Chapter 9 Skin Disorders

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Chapter 9 Skin Disorders

  1. 1. Skin: disorders & diseases disorders & diseases
  2. 2. <ul><li>Dermatologist V. Estheticians </li></ul><ul><li>- Estheticians ’ work provides great benefits </li></ul><ul><li>( important to identify to protect from getting something contagious ) </li></ul><ul><li>BUT </li></ul><ul><li>leave diagnosis / treatment to dermatologists </li></ul><ul><li>( esp . if severe ) </li></ul>
  3. 3. Lesion <ul><li>any mark, symptom, or abnormality </li></ul><ul><li>-structural change in tissue </li></ul><ul><li>-caused by damage or injury </li></ul><ul><li>-very general term </li></ul><ul><li>3 types: </li></ul><ul><li>primary, secondary, tertiary </li></ul>
  4. 4. primary l l l <ul><li>Lesions </li></ul><ul><li>Bulla </li></ul><ul><li>Cyst </li></ul><ul><li>Macule </li></ul><ul><li>Papule </li></ul><ul><li>Pustule </li></ul><ul><li>Tubercle </li></ul><ul><li>Tumor </li></ul><ul><li>Vesicles </li></ul><ul><li>Wheal </li></ul><ul><li>*9 types </li></ul>
  5. 5. Primary: Bulla <ul><li>def: large blister w/ fluid </li></ul>
  6. 6. Bulla=Big Blister
  7. 7. Primary: Vesicle <ul><li>def: small blister w/ fluid </li></ul><ul><li>poison ivy </li></ul>
  8. 8. vesicle is a small enclosure vesicle=small blister
  9. 9. Primary: CySt <ul><li>closed, abnormally developed sac </li></ul><ul><li>above or below skin </li></ul>
  10. 11. Primary: Macule <ul><li>discoloration </li></ul><ul><li>flat </li></ul>
  11. 12. Mac ule has freckles
  12. 13. <ul><li>any discoloration that is flat=macule </li></ul>
  13. 14. Primary: Papule <ul><li>pimple </li></ul><ul><li>no fluid </li></ul><ul><li>may develop pus </li></ul>
  14. 15. Papule
  15. 16. Primary: Pustule <ul><li>inflamed pimple </li></ul><ul><li>=inflamed papule </li></ul><ul><li>WITH </li></ul><ul><li>pus (white/yellow center) </li></ul><ul><li>*fluid contains bacteria, debris from infection </li></ul>
  16. 17. PUS TULE about to BUST
  17. 18. Primary: tubercle <ul><li>rounded, solid lump </li></ul><ul><li>abnormal </li></ul><ul><li>larger than papule </li></ul>
  18. 19. Primary: tumor <ul><li>abnormal cell mass </li></ul><ul><li>because cells abnormally multiply </li></ul>
  19. 20. tumors
  20. 21. Primary: wheal <ul><li>(aka welt) </li></ul><ul><li>itchy, swollen </li></ul><ul><li>cause: allergy, insect bite </li></ul>
  21. 22. Wheal
  22. 23. secondary l l l <ul><li>Lesions </li></ul><ul><li>develop in later stages of disease </li></ul><ul><li>Crust </li></ul><ul><li>Excoriation </li></ul><ul><li>Fissure </li></ul><ul><li>Keloid </li></ul><ul><li>Scale </li></ul><ul><li>Scar </li></ul><ul><li>Ulcer </li></ul><ul><li>*7 types </li></ul>
  23. 24. secondarY: CRUST <ul><li>dead cells </li></ul><ul><li>over wound/blemish while healing </li></ul><ul><li>ex: scab </li></ul>
  24. 25. <ul><li>CRUST </li></ul><ul><li>(scab) </li></ul>
  25. 26. secondarY: Excoriation <ul><li>sore/abrasion </li></ul><ul><li>by scratching/scraping </li></ul><ul><li>ex: acne excoriee (client scrapes off acne) </li></ul>
  26. 27. <ul><li>excoriation </li></ul>acne excoriee
  27. 28. secondarY: Fissure <ul><li>crack in skin </li></ul><ul><li>goes deeper than outside layer of skin (dermis) </li></ul><ul><li>ex: chapped lips, hands </li></ul>
  28. 29. Fissure <ul><li>chapped or very dry </li></ul>
  29. 30. <ul><li>Fissure=crack </li></ul>
  30. 31. secondarY: keloid <ul><li>thick scar </li></ul><ul><li>excessive growth of callagen after injury </li></ul>
  31. 32. <ul><li>Keloids </li></ul>
  32. 33. secondarY: scale <ul><li>flaky skin cells </li></ul><ul><li>on dermis </li></ul><ul><li>dry or oily </li></ul><ul><li>ex: dandruff </li></ul>
  33. 34. scales
  34. 35. secondarY: scar <ul><li>forms after lesion/injury heals </li></ul><ul><li>light colored </li></ul><ul><li>tissue hardens </li></ul>
  35. 36. scar
  36. 37. secondarY: ulcer <ul><li>open lesion </li></ul><ul><li>loss of skin depth, </li></ul><ul><li>from infection or cancer </li></ul><ul><li>mouth, stomach, etc. </li></ul>
  37. 38. Ulcer
  38. 39. sebaceous glands <ul><li>excrete OIL </li></ul>
  39. 40. sebaceous glands <ul><li>Disorders </li></ul><ul><li>Acne </li></ul><ul><li>Asteatosis </li></ul><ul><li>Comedone </li></ul><ul><li>Furuncle </li></ul><ul><li>Milia </li></ul><ul><li>Rosacea </li></ul><ul><li>Sebaceous hyperplasias </li></ul><ul><li>Seborrhea </li></ul><ul><li>Streatoma </li></ul>
  40. 41. oil( sebaceous )Gland : ACNE <ul><li>chronic </li></ul><ul><li>inflammation of oil glands </li></ul><ul><li>characterized by blemishes/comedones(blackheads) </li></ul><ul><li>from infection or cancer </li></ul><ul><li>mouth, stomach, etc. </li></ul>
  41. 42. oil( sebaceous )Gland : Asteatosis <ul><li>dry, scaly skin </li></ul><ul><li>lack of sebum(oily substance) </li></ul><ul><li>causes: harsh soaps, cold exposure, aging, etc. </li></ul><ul><li>characterized by blemishes/comedones(blackheads) </li></ul><ul><li>from infection or cancer </li></ul><ul><li>mouth, stomach, etc. </li></ul>
  42. 43. oil( sebaceous )Gland : comedone <ul><li>blackhead </li></ul><ul><li>skin cells & hardened oil clogging pore </li></ul><ul><li>dark b/c exposed to oxygen </li></ul><ul><li>from infection or cancer </li></ul><ul><li>mouth, stomach, etc. </li></ul>
  43. 44. oil( sebaceous )Gland : furuncle <ul><li>boil </li></ul><ul><li>subcutaneous(under dermis) </li></ul><ul><li>filled with pus </li></ul><ul><li>caused by bacteria from hair follicles </li></ul><ul><li>mouth, stomach, etc. </li></ul><ul><li>ca </li></ul>they really hurt!
  44. 45. <ul><li>whiteheads </li></ul><ul><li>oil & dead cells under skin </li></ul><ul><li>more common with dry skin </li></ul><ul><li>from infection or cancer </li></ul><ul><li>mouth, stomach, etc. </li></ul>oil( sebaceous )Gland : milia
  45. 46. oil( sebaceous )Gland : rosacea <ul><li>chronic redness </li></ul><ul><li>on cheeks and nose </li></ul><ul><li>aggravated by heat, alcohol, stress, sun, caffeine </li></ul><ul><li>mouth, stomach, etc. </li></ul>
  46. 47. rosacea
  47. 48. oil( sebaceous )Gland : sebaceous h Hyperplasias <ul><li>overgrowth of sebaceous gland </li></ul><ul><li>benign lesions </li></ul><ul><li>oily areas </li></ul><ul><li>only surgically removed </li></ul><ul><li>characterized by blemishes/comedones(blackheads) </li></ul><ul><li>from infection or cancer </li></ul><ul><li>mouth, stomach, etc. </li></ul>
  48. 49. <ul><li>Hyper=? </li></ul><ul><li>Very/over (ex: hyperactive) </li></ul><ul><li>Plasia=? </li></ul><ul><li>growth </li></ul><ul><li>Subaceous Hyperplasia= </li></ul><ul><li>oil gland overgrowth! </li></ul>
  49. 50. oil( sebaceous )Gland : seborrhea <ul><li>severe oiliness </li></ul><ul><li>ending -” orrhea ”=flow or discharge </li></ul><ul><li>therefore: seborrhea=oil overflow!!! </li></ul>
  50. 51. oil( sebaceous )Gland : steatoma <ul><li>oil cyst (sebaceous cyst) </li></ul><ul><li>size: pea to orange </li></ul><ul><li>appears on scalp, neck, back </li></ul><ul><li>from infection or cancer </li></ul><ul><li>mouth, stomach, etc. </li></ul>
  51. 52. sudoriferous glands <ul><li>excrete SWEAT </li></ul>
  52. 53. sudoriferous glands <ul><li>Disorders </li></ul><ul><li>Anhidrosis </li></ul><ul><li>Bromhidrosis </li></ul><ul><li>Hyperhidrosis </li></ul><ul><li>Milaria rubra </li></ul>
  53. 54. s weat(sudoriferous)Gland : Anhidrosis <ul><li>deficiency in perspiration </li></ul><ul><li>because of fever or skin disease </li></ul><ul><li>required medical treatment </li></ul><ul><li>characterized by blemishes/comedones(blackheads) </li></ul><ul><li>from infection or cancer </li></ul><ul><li>mouth, stomach, etc. </li></ul>
  54. 55. <ul><li>An=? </li></ul><ul><li>not or without </li></ul><ul><li>Hidrosis=? </li></ul><ul><li>sweating </li></ul><ul><li>Anhidrosis= without sweat </li></ul>
  55. 56. s weat Gland : bromhidrosis <ul><li>bad smelling perspiration </li></ul><ul><li>armpits or feet </li></ul>
  56. 57. brom=odor <ul><li>hidrosis=? </li></ul><ul><li>Bromhidrosis=foul-smelling sweat (odor sweat) </li></ul>
  57. 58. s weat(sudoriferous)Gland : hyperhidrosis <ul><li>over-sweating </li></ul><ul><li>becuase of heat or body weakness </li></ul>
  58. 59. hyper=over/too much <ul><li>hyperhidrosis=over sweating </li></ul>
  59. 60. s weat Gland : Milaria Rubra <ul><li>inflammation of sweat glands </li></ul><ul><li>= heat(sweat) rash! </li></ul><ul><li>itching, burning skin from excessive heat exposure </li></ul><ul><li>red vesicles(blisters) erupt </li></ul>
  60. 61. heat rash <ul><li>=miliaria rubra </li></ul>
  61. 62. inflammations <ul><li>of the skin </li></ul><ul><li>Atopic dermatitis </li></ul><ul><li>contact dermatitis </li></ul><ul><li>dermatitis </li></ul><ul><li>eczema </li></ul>
  62. 63. what is dermatitis? <ul><li>skin inflammation </li></ul><ul><li>could be </li></ul><ul><li>a lesion, pimple, blister </li></ul><ul><li>=lesion, papule, vesicle or bulla </li></ul>
  63. 64. “itis”=inflammation <ul><li>derma=skin </li></ul>
  64. 65. atopic dermatitis <ul><li>chronically relapsing for person </li></ul><ul><li>common in people with allergies </li></ul><ul><li>reacts to environment </li></ul><ul><li>(chemicals in food, air, etc.) </li></ul><ul><li>not contagious </li></ul><ul><li>type of eczema </li></ul>
  65. 66. <ul><li>type of Eczema </li></ul>
  66. 67. contact dermatitis <ul><li>allergic reaction to substance/chemical </li></ul><ul><li>by “contact” with allergen </li></ul><ul><li>*wear gloves </li></ul><ul><li>ring example </li></ul>
  67. 68. contact <ul><li>dermatitis </li></ul>
  68. 69. Edema=swelling <ul><li>fluid beneath skin </li></ul>
  69. 70. Edema
  70. 71. Erythema <ul><li>redness caused by inflammation </li></ul><ul><li>“ery”=a condition/state of </li></ul>
  71. 72. Herpes simplex <ul><li>fever blisters or cold sores </li></ul><ul><li>virus </li></ul><ul><li>contagious </li></ul><ul><li>vesicles on lips </li></ul>
  72. 73. perioral dermatitis <ul><li>acne around the mouth </li></ul><ul><li>not contagious, antibiotics may help </li></ul>
  73. 74. psoriasis <ul><li>red patched with white scales </li></ul><ul><li>scalp, elbows, knees, chest, back </li></ul>
  74. 75. Pigmentation disorders <ul><li>--------------------------------------------------------------------------- </li></ul>hyper=too much hypo=too little
  75. 76. <ul><li>increased pigmentation </li></ul><ul><li>liver spots </li></ul><ul><li>characterized by blemishes/comedones(blackheads) </li></ul><ul><li>from infection or cancer </li></ul><ul><li>mouth, stomach, etc. </li></ul>hyper pigmentation disorders: Chloasma
  76. 77. hyper pigmentation disorders: Lentigenes Lentigenes <ul><li>freckles </li></ul><ul><li>may be because of sun exposure </li></ul><ul><li>macules </li></ul><ul><li>characterized by blemishes/comedones(blackheads) </li></ul><ul><li>from infection or cancer </li></ul><ul><li>mouth, stomach, etc. </li></ul>
  77. 78. hyper pigmentation disorders: MELASMA <ul><li>TERM FOR HYPERPIGMENTATION </li></ul><ul><li>pregnancy mask=tan b/c of hormone changes </li></ul><ul><li>characterized by blemishes/comedones(blackheads) </li></ul><ul><li>from infection or cancer </li></ul><ul><li>mouth, stomach, etc. </li></ul>
  78. 79. hyper pigmentation disorders: Nevus Nevus <ul><li>birthmark or mole </li></ul><ul><li>abnormal pigmentation </li></ul><ul><li>characterized by blemishes/comedones(blackheads) </li></ul><ul><li>from infection or cancer </li></ul><ul><li>mouth, stomach, etc. </li></ul>
  79. 80. hyper pigmentation disorders: stain <ul><li>Discoloration </li></ul><ul><li>occur after certain diseases or </li></ul><ul><li>after freckles, moles, etc disappear </li></ul><ul><li>pregnancy mask=tan b/c of hormone changes </li></ul><ul><li>characterized by blemishes/comedones(blackheads) </li></ul><ul><li>from infection or cancer </li></ul><ul><li>mouth, stomach, etc. </li></ul>
  80. 81. hyper pigmentation disorders: Tan <ul><li>caused by exposure to sun </li></ul><ul><li>melanin production </li></ul><ul><li>defense against UV rays </li></ul><ul><li>pregnancy mask=tan b/c of hormone changes </li></ul><ul><li>characterized by blemishes/comedones(blackheads) </li></ul><ul><li>from infection or cancer </li></ul><ul><li>mouth, stomach, etc. </li></ul>
  81. 82. hypo <ul><li>pigmentation </li></ul>
  82. 83. hypo pigmentation disorders: leukoderma leukoderma <ul><li>light, abnormal patches </li></ul><ul><li>disease that destroys pigment-producing cells </li></ul><ul><li>ex: albinism, vitiligo </li></ul><ul><li>characterized by blemishes/comedones(blackheads) </li></ul><ul><li>from infection or cancer </li></ul><ul><li>mouth, stomach, etc. </li></ul>
  83. 84. hypo pigmentation disorders: albinism <ul><li>lack of melanin pigment </li></ul><ul><li>in skin, hair, eyes </li></ul><ul><li>genetic </li></ul><ul><li>very sensitive to light </li></ul><ul><li>pregnancy mask=tan b/c of hormone changes </li></ul><ul><li>characterized by blemishes/comedones(blackheads) </li></ul><ul><li>from infection or cancer </li></ul><ul><li>mouth, stomach, etc. </li></ul>
  84. 85. hypo pigmentation disorders: vitiligo <ul><li>white spots/light colored areas of skin </li></ul><ul><li>b/c of lack of pigment </li></ul><ul><li>worsened by sunlight </li></ul><ul><li>pregnancy mask=tan b/c of hormone changes </li></ul><ul><li>characterized by blemishes/comedones(blackheads) </li></ul><ul><li>from infection or cancer </li></ul><ul><li>mouth, stomach, etc. </li></ul>
  85. 86. Hypertrophies <ul><li>=abnormal growths </li></ul>
  86. 87. Keratoma <ul><li>thickened skin (epidermis) </li></ul><ul><li>ex: callus </li></ul>
  87. 88. keratoses <ul><li>thick buildup of cells </li></ul>
  88. 89. keratosis pilaris <ul><li>bumpiness b/c of blocked follicles </li></ul><ul><li>exfoliation can help </li></ul>
  89. 90. Mole <ul><li>brownish spot </li></ul><ul><li>don’t remove hairs in moles </li></ul>
  90. 91. skin tag <ul><li>small over-growth </li></ul><ul><li>common on arms & neck </li></ul>
  91. 92. verruca <ul><li>wart </li></ul><ul><li>caused by virus </li></ul><ul><li>infectious, contagious </li></ul>
  92. 93. skin cancer <ul><li>---------------------------------------- </li></ul>
  93. 94. skin cancer: <ul><li>cause: sun exposure </li></ul><ul><li>3 forms </li></ul>
  94. 95. basal cell carcinoma <ul><li>most basic, least severe </li></ul><ul><li>light, pearly nodes </li></ul>
  95. 96. squamous cell carcinoma <ul><li>more serious </li></ul><ul><li>scaly red growths </li></ul>
  96. 97. malignant melanoma <ul><li>most serious </li></ul><ul><li>black/dark patches, uneven texture </li></ul>
  97. 98. contagious diseases
  98. 99. conjunctivitis <ul><li>pink eye </li></ul><ul><li>-bacterial </li></ul>
  99. 100. herpes (simplex) <ul><li>virus </li></ul><ul><li>-never work on client if they have current lesions </li></ul>
  100. 101. impetigo <ul><li>baterial infection </li></ul><ul><li>small blisters/crusty lesions </li></ul><ul><li>very contagious </li></ul>
  101. 102. tinea <ul><li>=fungal infection </li></ul>
  102. 103. tinea corporis <ul><li>ringworm </li></ul><ul><li>very contagious </li></ul>
  103. 104. tinea versicolor <ul><li>yeast infection </li></ul>
  104. 105. verruca= <ul><li>wart </li></ul>
  105. 106. quick stats <ul><li>-80% of sun exposure you get before 18 yrs. </li></ul><ul><li>-1 person/hr dies of skin cancer in US </li></ul><ul><li>-skin cancer kills more women in late 20’s/early 30’s than breast cancer </li></ul><ul><li>-most parents do not correctly use sunscreen on children (93%) </li></ul><ul><li>-33% of adolescents never use sun screen </li></ul>
  106. 107. acne <ul><li>------------------ </li></ul>
  107. 108. acne <ul><li>-primary concern of many clients </li></ul><ul><li>-triggered by hormonal changes </li></ul><ul><li>-disorder of sebaceous glands </li></ul>
  108. 109. causes <ul><li>clogged pores </li></ul><ul><li>bacteria </li></ul><ul><li>cosmetic products </li></ul><ul><li>triggers(hormones, foods, stress) </li></ul>
  109. 110. 4 classes of acne <ul><li>1-least severe </li></ul><ul><li>4-most severe </li></ul>
  110. 111. yay chapter 9! suggestions: go over slides a few more times make flash cards with difficult terms & definitions read book to help with hard topics look at pictures of skin disorders on internet to help

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