Intelligence Is the capacity to understand the world, think rationally and use resources effectively when we faced with challenge. The capacity to understand the world and resourcefulness to cope with its challenges ( D. Wechsler)
Theories Of Intelligence• Spearman’s Two-Factor Theory assumes that there are two kinds of ability: a. (G) general ability- ability to deduce abstract relationship. b. (S) specific ability -
• Thurstone’s Weighted Group-Factor - organizational of mental abilities in terms of group factors ( these factors correlates cluster) - he believed that assessing an individual intelligence in terms of a single , over all score was wrong - emphasize on testees standing abilities are reported in terms of percentile
Thurstone’s PMA:1. Verbal – ability to understand and utilize verbal ideas effectively and primarily.2. Number – ability to carry out the fundamental arithmetic operations (+,-,X, /).3. Spatial – ability to deal with objects in space and spatial relationship, as demanded in geometric problems.4. Perceptual speed – ability to identify objects quickly and accurately, as
as required in reading, map work and the like.5. Memory – ability to learn and retain information.6. Reasoning – ability to perceive and utilize abstract relationships ; to put together past experiences in the solution of new problems.7. Word Fluency – ability to think of words rapidly. Word fluency may be related to personality variables as well as to intellective factors.
• Catells Theory - two fundamental types of intelligence: 1. Fluid intelligence- processing capabilities, reasoning and memory ( eg: to solve analogy or remember a set of numbers) 2. Crystallized – accumulation of information, skills and strategies that people learned through experiences that they can apply in problem solving.
• Gadner Multiple Intelligence Theory - believes hat there are 8 major kinds of intelligence: 1. Linguistic – involved in reading, writing, listening and talking. High linguistic intelligence can be demonstrated by writers. 2. Logical-Mathematical- thinking, detecting patterns, scientific reasoning and deduction; analyze problems, perform mathematical calculations, understands relationship between cause and effect towards a tangible outcome or result
3. Bodily-Kinesthetic body movementcontrol, manual dexterity, physical agility andbalance . 4. Spatial-Visual visual and spatialperception; interpretation and creation of visualimages; pictorial imagination and expression;understands relationship between images andmeanings. 5. Interpersonal perception of other peoplesfeelings; ability to relate to others; interpretationof behavior and communications; understandsthe relationships between people and theirsituations
6. Intrapersonal self-awareness,personal cognizance, personalobjectivity, the capability to understandoneself, ones relationship to others andthe world, and ones own need for, andreaction to change 7. Musical musical ability, awareness,appreciation and use of sound;recognition of tonal and rhythmicpatterns, understands relationshipbetween sound and feeling
Measurement of Intelligence• Intelligence test – the instrument to measure intelligence. Types of IT:1. Stanford-Binet consist of series of items that vary in nature according to the age of the person being tested.2. Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale consist of verbal and performance scale
Learninga process through which one’s capacity or disposition is changed as a result of experience ( Craig). any relatively permanent change in behavior which occurs as a result of practice or experience.
Types of LearningI. STIMULUS-RESPONSE THEORYA. Ivan Pavlov “ Classical conditioning = is a reflexive or automatic type of learning in which a stimulus acquires the capacity to evoke a response that was originally evoked by another stimulus.
B. B.F. Skinner “ Operant Conditioning” is based upon the idea that learning is a function of change in overt behavior. Changes in behavior are the result of an individuals response to events (stimuli) that occur in the environment. A response produces a consequence such as defining a word, hitting a ball, or solving a math problem. When a particular Stimulus- Response (S-R) pattern is reinforced (rewarded), the individual is conditioned to respond.
II. Albert Bandura’s Social Learning Theory posits that people learn from one another, via observation, imitation, and modeling. The theory has often been called a bridge between behaviorist and cognitive learning theories because it encompasses attention, memory, and motivation.
Memory• is defined as the totality of past experience that can be remembered.Steps or process of memory:1. Sensory –information storage information stored for only 1 second. eg: a. iconic – information received thru the eyes b. echoic – information received thru the ears.
2. Short-term memory input can stay from few seconds upt to 30 seconds. ( to improve on short-term memory rehearsal process is needed0.3. Long-term memory information that we store in our brain for years and be able to retrieve when needed.
Types of Long-term Memory1. Episodic memory – is a record of some personal experiences .2. Semantic memory – is a memory of concepts and rules
Ways of Improving memory• Chunking – grouping items together. eg: groups fruits or meats• Mnemonic - acronyms
Theories of forgetting• Trace decay theory when information stored is not use, it fades away.• Interference theory confusion among items stored in LTM: it can be a retroactive ( new things are learn interfere with things already in memory) or proactive ( old learning interfere with learning something new).
Amnesia• Is loss of memory, either total or partialTypes of amnesia:1. Retrograde – cause by traumatic injuries; events immediately preceding to injury are forgotten.2. Anterograde – amnesia coming from the traumatic injuries to the brain, inability to remember new information for a length of time. ( the person can not remember something that has just said to him even if it as told to him for only a few seconds)