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Vocab unit 3-updated


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Vocab unit 3-updated

  1. 1. Heretic <ul><li>one who disagrees with or denies the basic teachings of a religion </li></ul>
  2. 2. Power Center <ul><li>Nations that possessed the ability to conduct overseas exploration during the 15 th century. </li></ul>
  3. 3. Vernacular everyday language of ordinary people Not Latin!
  4. 4. Protestant Reformation <ul><li>A 16 th century European religious movement aimed at reforming the Catholic Church. </li></ul>
  5. 5. Indulgence <ul><li>pardon sold by the Catholic Church to reduce one’s punishment for sins </li></ul>
  6. 6. Lutheran <ul><li>a member of a Protestant church founded on the teachings of Martin Luther </li></ul>
  7. 7. Council of Trent <ul><li>a meeting of Roman Catholic leaders, called by Pope Paul III to rule on doctrines criticized by the Protestant Reformers (1545) </li></ul>
  8. 8. Peace of Augsburg <ul><li>a 1555 agreement declaring that the religion of each German state would be decided by its ruler </li></ul>
  9. 9. Edict of Nantes <ul><li>a 1598 declaration in which the French king Henry IV promised that Protestants could live in peace in France and could set up houses of worship in some French cities. </li></ul>
  10. 10. Thirty Years’ War <ul><li>European conflict over religion, territory and power among ruling families (1618-1648) </li></ul>
  11. 11. Scientific Revolution <ul><li>Starting in the mid-1500’s, a major change in European thought, in which the study of the natural world began to be characterized by careful observation and the questioning of accepted beliefs. </li></ul>
  12. 12. Heliocentric Theory <ul><li>The idea that the earth and the other planets revolve around the sun. </li></ul>
  13. 13. Scientific Method <ul><li>A logical procedure for gathering information about the natural world, in which experimentation and observation are used to test hypotheses. </li></ul>
  14. 14. Conquistadors <ul><li>the Spanish soldiers, explorers, and fortune hunters who took part in the conquest of the Americas in the 16th century </li></ul>
  15. 15. Encomienda <ul><li>a grant of land made by Spain to a settler in the Americas, including the right to use Native Americans as laborers on it </li></ul>
  16. 16. Colony <ul><li>land controlled by a distant nation </li></ul>
  17. 17. Columbian Exchange <ul><li>the global transfer of plants, animals, and diseases that occurred during the European colonization of the Americans </li></ul>
  18. 18. Balance of Trade <ul><li>The relationship between a country’s exports and imports. A positive balance of trade is when a country’s exports exceed their imports. </li></ul>
  19. 19. Mercantilism <ul><li>economic policy of European nations in the 1600s, equating wealth and power </li></ul>
  20. 20. Capitalism <ul><li>An economic system based on private ownership and on the investment of money in business ventures in order to make a profit. </li></ul>
  21. 21. Joint-stock company <ul><li>a business in which investors pool their wealth for a common purpose, then share the profits </li></ul>
  22. 22. Absolute Monarch <ul><li>ruler with complete and unrestricted authority over the government and lives of the people he or she governs </li></ul>
  23. 23. Magna Carta <ul><li>“ Great Charter”- a document guaranteeing basic political rights in England, drawn up by nobles and approved by King John in 1215 </li></ul>
  24. 24. Enlightenment <ul><li>18th century, European movement in which thinkers attempted to apply the principles of reason and the scientific method to all aspects of society. </li></ul>
  25. 25. Natural rights <ul><li>the rights that all people are born with- according to John Locke, the rights of life, liberty, and property </li></ul>
  26. 26. Glorious Revolution <ul><li>1688, the bloodless overthrow of the English king James II and his replacement by William and Mary (Protestant) </li></ul>
  27. 27. Old Regime <ul><li>the political and social system that existed in France before the French Revolution </li></ul>
  28. 28. Bourgeoisie <ul><li>The middle class. Well-educated and sometimes wealthy, but part of the third estate. </li></ul>
  29. 29. Estates-General <ul><li>an assembly of representatives from all three of the estates, or social classes, in France </li></ul>
  30. 30. National Assembly <ul><li>French congress established by representatives of the Third Estate on June 17, 1789, to enact laws and reforms in the name of the French people. </li></ul>
  31. 31. French Revolution <ul><li>the French war for democracy that began in 1789 and ended with the overthrow of the monarchy </li></ul>
  32. 32. Reign of Terror <ul><li>1793-1794 Maximilien Robespierre ruled France nearly as a dictator and thousands of political figures and ordinary citizens were executed </li></ul>
  33. 33. Declaration of the Rights of Man and Citizen <ul><li>a statement of revolutionary ideals adopted by France’s National Assembly in 1789 </li></ul>
  34. 34. Sans-culottes <ul><li>in the French Revolution, a radical group made up of Parisian wage-earners and small shopkeepers who wanted a greater voice in government, lower prices, and an end of food shortages </li></ul>
  35. 35. Napoleonic Code <ul><li>a comprehensive and uniform system of laws established for France by Napoleon </li></ul>
  36. 36. Congress of Vienna <ul><li>A series of meetings in 1814-1815 (8 months!), during which the European leaders sought to establish long-lasting peace and security after the defeat of Napoleon. </li></ul><ul><li>(Prussia, Russia, Austria, Britain and France- Metternich * ) </li></ul><ul><li>Results: legitimacy, Balance of Power, use of diplomacy to restore peace….like the UN! </li></ul>
  37. 37. Estate <ul><li>one of three social classes in France before the French Revolution- the First Estate consisting of the clergy; the Second Estate, of the nobility; and the Third Estate, of the rest of the population </li></ul>
  38. 38. Proletariat <ul><li>the working class </li></ul>
  39. 39. Tennis Court Oath <ul><li>Pledge made by the members of France’s National Assembly in 1789, in which they vowed to continue meeting until they had drawn up a new constitution </li></ul>