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UVCSp15Module13.2

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In this module we consider the case of New York City and the classic battle over urban planning ideals between Jane Jacobs and Robert Moses.

In this module we consider the case of New York City and the classic battle over urban planning ideals between Jane Jacobs and Robert Moses.

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UVCSp15Module13.2

  1. 1. Urban Planning A R T 1 0 0 U n d e r s t a n d i n g V i s u a l C u l t u r e
  2. 2. agenda 3.23.15 the origins of modern planning Frederick Law Olmsted in NY and Chicago Haussmann in Paris a case study of modern planning: NYC two visions of the city the New Urbanism "the smart code"
  3. 3. Central Park, Frederick Law OLMSTED and Calvert VAUX, 1858, completed 1873
  4. 4. aerial photograph, Manhattan, NYC
  5. 5. Chicago Parks The west park system of Chicago was established in 1869. Douglas, Garfield, and Humboldt parks and their connecting boulevards were laid out by architect William LeBaron Jenney in 1871. At Garfield, originally known as Central Park, Jenney’s plan was built-out slowly over the next three decades: • east lagoon, • suspension bridge • small conservatory • Victorian bandstand • horse racing track
  6. 6. William LeBaron JENNEY, Garfield Park Suspension Bridge
  7. 7. William LeBaron JENNEY, Humboldt Park, 1870-1906
  8. 8. William LeBaron JENNEY, Humboldt Park, 1870-1906
  9. 9. Paris
  10. 10. Paris, before urban planning Charles MARVILLE, Rue des Trois Canettes 1865-8
  11. 11. "medieval" Paris streets are: • narrow and winding • doesn't permit traffic • doesn't permit troop movement • easily barricaded • paved with cobblestones • open sewer • unsanitary • unhealthy • poor inhabitants not necessarily friendly to Napoleon III
  12. 12. Unidentified photographer [Barricades during the Paris Commune] 1871 © Det Kongelige Bibliotek
  13. 13. Delacroix, Liberty Leading the People, 1830
  14. 14. asphalt most roads today are surfaced with asphalt (byproduct of crude oil processing). leftovers are made into asphalt cement for pavement. 1824 asphalt block first used on the Champs-Élysées in Paris. modern road asphalt used in Battery Park and on Fifth Avenue in New York City in 1872 and on Pennsylvania Avenue, Washington D.C., in 1877.
  15. 15. Charles Marville In 1862 Marville became the official photographer for the city of Paris. His job: to document the city, both the quarters marked for destruction and the grand boulevards that replaced them. Although his charge was to show that the existing urban fabric was "not worth saving," many drew the opposite conclusion from the archive he created. The entire body of his work burned in the destruction of the Hôtel de Ville during the Commune. Fortunately Marville had carefully stored his negatives and was able to replace the prints.
  16. 16. from Le Vieux Paris by Louis Blanc in Paris-guide, par les principaux écrivains et artistes de la France, Librairie Internationale, 1867. “The time has come to clean up the insalubrious streets and create more wide-open spaces! The time has come to let the sun stream into the shady districts, to give Paris the lungs to breathe as it should; not for reasons of trend or fashion, but for the sake of hygiene and progress! Yet wherever the interests of public health, wherever the inevitable growth of civilization do not require Parisian dignitaries to display their relentless determination, mercy for the old streets of Paris! Mercy for the visible vestiges of the past that the present is so intent on destroying in every way...! Mercy! If only for a few warts and stains beloved of Montaigne!”
  17. 17. Under Napoleon III • Haussmann undertook what many consider the first modern urban works project, demolishing many existing neighborhoods to make way for grand boulevards and parks. • He installed a sewer system. • Gas lighting was placed in major public places. • He hired photographers to document the medieval streets he was plowing under.
  18. 18. Camille PISSARRO, Boulevard Montmartre, 1897, 29.1 × 36.5 in
  19. 19. Camille Pissarro, Avenue de L’Opera, 1898
  20. 20. Gustave CAILLEBOTTE, Traffic Island in the Boulevard Haussmann
  21. 21. Charles Garnier, Paris Opera, built from 1860 to 1875
  22. 22. Marville, L’Avenue de l’Opera
  23. 23. razing the Butte des Moulins during construction of the Paris Opera house
  24. 24. Vincent VAN GOGH, Outskirts of Paris near Montmartre, 1886
  25. 25. Urban planning, NY style “I’d like to see the planner who can remove a ghetto without displacing some people, just like I’d like to see the chef who can make an omelette without breaking some eggs.” —Robert Moses, New York City planner and nemesis of Jane Jacobs
  26. 26. “creative destruction” Joseph Schumpeter Capitalism, Socialism and Democracy (1942)
  27. 27. Robert Moses, with the map of the Five Boroughs of New York City behind him
  28. 28. Robert Moses (1888-1981) a variety of unelected roles in New York State and New York City built parkways, beaches and bridges in and around New York in the 1930s, using New Deal funds postwar period, attention turned to expressways; he built a number of them but failed to build the Lower Manhattan Expressway
  29. 29. Moses projects parkways: Northern State, Southern State, Wantaugh Parkway, Meadowbrook Parkway beaches: Jones Beach pools: throughout the five boroughs bridges: Triborough Bridge, Brooklyn-Battery Tunnel, Throgs Neck, the Bronx-Whitestone, the Henry Hudson, and the Verrazano–Narrows bridges. expressways: I-278 (the Brooklyn-Queens Expressway and Staten Island Expressway), Cross-Bronx Expressway, developed Shea Stadium, Lincoln Center, and contributed to the United Nations headquarters.
  30. 30. Jones Beach seen from Wantaugh Parkway
  31. 31. “When I first looked at this project, I thought, "How the hell are we going to get across here?" It was probably one of the most challenging highway projects that had been constructed, or even conceived, up until that time. I dare say that only a man like Mr. Moses would have the audacity to believe that one could push (the expressway) from one end of the Bronx to the other.“ —Ernest Clark, design team The "Cross Bronx" Expressway
  32. 32. Moses vs. Jacobs
  33. 33. The Cross-Bronx Expressway, today
  34. 34. The Death and Life of Great American Cities (1961) Has become a touchstone for planners and architects associated with the New Urbanism.
  35. 35. Jacobs, p. 8 “Specifically, in the case of planning for cities, it is clear that a large number of good and earnest people do care deeply about building and renewing. Despite some corruption, and considerable greed for the other man's vineyard, the intentions going into the messes we make are, on the whole, exemplary.”
  36. 36. Jacobs, p. 8 “Planners, architects of city design, and those they have led along with them in their beliefs are not consciously disdainful of the importance of knowing how things work. On the contrary, they have gone to great pains to learn what the saints and sages of modern orthodox planning have said about how cities ought to work and what ought to be good for people and businesses in them. They take this with such devotion that when contradictory reality intrudes, threatening to shatter their dearly won learning, they must shrug reality aside.”
  37. 37. Her proposal: Let’s study healthy streets and blocks and develop a set of principles they share in common. We can use those principles to guide new development.
  38. 38. “Smart Code,” Duany Plater- Zyberk, originally released 2003
  39. 39. “Smart Code” v. 9.2 Consider the most-loved towns of North America. They were either carefully planned, or they evolved as compact, mixed use places because of their geography and the limits of the transportation and economics of their time. However, over the past sixty years, places have evolved in a completely different pattern. They have spread loosely along highways and haphazardly across the country- side, enabled by the widespread ownership of automobiles, by cheap petroleum and cheap land, and by generalized wealth.
  40. 40. Such patterns are enabled by zoning codes that separate dwellings from work- places, shops, and schools. These codes include design standards that favor the automobile over the pedestrian, and are unable to resist the homogenizing effects of globalization.
  41. 41. These practices have produced banal housing subdivisions, business parks, strip shopping, big box stores, enormous parking lots, and sadly gutted downtowns. They have caused the proliferation of drive-by eateries and billboards. They have made walking or cycling dangerous or unpleasant. They have made children, the elderly, and the poor utterly dependent on those who can drive, even for ordinary daily needs. They have caused the simultaneous destruction of both towns and open space -- the 20th century phenomenon known as sprawl.
  42. 42. The form of our built environment needs a 21st century correction. But in most places it is actually illegal to build in a traditional neighborhood pattern. The existing codes prevent it. In most places people do not have a choice between sprawl and traditional urbanism. Codes favor sprawl and isolated residential sub- divisions. It is not a level playing field.
  43. 43. The SmartCode was created to deal with this problem at the point of decisive impact -- the intersection of law and design. It is a form-based code, meaning it envisions and encourages a certain physical outcome -- the form of the region, community, block, and/or building. Form-based codes are fundamentally different from conventional codes that are based primarily on use and statistics -- none of which envision or require any particular physical outcome. The SmartCode is a tool that guides the form of the built environment in order to create and protect development patterns that are compact, walkable, and mixed use. These traditional neighborhood patterns tend to be stimulating, safe, and ecologically sustainable. The SmartCode requires a mix of uses within walking distance of dwellings, so residents aren’t forced to drive everywhere. It supports a connected network to relieve traffic congestion. At the same time, it preserves open lands, as it operates at the scale of the region as well as the community.
  44. 44. A primary task of all urban architecture and landscape design is the physical definition of streets and public spaces as places of shared use.
  45. 45. Individual architectural projects should be seamlessly linked to their surroundings. This issue transcends style. (see Vincent Scully, “The Death of the Street”)
  46. 46. Skidmore, Owings and Merrill (SOM) Lever House 1951-2
  47. 47. view down Park Avenue, showing the relationship between the older buildings and the street
  48. 48. New York Racquet and Tennis Club, 370 Park Avenue
  49. 49. in the lobby of the Seagram’s Building, looking across to the Racquet Club
  50. 50. Mies van der Rohe, with interiors by Philip Johnson Seagram Building 375 Park Avenue 1954-8
  51. 51. The revitalization of urban places depends on safety and security. The design of streets and buildings should reinforce safe environments, but not at the expense of accessibility and openness.
  52. 52. In the contemporary metropolis, development must adequately accommodate automobiles. It should do so in ways that respect the pedestrian and the form of public space.
  53. 53. NYC bike path
  54. 54. reconfigured intersection, NYC
  55. 55. “Curbana” under construction, June 2014
  56. 56. Streets and squares should be safe, comfortable, and interesting to the pedestrian. Properly configured, they encourage walking and enable neighbors to know each other and protect their communities.
  57. 57. Union Square, NYC
  58. 58. Architecture and landscape design should grow from local climate, topography, history, and building practice.
  59. 59. Guggenheim Museum, NYC, designed by Frank Lloyd Wright
  60. 60. Guggenheim Museum, Bilbao, Spain, designed by Frank Gehry
  61. 61. Civic buildings and public gathering places require important sites to reinforce community identity and the culture of democracy. They deserve distinctive form, because their role is different from that of other buildings and places that constitute the fabric of the city.
  62. 62. All buildings should provide their inhabitants with a clear sense of location, weather and time. Natural methods of heating and cooling can be more resource-efficient than mechanical systems.
  63. 63. Preservation and renewal of historic buildings, districts, and landscapes affirm the continuity and evolution of urban society.
  64. 64. Seaside, FL 1985 In 1978 after Robert Davis inherited an 80 acre plot of land in the Florida Panhandle. Robert and his wife Daryl set out to build a “livable” resort town in the “Redneck Riviera” and create a haven for those who missed the communities that were developed when cars were not the dominant form of transportation. Andrés Duany and Elizabeth Plater-Zyberk, a husband and wife team from the prestigious architectural firm Arquitectonica. (They later formed their own firm, DPZ.) The four of them, along with European classicist and town planner Léon Krier, set out to design the kind of place that had been overlooked in contemporary American town planning. The kind of community we all wish we could be from.
  65. 65. Seaside, Florida, 1982, Robert Davis, Andres Duany and Elizabeth Plater-Zyberk
  66. 66. Note the golfcart.
  67. 67. The Truman Show (1998), dir. Peter Weir Was filmed in Seaside, Florida, which the director felt perfectly expressed the set of reality television show.
  68. 68. http://inframanage.com/urbanization-1950-2050-economist-magazine-interactive- timeline-infrastructure-management-perspective/

Editor's Notes

  • Creator: Jenney, William LeBaron; Jenney, William Le Baron (1832 - 1907), American, architect; landscape architect
    Creator: Jensen, Jens (1860 - 1951), Danish; American, landscape architect
    Title: Humboldt Park
    Title: View Description: general view
    Title: Chicago West Parks System
    Work Type: Park (Recreation area)
    Date: 1870-1906
    Location: Chicago, Illinois, United States
    Related Item: Source of information: Image Source (Book)
    Subject: Chicago West Parks System
    Subject: Parks (recreation areas)
    Subject: landscape architecture
    Subject: paths
    Subject: bridges (built works)
    Subject: lampposts
    Collection: SAHARA
    ID Number: Record: 20090448AVRN_0005
    Source: Photographer: Wilson, Richard Guy
    Source: Wilson, Richard
    Source: University of Virginia
    Rights: R.G. Wilson
    Rights: Please note that if this image is under copyright, you may need to contact one or more copyright owners for any use that is not permitted under the ARTstor Terms and Conditions of Use or not otherwise permitted by law. While ARTstor tries to update contact information, it cannot guarantee that such information is always accurate. Determining whether those permissions are necessary, and obtaining such permissions, is your sole responsibility.
  • Creator: Jenney, William LeBaron; Jenney, William Le Baron (1832 - 1907), American, architect; landscape architect
    Creator: Jensen, Jens (1860 - 1951), Danish; American, landscape architect
    Title: Humboldt Park
    Title: View Description: general view
    Title: Chicago West Parks System
    Work Type: Park (Recreation area)
    Date: 1870-1906
    Location: Chicago, Illinois, United States
    Related Item: Source of information: Image Source (Book)
    Subject: Chicago West Parks System
    Subject: Parks (recreation areas)
    Subject: landscape architecture
    Subject: avenues
    Subject: paths
    Collection: SAHARA
    ID Number: Record: 20090448AVRN_0004
    Source: Photographer: Wilson, Richard Guy
    Source: Wilson, Richard
    Source: University of Virginia
    Rights: R.G. Wilson
    Rights: Please note that if this image is under copyright, you may need to contact one or more copyright owners for any use that is not permitted under the ARTstor Terms and Conditions of Use or not otherwise permitted by law. While ARTstor tries to update contact information, it cannot guarantee that such information is always accurate. Determining whether those permissions are necessary, and obtaining such permissions, is your sole responsibility.

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