PRELIMINARY NOTIONSLinguistics is a science that implies a serious and deep study of a language.Lots of concepts on linguistics have been given through time by linguistsaccording to their points of view, backgrounds, realities, scenarios,andlinguistic environments where they live in and are from.Linguistic is the scientific study of language in general.
LINGUISTICS BACKGROUND The word linguistics was initially used in the middle Philology is a brach of of the 19th century to linguistics that studies emphasize the differences language change and between a newer approach language relationship. to the study of language. SOCIO-ETHNIC SOCIOLINGUISTICS LINGUISTICS ANTHROPOLOGICAL PSYCHOLINGUISTIC LINGUISTICS COMPUTATIONAL APPLIED LINGUISTICSLINGUISTICS (AL)
CONTRASTIVE OR COMPARATIVE LINGUISTICS Once the concepts above have been discussed, it is possible to refer to the study, contrast or comparison of two or more language structures, whose subject matter is more specific. COMPARATIVE CONTRASTIVE LINGUISTICS LINGUISTICSLanguages may be related byconvergence through borrowingor by genetic descent. Geneticrelatedness implies a common It compares languages usuallyorigin or proto- language, and with the aim of assistingcomparative linguistics aims to language learning by identifyingconstruct proto- language and important differences betweenespecify the changes that have the learner’s native and targetresulted in the documented languagelanguages.
Contrastive analysis, CA of sounds CONTRASTIVE systems involve phonological or LINGUISTICS SYLLABUS phonetic contrast, relevant to identifying types foreing accent. CONTRASTIVE Another perspective is thet PRAGMATICS pragmatics deals with the ways we reach or goal in comunication The contrastive method in prinncipleFUNDAMENTALS METHODOLOGY OF every difference or similarity between FOR TEACHING CONTRASTIVE CL. two or more related languages should LINGUISTICS be explicable in terms of isolaion or context analysis. Although Lado (1957) included a comparison of cultures, early contrastive studies focused on NEW TRENDS what has been described as microlinguistis contrastive analysis (James 1980): phonology, grammar, lexis. It supplies references to description of linguistic THE ROLE OF CORPORA phenomena in the students’ mother tongue It reorganizad uses the IPA conventional register It develops listening decoding and transcription notation
Language is a system arbitrary LANGUAGE vocal symbols used for human communication MOST SPOKEN BREAKDOWN OF LANGUAGE LANGUAGES BY WORLD POPULATION OF THE AREA WORLD According the stadistics we canIt was mentioned earlier that classify the languages most importantethnologue lists 6,912 living in de world are:languages, the table above reveals a 1 Mandarinstriking difference between the 2 Hindmedian and the mean sizes of 3 Englishlanguages in different parts of the 4 Arabeworld. 5 Spanish
BRIEF CLASSIFICATION OF LANGUAGE VERBAL LANGUAGES NO VERBAL LANGUAGE LANGUAGE Is a group of languages related by descent Written or It is a system of permanent written FAMILY from a common ancestor symbolic language symbols Particular way of using a language Idiographic It is a writing system which uses DIALECT regional and social writing language ideograms(symbols) INDIVIDUAL Is a langue as a whole from the same Syllabic writing it is based on syllables which are LANGUAGE family language represented by separed symbols. This is individual , voice quality Alphabetical It is based on sounds- pronuntiation- and IDIOLECT writing language deals with alphabetical symbols. speech tone Used by people who work inaparticular area or Articulated JERGA who heve a particular interest Eg. Lawer language Deals with phonetic Spelling criminals English might be considered the third- orCOLLOQUIALISM Is informal expressions English language fourth- largest native language in the world. It is a informal use of the language is Spanish Spanish belongs to the romance branch of SLANG rud is non standar language. language the indo-european language family.
LANGUAGE INCONSISTENCIES IS THE INCOMPATIBILITY, IT IS DE QUALITY OR STATE OF BEING INCONSISTENT, OF CONCIRDANCE WITH A STRUCTURAL PATTERN.THE SAME LETTER OR LETTER COMBINATION CAN REFER TO DIFFERENT SOUNDS THE SAME SOUNDS CAN HAVE WITH DIFFERENTS LETTERS OR LETTER COMBINATIONSDIFFERENT DALECTS PRONUNCE THE SAME WORD DIFFERENTLY
CLUSTER Vowel cluster Consonant cluster Analyzes the observedpronunciation in relation to INITIAL CLUSTERS MEDIAL CLUSTERS FINAL CLUSTERS common english words containing he same vowel INTRASYLLABIC MEDIAL clusters Initial two- consonant clusters CLUSTER SPANISH has no clusters may occur in both english and in final position, english INTERSYLLABIC MEDIAL spanish while three CLUSTER words containing from consonant clusters just place two up to four final in english consonant cluster When it belongs to the second of the two SYLLABLE DIVISION OCCURS syllable peaks between BETWEEN THE MEMBERS which they apper as medial.
Is the study of PHONOLOGY the system of phonemes of a language. PHONEMICS PHONETICS anallophone diacritic allophones Is the smallest basicand theoretical unit of language. It is a mark Allophones are placed Is a real apeech not contrastive over, under or variant of a since they do not through a letter specific phoneme create differences THEPHONEME (or phonetic in meaning. symbol)
It is a system of characters arranged in a fixed conventional order to symbolize sounds or letters used in a writing system to represent speech. Its name comes from alpha+beta, the first ALPHABET two letters of the Greek alphabet. The Latin Alphabet, also called the Roman LATIN ALPHABET alphabet, is the most widely used alphabetic writing system in the world today. The International Organization for Standardization (ISO) ENCAPSULATED THE Latin alphabet in their (ISO/IEC 646) standard. LATIN ALPHABET ANDINTENATIONAL STANDARSINTERNATIONAL There are many transcription conventions asPHONETIC ALPHABET dictionaries and reader´s necessities. This implies having almost the same problems as(IPA) ordinary orthography.
Is a system of notation that represents TRANSCRIPTION utterances or partial utterances of a language pronounced by people in general. Some details might be ignored or included in the transcription. Also identified as Phonemic Transcription, it is the notation that represents BROAD utterances of a language by indicating only the significant and underlyingTRANSCRIPTION sounds (phonemes) that make up a word. It ignores as many as possible details and captures only the general aspects of pronunciation to show differences in meaning among words. It is writing between slant lines ://. It is notation that represents variants of a NARROW specific phoneme. It captures as many asTRANSCRIPTION possible details which are represented by the diacritics provided in the IPA. It is another important feature which is often represented in phonetic and phonemic STRESS transcription. Every single word has a stressed syllable. The vowel sound of the stressed syllable is often longer, louder an higher in pitch.
ALPHABET LATIN PHONETIC MODERN LATIN RUSSIANALPHABET ALPHABET ALPHABET AND ALPHABET GREEK INTENATIONAL (IPA) ALPHABET ALPHABET STANDARS The It is a The Latin There are The The Latin Modern system of Alphabet, a many Greek Russian lso called Alphabet, transcriptioncharacters alphabet alphabet is also called conventionsarranged in the Roman as was the the Roman a fixed alphabet, i dictionaries created in alphabet of alphabet, isconvention s the most and reader´s the year the Russian the most necessities.al order to 1550AD. language. widely widely This implies symbolize This From the sounds or used used having alphabet is year 1918 alphabetic alphabetic almost the letters same of majority (officially writing writing used in a problems as use in parts from 1942) system in system in writing ordinary of Greece it consists the world system to the world orthography. and of 33 today. represent today. Australia. letters. speech.
SYMBOLS USED FOR TRANSCRIPTION ANGLE SLANT SQUARE VERTICAL DIVISION STRESS BRACKETS DIACRITICSBRACKETS BRACKETS LINE MARKER MAR K They are The are used to used It shows the It shows Phonemic It shows a It showsenclose the around variation in the transcripti pause in the the vowel or spelling of details following on uses phonetic boundarie consonant the phonetic quality. Nasal syllableorthograph them: transcripti s between transcripti or dark stressed:ic notation: /’teyp/. on. syllables. quality. on: ‘car. <pretty>. [tɦeIp]