deity over Egypt, the sun god Aten </li></ul>
<ul><li>The Book of the Earth, from the tomb of Ramesses IV - Valley of the Kings </li></ul><ul><li>Tombs of the New Kingdom, books of the afterlife </li></ul>
Hieroglyphic writings… <ul><li>The Scribes were men and women who learned to read and write hieroglyphs . </li></ul><ul><li>They kept records of the government and wrote letters for the pharaoh. </li></ul>
Papyrus - and writing tools… <ul><li>Papyrus is paper that was used to write and paint on, over 5000 years old </li></ul><ul><li>It was made of a marsh plant called papyrus reed. </li></ul><ul><li>The Egyptians used pigment powder which was made from a plant and it makes paint or ink when it’s mixed up with a liquid. </li></ul><ul><li>Reeds were used for writing. </li></ul>
<ul><li>Cartouche - Ramesses </li></ul><ul><li>What is a cartouche? </li></ul><ul><li>Note hieroglyphics and oblong border around the Pharaoh’s name. Magical rope is used to surround the name and protect it. </li></ul>
Hieroglyphics : cracking the code <ul><li>Hieroglyphics means ‘sacred carved writing’ Taken from Greek “hieros” meaning and “glypho” meaning inscriptions. </li></ul><ul><li>Hieroglyphs are part of a system of picture writing called hieroglyphics. When picture writing first began, the pictures represented the actual object they depicted. These were called pictograms. For example, a picture of a sun within a family scene signified that the sun was part of that scene. Later, pictures came to represent ideas, so that if you saw a sun in a scene, it might symbolize not only the sun, but also daytime, warmth, or light. These were known as ideograms. </li></ul><ul><li>Finally, the pictures began to represent not only the appearance of an object and related ideas, but also the sound of a spoken word used to it describe it. Sun, then, might also mean son, or be part of the word Sunday. So each picture took on a unique sound that could be used to form thoughts and ideas. </li></ul>