Further ResourcesAll images and references arehyperlinked to sources.
Collaborative Learning The web site of Dr D Johnson and Dr R Johnson, experts in research and development into cooperative learning. http://www.co-operation.org/?page_id=65 ―Cooperation is working together to accomplish shared goals. Within cooperative situations, individuals seek outcomes that are beneficial to themselves and beneficial to all other group members. Cooperative learning is the instructional use of small groups so that students work together to maximize their own and each other‘s learning. It may be contrasted with competitive (students work against each other to achieve an academic goal such as a grade of ―A‖ that only one or a few students can attain) and individualistic (students work by themselves to accomplish learning goals unrelated to those of the other students) learning.‖
Cooperative Learning Cooperative Learning by Millis, B. J. (1996) from University of Tennessee at Chattanooga Teaching Resource Centre: www.utc.edu/Teaching-Resource-Center/CoopLear.html Cooperative Learning Structures and Techniques This link provides a brief overview of the what and why of cooperative learning and then outlines some activities to implement and then develop collaborative skills. For example Structuring learning teams group roles (leader, reporter, recorder, wildcard etc) Defining team expectations
Cooperative Learning Although Kagan‘s work was cited in the Hill article, I was hesitant to recommend this work as Dr Spencer Kagan has turned his research on cooperative learning into a commercial venture. However I have found the free resources and articles outlining his research and rationale on cooperative learning to be very interesting and informative.
Cooperative learning and CriticalThinking skills
Motivation In this lecture (1 of 9) Rick Levoie talks about motivation. Using examples, Rick argues that all human behaviour is motivated (7:45). I have included this resource as I believe it is important to understand what motivates each and every individual with in a group. This fits in with Brophy‘s (Perry, Turner and Meyer 2006) statements on motivation and how interactions with others and contexts can influenced motivation.
MotivationSchooling Issues Digest: Student Motivation and EngagementThe Australian Government Department of Education, Science andTraining (DEST) is publishing a series of brief reports titled ‗SchoolingIssues Digests‘ which summarise existing research material on selectedtopics relevant to schooling in Australia. The purpose of these digests isto provide status reports on the results of recent international and nationalresearch on selected topics, in a non-technical, easy to read format, whichbrings together and demystifies complicated research and statistical data.
Motivation This booklet explains principles that encourage children to learn and has been prepared for inclusion in the Educational Practices Series developed by the International Academy of Education and is distributed by the International Bureau of Education and the Academy. As part of its mission, the Academy provides timely syntheses of research on educational topics of international importance. This booklet is the tenth in the series on educational practices that improve learning. It opens a new door, however, since it focuses on behaviour rather than academic learning.
Creativity Do Schools Destroy Creativity? – Sir Ken Robinson
Definitions of CreativityCreativity is the ability to think up and design new inventions, produce works of art, solveproblems in new ways, or develop an idea based on an original, novel, or unconventionalapproach. Creativity is the ability to see something in a new way, to see and solve problemsno one else may know exists, and to engage in mental and physical experiences that arenew, unique, or different. Creativity is a critical aspect of a persons life, starting from insidethe womb onward through adulthood (Creativity #B 2010).―One of the first things I try to emphasize about creativity is that it is a messy process, onethat is also highly personal. The second thing that I try to emphasize is that there are notried and true cookbook approaches to becoming creative, or to helping others discovertheir creativity. Developing creativity, at any level, is a series of personal evolutionarysteps, trial and error procedures, and again, a process of sorting out messes. This is oftenintensely personal work. Thus, finding ones creative sense, or spirit, is rather like a journeyinto the unknown -- there are many wonderful guide books, compasses, and willinggurus, but the ultimate destination is always elusive, enigmatic, often one of changingpanoramas and uncharted destinations‖ Dr. O. Wilson (2005).
Definitions of CreativityI define creativity as the act of turning new and imaginative ideas into reality. Creativityinvolves two processes: thinking, then producing. Innovation is the production orimplementation of an idea. If you have ideas, but dont act on them, you are imaginativebut not creative. Linda Naiman (2006).―Creativity is the process of bringing something new into being...creativity requirespassion and commitment. Out of the creative act is born symbols and myths. It brings toour awareness what was previously hidden and points to new life. The experience is oneof heightened consciousness–ecstasy.‖— Rollo May, The Courage to Create (Naiman 2006).Obviously, creativity means numerous things to different people and can be defined in anynumber of ways. Creativity can also be defined at many distinct levels --cognitively, intellectually, socially, economically, spiritually, and from the finite perspectiveof different disciplines :Eduation, science, music, art, dance, theatre, etc... (Wilson 2005).Common definition from Websters - Creativity is marked by the ability or power to createto bring into existence, to invest with a new form, to produce through imaginative skill, tomake or bring into existence something new (Wilson 2005).
Definitions of CreativityH. H. Fox (scientist) -- Any thinking process in which original patterns are formed andexpressed (Wilson 2005).E. Paul Torrance (educator, academic, creativity investigator) --Fluency, flexibility, originality, and sometimes elaboration (Wilson 2005).Rollo May (writer, philosopher) - Creativity is the process of bringing something new intobeing... (Wilson 2005).Creativity in education is the process of producing something new, innovative and uniquein the area of education Ernest Smartt (Helium 2002).―Generative research shows that everyone has creative abilities. The more training youhave and the more diverse the training, the greater potential for creative output. Theaverage adult thinks of 3-6 alternatives for any given situation. The average child thinksof 60.‖ Naiman (2006)
CreativityAbstractThe effects of open and traditional classrooms on creative expressionwere investigated using 60 children randomly drawn from grades1, 4, and 8 from 2 different school systems. Measures derived from theTorrance Tests of Creative Thinking indicated that the open classroomsetting was related to superior performance on the figural component ofthat test, whereas the traditional classroom setting was related tosuperior performance in verbal creativity.Creativity in Open and Traditional ClassroomsCraig T. Ramey, Vera PiperChild DevelopmentVol. 45, No. 2 (Jun., 1974), pp. 557-560 Published by: Blackwell Publishing onbehalf of the Society for Research in Child DevelopmentStable URL: http://www.jstor.org/stable/1127989