Building an Audio Preservation System at
Indiana University Using Standards
and Best Practices
Mike Casey, Archives of Tra...
The Problem
• Numbers
• Degradation
• Obsolescence
August 2, 2014
Plus many more!
Audio/Video at IUB
• AAAMC
• Music Library
• University Archives
• ATM
• HPER
• Radio/TV
• ...
By the Numbers
• ATM: 110,000 (mostly) audio recordings
• Wells Library, Kent Cooper Room: 20,000 videos
• Music Library: ...
Obsolescence
• Audio formats
• Equipment (playback machines, test devices)
• Repair parts
• Playback expertise
• Repair ex...
Preservation in the Analog Domain
• Life expectancy critically important
• Predicting when a recording will fail
• Quest f...
The New Paradigm
• Eternal sound carriers never available
• Maintaining equipment long-term
unmanageable
Therefore, classi...
The New Paradigm
• Preserve the content, not the carrier
• The eternal file, not the eternal carrier
• Use digital mass st...
Standards and Best Practices
• Ensure Quality
• Provide Philosophical/Ethical Foundation
• Encourage Sustainability
• Fost...
Preserving Digital Information
• Advantage: Digital information may be copied
without degradation
• Disadvantage: Digital ...
Risks of Digital Information:
Bit Loss
• Degradation of physical media
– Optical, magnetic
• Damage or theft of physical m...
Risks of Digital Information:
Semantic Loss
• Even if the bits are intact, can a file still be
understood?
• File format o...
Risks of Digital Information:
Integrity
• How do we know whether or not information
has been altered, whether intentionall...
Methods of Mitigating Risks
• Migration
– Migration of data to new physical media
– Migration of data to new file formats
...
Scaling Digital Preservation
• Migration, replication, and validation require:
– Automated processes
– Ongoing monitoring,...
Digital Repositories
• Centrally-managed systems for storage (and
delivery) of digital information
• Leverage economies of...
OAIS:
Open Archival Information System
• ISO Standard 14721:2003
• Origins in space science community
• Conceptual framewo...
OAIS Reference Model
Preservation Packages in OAIS
• Preservation package
– Digital content plus metadata
• SIP: Submission Information Package...
From OAIS to Trusted Digital
Repositories
• 2002 OCLC-RLG task force report:
– Trusted Digital Repositories: Attributes an...
Trusted Digital Repositories:
Auditing and Certiciation
• Digital Repository Audit Method Based on Risk
Assessment (DRAMBO...
Archives of Traditional Music
• Established 1948
• 110,000 recordings
• 1890s to present
• Field—30%
• World music traditi...
Sound Directions
Digital Preservation and Access for Global Audio Heritage
• Collaboration between Harvard University and
...
Sound Directions
Digital Preservation and Access for Global Audio Heritage
Project Partners
• Archives of Traditional Musi...
Sound Directions
Digital Preservation and Access for Global Audio Heritage
Objectives
• Research best practices in areas w...
Sound Directions
Digital Preservation and Access for Global Audio Heritage
Results
 Publication—
Sound Directions: Best P...
Sound Directions
Digital Preservation and Access for Global Audio Heritage
Project Future
• “Preservation” Phase funded by...
Migration
decision
Workflow
management
Workflow management / scheduling
Cleaning or physical restoration as needed
System ...
Common sense definition of a system:
• Set of interacting units or elements
• Forms an integrated whole
• Performs a funct...
A few basic principles…
• Each element/part affects the whole
• Whole is greater than sum of parts
• Inputs and outputs
• ...
What should we preserve?
Selection for Preservation
• Analysis of research value
• Evaluation of preservation condition an...
Data Collection/Analysis
Research Value
Score
Condition/Risk
(FACET)
Score
Combined Selection
Score
Collection Ranking
Cur...
FACET
• Software tool—point-based, collection level
• Analyzes data on condition of field formats
• Returns a risk assessm...
FACET Package
• Software
• Formats document
• Procedures manual
• FACET worksheets
Where should preservation
work be done?
• In-house or outsource?
• Issues: studio space, technical expertise,
amount of wo...
Who should do preservation transfer
work?
• Audio engineer
• Importance of analog playback stage
• Audio examples
Who and Where Best Practices
• Use audio engineers in the workflow where
their skill is required
• Critical listening envi...
What is the target preservation format?
• Digital file
• Broadcast Wave Format (BWF or BWAV)
Preservation involves a long-...
What do we look for in a file format?
• Disclosure
• Adoption
• Transparency
• Self-documentation
• External dependencies
...
Broadcast Wave Format
• Audio file format based on .wav files
• EBU 1996 for the exchange of files
• Non-proprietary
• Rec...
Broadcast Wave Format
Metadata elements include:
• Description of the sound sequence
• Name of the originator
• Date/time
...
How do we define the files we create?
• What is in them?
• How are they created?
• What do they represent?
Preservation (Archival) Master Files
Best Practice Documents
• Unmodified
• No subjective alterations or improvements
• Pr...
Preservation (Archival) Master Files
• Complete, unaltered stream from playback
machine
• Carrier of raw material from tra...
Preservation (Archival) Master Files
Best Practices
• Define purpose of every digital file
• Written guidelines on charact...
Data Integrity
 Data integrity checking
 “Checksums”
 MD5 hash or algorithm
A7F1DAD8A7BF5E88EF44495E19683B18 *atm_01007...
Data Integrity
• All files with enduring value
• As soon as possible
• Critical metadata stored in database and in
preserv...
How do we make the preserved content
understandable and manageable?
• Descriptive Metadata
• Administrative—Technical Meta...
Audio Technical Metadata Collector
(ATMC)
• Enter/edit technical and structural metadata
• Audio object and process histor...
Quality Control and Assurance
• Quality control vs. quality assurance
• QC at ATM: aural, visual, software tools
• Collect...
How do we store the data immediately
after capture?
• Local, interim storage
• Backup copies at each stage
• ATM NAS
• Add...
Director
Project Development
Selection for Preservation
Archivist
Selection
Preview Collections
QC Documentation
Librarian...
The Role of Metadata in Digital
Preservation
What is metadata?
• “The stuff we need to know in order to discover
and manage data over the long term”
• Here’s a better ...
Metadata standards
• Standards define mutually agreed-upon:
– Definitions of key terms
– “Fields” of data to record
– Rule...
Evaluating metadata standards
• Good fit for the type of material I have?
• Supports my access/management/preservation
nee...
Creating metadata
• Generally not done by humans encoding data
directly in the storage format
• Instead:
– Humans use tool...
Technical metadata
• Tracks properties of a digital file necessary for
its rendering and processing
• Can also include dat...
Digital provenance metadata
• Tracks the history of a set of related digital files
– Can include the methodology by which ...
Structural metadata
• Documents relationships within and between
digital files
– Locating the same intellectual content on...
Rights metadata
• Covers legal, moral/ethical, financial rights over
resources
– Rights holders
– Copyright status
– Condi...
Descriptive metadata
• Like “cataloging”
• Allows users and collection managers to find
and identify resources of interest...
Preservation metadata
• Some overlap with technical and process
history metadata
• Catch-all for all the metadata we need ...
Preservation Packages
Types of preservation packages
• According to OAIS:
– Submission information package (SIP)
– Archival information package ...
Information representation
• Repository needs two simultaneous views of
the content it manages
– Physical files
– Function...
Technical metadata
Audio Engineering Society, Core Audio
Schema Draft. AES X098-B/SC-03-06.
Also record for analog source ...
Digital provenance metadata
Audio Engineering Society, Audio Processing
History Draft. AES X098-C/SC-03-06.
Structural metadata (1)
Audio Engineering Society, Audio
Decision List. AES 31-3
and
Metadata Encoding and Transmisson
Sta...
Structural metadata (2)
Audio Engineering Society, Audio
Decision List. AES 31-3
and
Metadata Encoding and Transmisson
Sta...
Rights metadata
• For field audio collections, the ATM knows:
– Collector
– Terms of deposit governing access
• This area ...
Descriptive metadata (1)
MARCXML
Descriptive metadata (2)
METS reference to external
Word document
Preservation metadata
• Still under investigation for IU repository, for all
formats of material
• Will need to implement ...
Need to share
• Copies in multiple repositories can help ensure
preservation
• Sound Directions did a test exchange of con...
Two Repositories Supported by the
Digital Library Program
• IUScholarWorks Repository
– “Institutional Repository”
• For p...
Fedora
• Flexible Extensible Digital Object
Repository Architecture
• Open source digital repository software
developed by...
Moving Content to a Digital
Repository – Idealized Workflow
Master audio files
in MDSS
Delivery audio
files on streaming s...
IU Massive Data Storage System
(MDSS)
• Hierarchical storage management
– Some storage on hard disks
– Much more storage o...
Repository Status
• Fedora is running in production
– Supporting access to image and text
collections
– Experiments with l...
Toward a Preservation Repository
• Need to add:
– File integrity validation
– Integration with MDSS – replication of data
...
Access Systems
• Variations2
– variations2.indiana.edu
– Provides access to cataloged commercial
recordings from the Music...
Questions?
• micasey@indiana.edu
• jwd@indiana.edu
• jenlrile@indiana.edu
• www.dlib.indiana.edu/projects/sounddirections/
Building an Audio Preservation System at Indiana University Using Standards and Best Practices
Building an Audio Preservation System at Indiana University Using Standards and Best Practices
Building an Audio Preservation System at Indiana University Using Standards and Best Practices
Building an Audio Preservation System at Indiana University Using Standards and Best Practices
Building an Audio Preservation System at Indiana University Using Standards and Best Practices
Building an Audio Preservation System at Indiana University Using Standards and Best Practices
Building an Audio Preservation System at Indiana University Using Standards and Best Practices
Building an Audio Preservation System at Indiana University Using Standards and Best Practices
Building an Audio Preservation System at Indiana University Using Standards and Best Practices
Building an Audio Preservation System at Indiana University Using Standards and Best Practices
Building an Audio Preservation System at Indiana University Using Standards and Best Practices
Building an Audio Preservation System at Indiana University Using Standards and Best Practices
Building an Audio Preservation System at Indiana University Using Standards and Best Practices
Building an Audio Preservation System at Indiana University Using Standards and Best Practices
Building an Audio Preservation System at Indiana University Using Standards and Best Practices
Building an Audio Preservation System at Indiana University Using Standards and Best Practices
Building an Audio Preservation System at Indiana University Using Standards and Best Practices
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Building an Audio Preservation System at Indiana University Using Standards and Best Practices

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Casey, Michael, Jon Dunn, and Jenn Riley. “Building an Audio Preservation System at Indiana University Using Standards and Best Practices.” April 14, 2008.

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Building an Audio Preservation System at Indiana University Using Standards and Best Practices

  1. 1. Building an Audio Preservation System at Indiana University Using Standards and Best Practices Mike Casey, Archives of Traditional Music Jon Dunn, Digital Library Program Jenn Riley, Digital Library Program April 14, 2008
  2. 2. The Problem • Numbers • Degradation • Obsolescence
  3. 3. August 2, 2014 Plus many more! Audio/Video at IUB • AAAMC • Music Library • University Archives • ATM • HPER • Radio/TV • Center for the Study of History and Memory • Kinsey Institute • Athletics • Emeriti House • Office of University Marketing • Wells Library • AISRI • Office of Dean of the Faculties • Lilly Library • Alumni Relations • School of Journalism • School of Music • School of Law • Traditional Arts Indiana • Department of History • Department of Anthropology • Department of Folklore/Ethnomusicology • Black Film Center/Archive
  4. 4. By the Numbers • ATM: 110,000 (mostly) audio recordings • Wells Library, Kent Cooper Room: 20,000 videos • Music Library: 137,000 audio recordings *2,000 lacquer discs *8,000 DATs *50,000 open reel tapes • CSHM: 3,200 audio recordings • AAAMC: 5,900 audio recordings
  5. 5. Obsolescence • Audio formats • Equipment (playback machines, test devices) • Repair parts • Playback expertise • Repair expertise • Tools • Supplies
  6. 6. Preservation in the Analog Domain • Life expectancy critically important • Predicting when a recording will fail • Quest for the eternal carrier • Target preservation format-mastering-quality open reel tape • Standards set in the mid-1980’s-ARSC/AAA
  7. 7. The New Paradigm • Eternal sound carriers never available • Maintaining equipment long-term unmanageable Therefore, classical preservation strategy is hopeless
  8. 8. The New Paradigm • Preserve the content, not the carrier • The eternal file, not the eternal carrier • Use digital mass storage systems Longevity of carriers in mass storage systems of minor importance
  9. 9. Standards and Best Practices • Ensure Quality • Provide Philosophical/Ethical Foundation • Encourage Sustainability • Foster Interoperability • Provide a Migration Path
  10. 10. Preserving Digital Information • Advantage: Digital information may be copied without degradation • Disadvantage: Digital information requires active management in order to remain accessible
  11. 11. Risks of Digital Information: Bit Loss • Degradation of physical media – Optical, magnetic • Damage or theft of physical media • Media obsolescence – Ability to read physical media – Ability to read logical media format
  12. 12. Risks of Digital Information: Semantic Loss • Even if the bits are intact, can a file still be understood? • File format obsolescence • Loss of context – Insufficient metadata
  13. 13. Risks of Digital Information: Integrity • How do we know whether or not information has been altered, whether intentionally or unintentionally?
  14. 14. Methods of Mitigating Risks • Migration – Migration of data to new physical media – Migration of data to new file formats • Replication – Multiple copies of data in multiple locations • Validation – Retain checksums for files, routinely retrieve files and compare against checksums
  15. 15. Scaling Digital Preservation • Migration, replication, and validation require: – Automated processes – Ongoing monitoring, management, and planning – Ongoing funding for technology refresh
  16. 16. Digital Repositories • Centrally-managed systems for storage (and delivery) of digital information • Leverage economies of scale for storage and management costs • Support preservation integrity functions (migration, replication, validation) • Much easier to manage than many little pockets of digital information
  17. 17. OAIS: Open Archival Information System • ISO Standard 14721:2003 • Origins in space science community • Conceptual framework for an archival system dedicated to preserving and maintaining access to digital information over the long term • Basis for much work on digital preservation within the library and archive community
  18. 18. OAIS Reference Model
  19. 19. Preservation Packages in OAIS • Preservation package – Digital content plus metadata • SIP: Submission Information Package • AIP: Archival Information Package • DIP: Dissemination Package
  20. 20. From OAIS to Trusted Digital Repositories • 2002 OCLC-RLG task force report: – Trusted Digital Repositories: Attributes and Responsibilitie • What are the attributes of a trusted repository? – OAIS compliance – Administrative responsibility – Organizational viability – Financial sustainability – System security – Procedural accountability
  21. 21. Trusted Digital Repositories: Auditing and Certiciation • Digital Repository Audit Method Based on Risk Assessment (DRAMBORA) – http://www.repositoryaudit.edu/ • Trustworthy Repositories Audit & Certification (TRAC): Criteria and Checklist – OCLC/NARA/CRL report – http://www.crl.edu/PDF/trac.pdf
  22. 22. Archives of Traditional Music • Established 1948 • 110,000 recordings • 1890s to present • Field—30% • World music traditions • Endangered/extinct world languages
  23. 23. Sound Directions Digital Preservation and Access for Global Audio Heritage • Collaboration between Harvard University and Indiana University • Phase 1 an R&D project funded by NEH • Focus on preservation
  24. 24. Sound Directions Digital Preservation and Access for Global Audio Heritage Project Partners • Archives of Traditional Music, Indiana University • Archive of World Music, Harvard University • Harvard College Library Audio Preservation Services • Digital Library Program, Indiana University • Office for Information Systems, Harvard University
  25. 25. Sound Directions Digital Preservation and Access for Global Audio Heritage Objectives • Research best practices in areas without standards or best practices • Develop best practices to meet existing and emerging standards • Test existing and emerging standards/best practices with a real world project
  26. 26. Sound Directions Digital Preservation and Access for Global Audio Heritage Results  Publication— Sound Directions: Best Practices for Audio Preservation  Development of audio preservation system  Software tools  Preservation of field collections
  27. 27. Sound Directions Digital Preservation and Access for Global Audio Heritage Project Future • “Preservation” Phase funded by NEH • Increase throughput • Simultaneous transfer • Indiana automation • Release ATMC • Develop new access system for field collections
  28. 28. Migration decision Workflow management Workflow management / scheduling Cleaning or physical restoration as needed System / Project Planning & Development Funding Personnel / Vendor Equipment Software Tools Creation / maintenance of software and scripts Selection for Preservation Assess research value Evaluate condition Consider political, technical, and other issues Establish priorities Digitization Analog playback A/D conversion Creation of Preservation Master Files Local filenames Digitization Technical metadata Structural metadata Checksums Quality control Local storage solution Post-Transfer Processing Quality control Generation of derivatives Marking areas of interest in files Signal processing (if appropriate) Preliminary Work / Pilot Project Exploratory transfers and metadata collection Quality control Reassessment of digitization plan Collection Setup Gather and assess documentation Evaluate collection needs / condition Assess cataloging / descriptive metadata issues Develop digitization plan Assess and calibrate equipment Ingestion into / Copy to Long-Term Storage Solution Preservation packages Periodic Evaluation Data integrity checking Format obsolescence analysis Migration New carrier New format
  29. 29. Common sense definition of a system: • Set of interacting units or elements • Forms an integrated whole • Performs a function
  30. 30. A few basic principles… • Each element/part affects the whole • Whole is greater than sum of parts • Inputs and outputs • Equifinality
  31. 31. What should we preserve? Selection for Preservation • Analysis of research value • Evaluation of preservation condition and risk
  32. 32. Data Collection/Analysis Research Value Score Condition/Risk (FACET) Score Combined Selection Score Collection Ranking Curatorial Review Selection for Preservation
  33. 33. FACET • Software tool—point-based, collection level • Analyzes data on condition of field formats • Returns a risk assessment score
  34. 34. FACET Package • Software • Formats document • Procedures manual • FACET worksheets
  35. 35. Where should preservation work be done? • In-house or outsource? • Issues: studio space, technical expertise, amount of work, future location of expertise • Critical listening spaces • Development of preservation studio
  36. 36. Who should do preservation transfer work? • Audio engineer • Importance of analog playback stage • Audio examples
  37. 37. Who and Where Best Practices • Use audio engineers in the workflow where their skill is required • Critical listening environment • Use cleanest, most direct signal path to converter • Instant comparison from playback machine and post A/D converter • Test/calibration chain
  38. 38. What is the target preservation format? • Digital file • Broadcast Wave Format (BWF or BWAV) Preservation involves a long-term responsibility to the digital file
  39. 39. What do we look for in a file format? • Disclosure • Adoption • Transparency • Self-documentation • External dependencies • Impact of patents • Technical protection mechanisms http://www.digitalpreservation.gov/formats/sustain/sustain.shtml
  40. 40. Broadcast Wave Format • Audio file format based on .wav files • EBU 1996 for the exchange of files • Non-proprietary • Recommended by IASA, AES, NARAS, Sound Directions for preservation • “Chunk” for metadata residing with the file • Time stamp
  41. 41. Broadcast Wave Format Metadata elements include: • Description of the sound sequence • Name of the originator • Date/time • Coding history (signal chain components) • Format independent, sample accurate time stamp • “Catastrophic” metadata
  42. 42. How do we define the files we create? • What is in them? • How are they created? • What do they represent?
  43. 43. Preservation (Archival) Master Files Best Practice Documents • Unmodified • No subjective alterations or improvements • Preserve history, not re-write it • As true to the original source as possible
  44. 44. Preservation (Archival) Master Files • Complete, unaltered stream from playback machine • Carrier of raw material from transfer • No editing, signal processing, data reduction, gain manipulation, announcements (slates) • 24 bit, 96 kHz
  45. 45. Preservation (Archival) Master Files Best Practices • Define purpose of every digital file • Written guidelines on characteristics of files • Written guidelines on “technical” and content edits • Maintain common reference timeline
  46. 46. Data Integrity  Data integrity checking  “Checksums”  MD5 hash or algorithm A7F1DAD8A7BF5E88EF44495E19683B18 *atm_01007_cass6936_010101_pres_20080228.wav
  47. 47. Data Integrity • All files with enduring value • As soon as possible • Critical metadata stored in database and in preservation package • Verify before trusting A7F1DAD8A7BF5E88EF44495E19683B18 *atm_01007_cass6936_010101_pres_20080228.wav
  48. 48. How do we make the preserved content understandable and manageable? • Descriptive Metadata • Administrative—Technical Metadata • Administrative—Digital Provenance • Administrative—Rights Management • Structural Metadata
  49. 49. Audio Technical Metadata Collector (ATMC) • Enter/edit technical and structural metadata • Audio object and process history metadata • Enter/edit audio object evaluations • Parse files to collect metadata
  50. 50. Quality Control and Assurance • Quality control vs. quality assurance • QC at ATM: aural, visual, software tools • Collection setup—preliminary transfers • Role of permanent staff • QA at ATM
  51. 51. How do we store the data immediately after capture? • Local, interim storage • Backup copies at each stage • ATM NAS • Additional redundant copy
  52. 52. Director Project Development Selection for Preservation Archivist Selection Preview Collections QC Documentation Librarian Cataloging Issues Associate Director Project Management Selection—Format Issues Scheduling Coordination QC R&D Audio Engineer Preservation Transfer Preservation Master Files Technical MD Collection Checksums BWAV MD ADL’s Signal Processing Project Assistant Content Division Production Masters QC ADL’s Workflow Management Collection Setup Ingestion Process Programmer Software/Script Development Digital Library Program Preservation Repository Services Deliverables Access System
  53. 53. The Role of Metadata in Digital Preservation
  54. 54. What is metadata? • “The stuff we need to know in order to discover and manage data over the long term” • Here’s a better definition: “Metadata is structured information that describes, explains, locates, or otherwise makes it easier to retrieve, use, or manage an information resource.” NISO. “Understanding Metadata.” 2004. <http://www.niso.org/standards/resources/UnderstandingMetadata.pdf>
  55. 55. Metadata standards • Standards define mutually agreed-upon: – Definitions of key terms – “Fields” of data to record – Rules for structuring data in these fields • In this area, generally expressed in XML • Allow us to benefit from community experience • Promote preservation by providing for more predictable data
  56. 56. Evaluating metadata standards • Good fit for the type of material I have? • Supports my access/management/preservation needs? • Are there existing tools to help me create it? • Has it been used before in similar situations? • Who maintains it? • How quickly are the standards in this environment changing?
  57. 57. Creating metadata • Generally not done by humans encoding data directly in the storage format • Instead: – Humans use tools designed for specific purposes – Derived computationally from the digital resource itself
  58. 58. Technical metadata • Tracks properties of a digital file necessary for its rendering and processing • Can also include data about the circumstances of creation of a digital file • Often format- or media-specific • Much can be generated automatically from digital file
  59. 59. Digital provenance metadata • Tracks the history of a set of related digital files – Can include the methodology by which the “master” file was created from an analog source (overlap with technical metadata) – What transformative processes have been applied to the file – Relationship of “derivative” files to the “master”
  60. 60. Structural metadata • Documents relationships within and between digital files – Locating the same intellectual content on multiple representations – Noting points of interest within a single resource – Grouping and sequencing multiple files that make up a logical whole
  61. 61. Rights metadata • Covers legal, moral/ethical, financial rights over resources – Rights holders – Copyright status – Conditions on access – Usage fees/royalty payments • Can be in human- or machine-readable format
  62. 62. Descriptive metadata • Like “cataloging” • Allows users and collection managers to find and identify resources of interest • Factual information such as creator, date created, running time (overlap with technical metadata) • Constructed information such as title • Subjective information such as topic, genre
  63. 63. Preservation metadata • Some overlap with technical and process history metadata • Catch-all for all the metadata we need to support the preservation process that’s not recorded elsewhere • Most important feature: tracking events that occur during the preservation process
  64. 64. Preservation Packages
  65. 65. Types of preservation packages • According to OAIS: – Submission information package (SIP) – Archival information package (AIP) – Dissemination information package (DIP) • The AIP is what is stored (potentially broken up into pieces) in the IU repository • Metadata Encoding and Transmission Standard (METS) used to wrap various pieces together
  66. 66. Information representation • Repository needs two simultaneous views of the content it manages – Physical files – Functions the repository needs to support
  67. 67. Technical metadata Audio Engineering Society, Core Audio Schema Draft. AES X098-B/SC-03-06. Also record for analog source object!
  68. 68. Digital provenance metadata Audio Engineering Society, Audio Processing History Draft. AES X098-C/SC-03-06.
  69. 69. Structural metadata (1) Audio Engineering Society, Audio Decision List. AES 31-3 and Metadata Encoding and Transmisson Standard (METS), <structMap> section
  70. 70. Structural metadata (2) Audio Engineering Society, Audio Decision List. AES 31-3 and Metadata Encoding and Transmisson Standard (METS), <structMap> section
  71. 71. Rights metadata • For field audio collections, the ATM knows: – Collector – Terms of deposit governing access • This area still under develop for the IU repository • No decision yet on metadata format; need more thorough analysis of the functions this metadata needs to support
  72. 72. Descriptive metadata (1) MARCXML
  73. 73. Descriptive metadata (2) METS reference to external Word document
  74. 74. Preservation metadata • Still under investigation for IU repository, for all formats of material • Will need to implement before any preservation events occur • Will likely use PReservation Metadata Implementation Strategies (PREMIS) data dictionaries and schema
  75. 75. Need to share • Copies in multiple repositories can help ensure preservation • Sound Directions did a test exchange of content between IU and Harvard – Different repository architectures – Different preservation package structures • ...demonstrated how different levels of preservation are possible
  76. 76. Two Repositories Supported by the Digital Library Program • IUScholarWorks Repository – “Institutional Repository” • For preserving and providing access to IU’s research output: articles, papers, etc. – Based on DSpace software • IU Digital Library Repository – General-purpose digital content repository – Based on Fedora software
  77. 77. Fedora • Flexible Extensible Digital Object Repository Architecture • Open source digital repository software developed by Cornell and the University of Virginia • Supported by new organization: Fedora Commons • Basis for IU Digital Library Repository
  78. 78. Moving Content to a Digital Repository – Idealized Workflow Master audio files in MDSS Delivery audio files on streaming server Metadata records on disk ATMC/Audio Workstation Upload preservation package Temporary Server Disk Storage Fedora Repository Validate and ingest
  79. 79. IU Massive Data Storage System (MDSS) • Hierarchical storage management – Some storage on hard disks – Much more storage on automated tape • Managed by UITS Research Technologies • Servers in Bloomington and Indianapolis connected via I-Light high-speed fiber link • Total capacity: 2+ petabytes • Need to build Fedora-MDSS connection
  80. 80. Repository Status • Fedora is running in production – Supporting access to image and text collections – Experiments with loading audio and video • Need to improve tools for ingest and retrieval to support audio projects • Not yet a true preservation repository
  81. 81. Toward a Preservation Repository • Need to add: – File integrity validation – Integration with MDSS – replication of data – Eventually, file format obsolescence monitoring and migration • Self-audit and/or external certification as Trusted Digital Repository – DRAMBORA, TRAC
  82. 82. Access Systems • Variations2 – variations2.indiana.edu – Provides access to cataloged commercial recordings from the Music Library and ATM • Need access system to provide discovery and delivery of field collections and other types of archival audio collections
  83. 83. Questions? • micasey@indiana.edu • jwd@indiana.edu • jenlrile@indiana.edu • www.dlib.indiana.edu/projects/sounddirections/

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