LESSON ONE: ROME’S BEGINNINGS
a. Roman legend claimed that brothers, Romulus
and Remus founded Rome after they were raised by
II. LANDFORMS AND BODIES OF WATER IN
a. Mountainous (like
b. Longest coastlines
i. became a center
of trade because of its
many harbors and ports
with access to the
c. Surrounded by
Tyrrhenian Sea, and
a. Rome was considered a bridge between Western
Europe, North Africa, and Western Asia.
a. Tiber River was
foreign ships could
bring goods up the
river to Rome.
i. Rome became
b. Because of trade,
Romans studied new ideas
about growing crops and
they learned about other
cultures through stories
a. Etruscans took over
Rome about 600 B.C.
b. Romans learned how to
i. aqueducts- structures
that carry flowing water
to supply water to cities.
c. The Romans also learned
how to make better
weapons and ships.
d. The Romans resented
i. Junius Brutus
forced the Etruscans
out of Rome and
became the new
THE ROMAN AQUEDUCT—BUILT IN
THE 2ND CENTURY A.D.
LESSON 2-THE ROMAN REPUBLIC
a. Romans were proud of their soldiers and loyal to
their homeland. Told many war hero stories to
raise pride and nationalism- a strong devotion to
II. Two Groups of Citizens
a. patricians – rich and powerful
b. plebeians – all other people, 90% of the people.
soldier and slave farmer/craftsmen
a. Citizens have the right to vote, or choose their
b. Elected officials represented the people in the
Senate (governing body)
c. At first the Senate made up of patricians.
d. Each year two patricians were elected as consuls
(officials for the government and army)
a. Slaves and most foreigners were
b. Women WERE citizens with
i. Women could not vote or
hold public office but they had
more freedom than Greek
ii. Women could own property,
testify in court and play major
roles in government.
a. men who were appointed to protect
the rights of the plebeians
b. set up to protect plebeians from the
harsh treatment from patricians
c. Over time plebeians gained in
wealth and power, but the
patricians always had more
a. City-state located in North Africa.
b. Had a large and powerful navy and one of the
VII. ROME AND CARTHAGE
a. Rome and Carthage fought three times in the
battles called the Punic Wars.
i. Wars lasted a total of 120 years and the
Romans won all three wars.
b. 1st War of the Punic Wars- fought over land off the
coast of Italy
c. 2nd War of the Punic Wars- MOST FAMOUS OF THE THREE
i. Hannibal (Carthaginian general) took his army across the Alps
on elephants and surprised the Romans.
ii. The Romans learned of the attack by Hannibal.
iii. The Romans were saved when Scipio(Roman General)
attacked Carthage and Hannibal had to rush back home
to Carthage to help.
iv. Carthage was defeated.
d. 3rd War of the Punic Wars- Romans captured and destroyed
i. surviving Carthaginians were sold into slavery and Rome
controlled the entire Western Mediterranean
VIII. CONQUERED PLACES
a.Romans tried to keep people happy
and patriotic (loyal to Rome).
i. They granted Roman
citizenship to people they
ii. allowed others to keep local
self- government and their
leaders remained in power
a. Money came to Rome but only the
patricians were wealthier.
i. Plebeians lost jobs to wartime slaves
ii. farmland and homes were destroyed
because of fighting
iii. This angered the plebians
IX. EFFECTS OF WAR ON ROME
X. JULIUS CAESAR
a. won battle between two other
Roman generals and was made a ruler for life.
b. The patricians feared that Caesar would take total
power, so he was stabbed on the floor of the Senate.
i. This lead to a civil war (which is when people
from the same country fight one another) as leaders
fought for power.
c. The Roman Republic came to an end.
On March 15, Julius Caesar was stabbed
on the Senate floor.
XI. ADVANCEMENTS OF THIS
a. Romans built
aqueducts, roads and
buildings in conquered
(Roads were made of
i. Most famous of the
roads was the
Appian Way, which
stretched 350 miles
east and south of
a. Emperor of Rome who stabilized Rome after Julius
Caesar’s death and the civil war
b. Centralized the government and improved the
c. Began a long period of peace called Pax Romana
i. 200 YEARS OF PEACE
d. Made people conquered by Rome loyal to Rome
i. this united the Roman Empire
i. ii. Roman Empire spread eastward and westward
ii. on three continents.
II. GOOD AND BAD EMPERORS
a. Although there were many good emperors,
there were also bad emperors.
i. Period of bad emperors lasted for thirty
years until Marcus Aurelius.
b. “Five Good Emperors”
i. more stable leadership led to 84 years of
peace and prosperity
ii. Marcus Aurelius was the last and
greatest emperor of this time.
IV. CONQUERED PEOPLE (THE PEOPLE
THE ROMANS TOOK OVER)
a. All spoke their own language and Latin
b. The conquered people also had citizenship
c. Local leaders were allowed to remain in power
i. This led to the empire being united!
V. ROMAN LAW (SIMILAR TO U.S. LAW) THAT ALL
PEOPLE COULD FOLLOW:
a. All free people have equal rights.
b. A person is innocent until he or she is proven
c. Accused people should be allowed to face their
accusers and defend themselves.
d. Judges must interpret the law and make
e. People have rights that no government can take
The Twelve Tables were laws
engraved on tablets and put on
display in the Forum in Rome for
everyone to see, so they could be
understood by all of the citizens of
VI. ROMAN CULTURE
a. The Colosseum is the most famous Roman arena.
It held the following events:
i. gladiator fights (most important), plays
and religious ceremonies
b. Built aqueducts that brought fresh water.
c. Roman rule led to the growth of many cities in
a. A religion based on the teaching of Jesus
(who was a Jewish man).
II. Jesus’ beliefs (monotheistic)
a. believed that God loved everyone
b. wanted people to be kind to one another
c. he preached about forgiveness and mercy
III. JESUS IS CRUCIFIED
a. Jesus was crucified because local leaders
thought his message would upset Roman
b. After his death disciples spread Jesus’
teachings and Christianity continued to
c. Peter and Paul were the most famous
IV. PERSECUTION OF CHRISTIANS
a. At first Christians were persecuted (being
punished for religious beliefs) because they
refused to worship the emperor as a god.
b. Emperor Constantine made Christianity equal
to all other religions and outlawed the
EMPERORS FOR SALE
a. Most Emperors after Marcus Aurelius cared about
increasing their wealth and power not the welfare of the
II. Choosing a New Ruler
a. Roman Army began to fight each other to get their
favorite person as an Emperor.
b. The Roman Army spent so much time fighting
within Rome (Romans fighting Romans) that they had to
pay mercenaries to fight foreign battles.
i. Mercenaries (hired soldiers) were not loyal to
the Roman Empire.
ii. Mercenaries allowed their own
tribes to attack Rome, especially German
c. Roads were unsafe and trade decreased.
THE EMPIRE DIVIDED
III. Restoring Order
a. To restore order and bring money to the
empire, Emperor Diocletian divided the
b. Diocletian and a co-emperor ruled the eastern portion,
while two co-emperors ruled the western portion.
THE CITY OF CONSTANTINE/ CHRISTIANITY
IV. Emperor Constantine
a. Constantine united the empire again
b. He made a new capital city in the eastern
part of the Empire, Byzantium (later known
c. Constantinople became the center of the
d. After Constantine’s death the empire was
V. DIFFERENCES AMONG THE EMPIRES
a. Eastern part of the empire was strong
and rich; capital city was Constantinople.
i. Emperor was the head of the
church-Byzantine Orthodox Church.
b. Western part of the empire was weak
and poor; capital city was Rome.
i. Pope was the head of the church-the
Roman Catholic Church.
THE FINAL DAYS OF ROME/ THE FALL
VI. Visigoths (German Tribe)
a. Attacked the eastern Empire
b. Alaric, leader, reached the gates of Rome.
c. He surrounded the city, cutting off
its food supply.
i. He pillaged (robbed) the homes of
the wealthy in Rome and burned what
he could not take.
VII. ROME FALLS
a. As Rome declined, the Byzantine Empire became
even more prosperous.
b. When Rome fell, the Byzantine Empire became
the center of Roman Power.