Motivation and learning - Educational Psychology


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Third year lecture for Educational Psychology module. I've also uploaded the accompanying seminar handout. Be good to get some feedback.

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  • “Families tend to make the extra efforts required in developing a rich HLE when they believe their efforts will be rewarded. When parents are aware that their child has as much potential as any other to be successful, and when they recognise that they have an active role to play themselves in realising this potential, then early social disadvantages may be overcome”(p. 476-477
  • Motivation and learning - Educational Psychology

    1. 1. & Learning Jenna CondieUniversity of Salford 1
    2. 2. Session OverviewPart One:• Motivation as crucial to learning in formal contexts• Psychological understandings of motivation• Empowerment, Edutainment and CreativityPart Two:• Identifying motivations to learn in a real case study• Interventions for increasing teacher expectations• Divergent thinking and creativity• Creating motivating seminars 2
    3. 3. Motivation defined – what is it? Image created on Visual Thesaurus“…the psychologicalprocesses that lead us todo certain things”(Long, 2007, p. 104)Is motivation a generalquality?Is motivation relativelyspecific to activity?Is it better considered asa process? 3
    4. 4. Effectance motivation (White, 1959)Babies are born with a desire to master theirenvironment BehaviourControl/ FeedbackAgency Expected Goals Outcomes 4 Flickr: Wayan Vota
    5. 5. Intrinsic and extrinsic motivationIntrinsic motivation – that from within theindividual Extrinsic motivation - that from outside an individual. Flickr: Official U.S. Navy Imagery 5
    6. 6. Educational context…• Teachers face difficulties in attempts to monitor motivation Motive: A reason for doing in classroom directly. something, esp. one that is hidden or not obvious• Educational definitions of motivation focus on academic achievement and involvement with tasks at school (Long, 2007)• Motivation in school as crucial to meaningful learning “You dont have to be great to start, but you have to start to be great” Zig Ziglar 6
    7. 7. The classroom as decontextualised:Imagining learning about urban regeneration…Which method requires more motivation? Flickr: EG Focus 7
    8. 8. When motivation isn’t an issue…Before school Cultures without formal education Flickr: International Rivers Learning happens because it is contextualised, knowledge Flickr: courosa that is useful and meaningful (Bruner 1966) 8
    9. 9. The Self “Regardless of the theoretical orientation, the self is considered nowadays as multiple, varied, changeable, sometimes asFlickr: tonyhall chameleon that changes along with the context” (Salgado & Hermans, 2009, p. 3) • Sense of agency - control & choice • Mastery Orientation – belief that your achievements are based on your own efforts (Bukatko & Daehler, 2012) • Mastery Orientation vs learned helplessness 9
    10. 10. If ‘who we are’ is not fixed, then canpeople develop identities of learning?Rahm and Ash (2008)• Out-of-school learning environments enabled ‘disenfranchised youth’ to take on an identity as insiders to the world of science 10
    11. 11. Aspirations In relation to lower income families: "Differences in the education aspirations of parents are probably the most important factor explaining the gap in school completion rates," Polidano (2012), University of Melbourne, High School Completion Study ScienceDaily Article hereShared on #edupsych this week 11
    12. 12. Flickr: henry… Against the odds: How Working Class Children Succeed (Siraj‐Blatchford, 2010)HomeLearningEnvironment(HLE)- mostsignificantfactor inpredictingchildren’slearningoutcomes. 12
    13. 13. Self-Expectations • Human motivation as dependent upon outcome expectations (Bandura, 1977) • Self-efficacy - personal judgments of one’s capabilities to attain designated goals (Bandura, 1986) • Self-efficacy beliefs in self-regulated Learning (SESRL) (Zuffianò et al., 2012) • Complex relationship between self-esteem & academic achievement (see Baumeister et al., 2003) 13Flickr: breahn
    14. 14. Teacher Expectations• A classic area of study A.K.A the self-fulfilling prophecy• Pygmalion experiment (Rosenthal & Jacobson, 1968) – relationship between teacher expectations and student performance• Brophy (1985) whole class teacher expectation likely to have greater effect than teachers expectation for individual students• Rubie-Davies (2006) Study of HiEx and LoEx teachers - class level expectation important for student learning 14 Flickr: Gates Foundation
    15. 15. Alternatively, are some not buying into the education success story i.e. good education = good job?Flickr: -eko- 15
    16. 16. Empowerment: A Humanistic Perspective • Move away from the economic story of education. • The role of education is to empower – to be able to think and to do. • “It is the mark of an educated mind to be able to entertain a thought without accepting it” (Aristotle) • In control of learning (student-driven). • Tasks that are intrinsically motivating. • Encourages learning beyond the formal context. • However, the realities of teaching and curriculum coverage constrain this teaching style (Long, 2007) (Lefranois, 1994) 16Flickr: Capture Queen ™
    17. 17. Edutainment“Edutainment” - a hybrid genre that relies heavily onvisual material, on narrative or game-like formats,and on more informal, less didactic styles of address.(Buckingham & Scanlon, 2000, cited in Okan, 2003) 17 Flickr: Gustty
    18. 18. Play for Learning• Formal schooling tends A voluntary activity that is to restricts play to intrinsically motivating early years. (Amory et al., 1999)• Play for mastery of skills• Play theories (Piaget, 1951; Smilansky 1968)• Serious educational games research: – Amory et al., (1999) concluded adventure games provide educators with superior mechanisms to entice learners into environments where knowledge is acquired through intrinsic motivation 18
    19. 19. “Creativity is usuallydefined as a combination of novelty andappropriateness and has been associated with problem-solving and novelty generation aswell as with reactive andadaptive behaviour thatallows people to cope up with turbulent environments” (Berglund & Wennberg, 2006, p. 368) 19
    20. 20. Creativity and Learning• Links back to enterprise and workplace – creativity has wide appeal (see Plucker et al., 2004)• But don’t say the ‘C Word’!• Divergent thinking – Really important or just a little important?• More knowledge now about creativity• Lacking strategies to enhance creativity Flickr: Cea.• How to think (current/future), not what to think (traditional model) 20
    21. 21. Potential of creativity rarely fulfilledWhy? “Creativity is important to society, but it traditionally hasbeen one of psychology’s orphans” (Sternberg & Lubart, 1999, p. 4).Six Barriers1 Mystic and spiritual origins;2 Negative effects of pop psych & commercial Can you approaches; think of3 Early work conducted in relative isolation from any other mainstream psychology barriers?4 Elusive or trivial definitions5 Negative effects of viewing creativity as an extraordinary phenomenon6 Narrow, unidisciplinary approaches 21
    22. 22. How to move forward? Reconceptualise creativity (Plucker et al., 2004) “Creativity is the interaction among aptitude, process, and environment by which an individual or group produces a perceptible product that is both novel and useful as defined within a social context.” 22Flickr: mtsofan
    23. 23. Group WorkLearning Outcomes• Apply your knowledge of motivation to a real case study.• Recognise individual differences in motivation• Develop a teacher expectation intervention.• Examine creativity and look for evidence of divergent thinking.• Consider motivations to learn in relation to your assignment seminars. 23
    24. 24. & Learning Jenna CondieUniversity of Salford 24