Exploiting Musical Connections: A
Proposal for Support of Work
Relationships in a Digital Music
Library
Jenn Riley
Metadat...
Academic music libraries
 Faculty and students need materials for

performance and research
 Materials increasingly digi...
Discovery of music in libraries
 The physical item is the basis of description
 Cataloging rules and record format not o...
Variations2 @ Indiana University (1)
 Federally-funded multi-year, multi-million dollar

project
 Digital music library ...
Variations2 @ Indiana University (2)
 Multiple formats represented
 Audio
 Scanned score images
 Some encoded scores
...
Variations2 metadata model
WORK

represents the abstract concept
of a musical composition or
set of compositions

is manif...
Work relationships
 Significant research into work relationships

and bibliographic relationships
 Two relationships mos...
Current Variations2 implementation
 Specified relationships
 Four types





isVersionOf
hasVersion
isPartOf
hasPart...
Need for something different
 “Parts” of works need multiple titles, keys,

other properties of works
 Users access diff...
Our proposal
 Functional requirements for how to act on

known relationships between works
 Covers derivative and whole-...
Derivative relationships: definition
 Between one source work and one derivative

work
 Includes arrangements, versions,...
Derivative relationships: query
matching and display (1)

Work

Source

Derivative

Work

Work

Work
Derivative relationships: query
matching and display (2)
 Display derivative work together with its source
Query: copland...
Derivative relationships: query
matching and display (3)

Work

Source

Derivative

Work

Work

Work
Derivative relationships: query
matching and display (4)
 Display source work in the result set
 Allow user to display a...
Whole-part relationships: definition
 Between a parent work and a child work that

is completely enclosed in the parent
...
Whole-part relationships: query
matching and display (1)

Work

Parent

Child

Work

Work

Work
Whole-part relationships: query
matching and display (2)
 Return as search results the children

matched by the query plu...
Whole-part relationships: query
matching and display (3)

Work

Parent

Child

Work

Work

Work
Whole-part relationships: query
matching and display (4)
 Consider the parent the match and display it

together with its...
Next steps
 Actual implementation
 User testing
 Define “version” relationship
 Relationships for other types of mater...
More information
 jenlrile@indiana.edu
 These presentation slides:
http://www.dlib.indiana.edu/~jenlrile/presentations/i...
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Exploiting Musical Connections: A Proposal for Support of Work Relationships in a Digital Music Library

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Riley, Jenn. "Exploiting Musical Connections: A Proposal for Support of Work Relationships in a Digital Music Library." ISMIR 2005: 6th International Conference on Music Information Retrieval, London, September 12-15, 2005.

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  • The Variations2 Data Model includes the following entities and relationships:
    The Work represents the abstract concept of a musical composition or set of compositions.
    It is manifested in the Instantiation, which represents a manifestation of a work as a recorded performance or a score.
    The physical level is represented by the Container, which is the item or set of item(s) on which one or more instantiations of works can be found, e.g. a CD or published score.
    This is actually the level which is most typically represented in the traditional USMARC catalogs.
    Finally, the Media Object represents a piece of digital media content, such as a sound file or score image, and Contributors represent people or groups that contribute to a work, instantiation, or container.
  • Research in general and for music. Includes Smiraglia, who spoke at ISMIR 2001 in Bloomington
  • Relationships can be known in any way. We human-create metadata. But this proposal could be used in a system where work relationships were generated differently.
  • User primarily interested in one version, only marginally interested in others
  • User interested in exploring universe of works
  • UTs kind of specify these, but systems don’t use them.
  • Support a user interested in a specific performable unit of a musical work, whether or not this work has parent works
  • Exploiting Musical Connections: A Proposal for Support of Work Relationships in a Digital Music Library

    1. 1. Exploiting Musical Connections: A Proposal for Support of Work Relationships in a Digital Music Library Jenn Riley Metadata Librarian Indiana University Digital Library Program
    2. 2. Academic music libraries  Faculty and students need materials for performance and research  Materials increasingly digital  Heavy emphasis on known-item searching  But support for exploration to discover previously unknown music is also important
    3. 3. Discovery of music in libraries  The physical item is the basis of description  Cataloging rules and record format not originally designed for music  Cataloging practice does not take advantage of all possibilities of record format  Some specific problems for music    Most often individual works on a multi-work item are not explicitly identified Contributors not connected to individual works Instrumentation not handled well
    4. 4. Variations2 @ Indiana University (1)  Federally-funded multi-year, multi-million dollar project  Digital music library testbed system  Research areas        Copyright Metadata Music instruction & course management systems Music theory instruction Networking System design Usability
    5. 5. Variations2 @ Indiana University (2)  Multiple formats represented  Audio  Scanned score images  Some encoded scores  Metadata is human-generated, or mapped from other human-generated metadata  Includes tools for using digital objects in instruction  Work-centric metadata model matches well to music in the Western canon of art music
    6. 6. Variations2 metadata model WORK represents the abstract concept of a musical composition or set of compositions is manifested in is created by INSTANTIATION CONTRIBUTOR represents a manifestation of a work as a recorded performance or a score is enclosed in represents people or groups that contribute to a work, instantiation, or container CONTAINER is represented by MEDIA OBJECT represents the physical item or set of items on which one or more instantiations of works can be found (e.g., CD, score) represents a piece of digital media content (e.g., sound file, score image)
    7. 7. Work relationships  Significant research into work relationships and bibliographic relationships  Two relationships most frequent in music of the Western canon Derivative relationship: between a source work and a derivative work based in some way on the source work  Whole-part relationship: between a parent work and a child work that is completely enclosed in the parent 
    8. 8. Current Variations2 implementation  Specified relationships  Four types     isVersionOf hasVersion isPartOf hasPart Not reciprocal  Doesn’t do anything  Not immediately visible to end-users   Hierarchical work structure
    9. 9. Need for something different  “Parts” of works need multiple titles, keys, other properties of works  Users access different parts of works for different needs  Different versions of works have different structures, but users don’t know the difference between them
    10. 10. Our proposal  Functional requirements for how to act on known relationships between works  Covers derivative and whole-part relationships  Defines system behavior for recording, maintaining, and using the relationship in retrieval
    11. 11. Derivative relationships: definition  Between one source work and one derivative work  Includes arrangements, versions, medleys, free interpretations  Run from very strong to very weak  Fully reciprocal  Arbitrary number of derivatives per source, arbitrary number of sources per derivative  Can occur simultaneously with whole/part relationship
    12. 12. Derivative relationships: query matching and display (1) Work Source Derivative Work Work Work
    13. 13. Derivative relationships: query matching and display (2)  Display derivative work together with its source Query: copland and mexico and piano Work title: Salón México; arr. Composer: Copland, Aaron, 1900-1990 Instrumentation: Piano Derived from: Salón México Copland, Aaron 1900-1990 Orchestra  Need to display multiple results meaningfully
    14. 14. Derivative relationships: query matching and display (3) Work Source Derivative Work Work Work
    15. 15. Derivative relationships: query matching and display (4)  Display source work in the result set  Allow user to display all derivative works for that source Query: bach and sonata and 1001 Work title: Sonaten und Partiten, violin, BWV 1001-1006. Sonata, no. 1 Composer: Bach, Johann Sebastian 1685-1750 Instrumentation: Violin View derivative works (3)
    16. 16. Whole-part relationships: definition  Between a parent work and a child work that is completely enclosed in the parent  Parts are frequently performable units  Fully reciprocal  Arbitrary depth, but a child can have only one parent  Can occur simultaneously with derivative relationship  Child work not equivalent to a work structure node
    17. 17. Whole-part relationships: query matching and display (1) Work Parent Child Work Work Work
    18. 18. Whole-part relationships: query matching and display (2)  Return as search results the children matched by the query plus their immediate parent works Query: wagner and siegfried and nothung Work title: Nothung! Nothung! Neidliches Schwert! Composer: Wagner, Richard 1813-1883 Part of: Ring des Nibelungen. Siegfried. Wagner, Richard 1813-1883
    19. 19. Whole-part relationships: query matching and display (3) Work Parent Child Work Work Work
    20. 20. Whole-part relationships: query matching and display (4)  Consider the parent the match and display it together with its immediate parent  After match, allow user to view complete hierarchy  Matching rules require full Uniform Title to function properly
    21. 21. Next steps  Actual implementation  User testing  Define “version” relationship  Relationships for other types of materials
    22. 22. More information  jenlrile@indiana.edu  These presentation slides: http://www.dlib.indiana.edu/~jenlrile/presentations/ismir2005/  Variations2 Project Site: http://variations2. indiana.edu

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