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Urban Planning
A R T 1 0 0
U n d e r s t a n d i n g V i s u a l C u l t u r e
agenda 3.23.15
the origins of modern planning
Frederick Law Olmsted in NY and Chicago
Haussmann in Paris
a case study of modern planning: NYC
two visions of the city
the New Urbanism
"the smart code"
Central Park, Frederick Law OLMSTED and Calvert VAUX, 1858, completed 1873
aerial photograph, Manhattan, NYC
Chicago Parks
The west park system of Chicago was established in 1869.
Douglas, Garfield, and Humboldt parks and their connecting
boulevards were laid out by architect William LeBaron
Jenney in 1871.
At Garfield, originally known as Central Park, Jenney’s plan
was built-out slowly over the next three decades:
• east lagoon,
• suspension bridge
• small conservatory
• Victorian bandstand
• horse racing track
William LeBaron JENNEY, Garfield Park Suspension Bridge
William LeBaron JENNEY, Humboldt Park, 1870-1906
William LeBaron JENNEY, Humboldt Park, 1870-1906
Paris
Paris,
before
urban
planning
Charles MARVILLE,
Rue des Trois Canettes
1865-8
"medieval" Paris
streets are:
• narrow and winding
• doesn't permit traffic
• doesn't permit troop movement
• easily barricaded
• paved with cobblestones
• open sewer
• unsanitary
• unhealthy
• poor inhabitants not necessarily friendly to Napoleon III
Unidentified photographer
[Barricades during the Paris Commune]
1871 © Det Kongelige Bibliotek
Delacroix, Liberty Leading the People, 1830
asphalt
most roads today are surfaced with asphalt (byproduct of
crude oil processing). leftovers are made into asphalt
cement for pavement.
1824 asphalt block first used on the Champs-Élysées in
Paris.
modern road asphalt used in Battery Park and on Fifth
Avenue in New York City in 1872 and on Pennsylvania
Avenue, Washington D.C., in 1877.
Charles Marville
In 1862 Marville became the official photographer for the city
of Paris.
His job: to document the city, both the quarters marked for
destruction and the grand boulevards that replaced them.
Although his charge was to show that the existing urban
fabric was "not worth saving," many drew the opposite
conclusion from the archive he created.
The entire body of his work burned in the destruction of the
Hôtel de Ville during the Commune. Fortunately Marville had
carefully stored his negatives and was able to replace the
prints.
from Le Vieux Paris by Louis Blanc in Paris-guide, par
les principaux écrivains et artistes de la France,
Librairie Internationale, 1867.
“The time has come to clean up the insalubrious streets
and create more wide-open spaces! The time has come to
let the sun stream into the shady districts, to give Paris the
lungs to breathe as it should; not for reasons of trend or
fashion, but for the sake of hygiene and progress! Yet
wherever the interests of public health, wherever the
inevitable growth of civilization do not require Parisian
dignitaries to display their relentless determination, mercy
for the old streets of Paris! Mercy for the visible vestiges of
the past that the present is so intent on destroying in every
way...! Mercy! If only for a few warts and stains beloved of
Montaigne!”
Under Napoleon III
• Haussmann undertook what many consider the first modern
urban works project, demolishing many existing neighborhoods
to make way for grand boulevards and parks.
• He installed a sewer system.
• Gas lighting was placed in major public places.
• He hired photographers to document the medieval streets he
was plowing under.
Camille PISSARRO, Boulevard Montmartre, 1897, 29.1 × 36.5 in
Camille Pissarro, Avenue de L’Opera, 1898
Gustave CAILLEBOTTE, Traffic Island in the Boulevard Haussmann
Charles Garnier, Paris Opera, built from 1860 to 1875
Marville, L’Avenue de l’Opera
razing the Butte des Moulins during
construction of the Paris Opera house
Vincent VAN GOGH, Outskirts of Paris near Montmartre, 1886
Urban planning, NY style
“I’d like to see the planner who can remove
a ghetto without displacing some people,
just like I’d like to see the chef who can
make an omelette without breaking some
eggs.”
—Robert Moses, New York City planner
and nemesis of Jane Jacobs
“creative destruction”
Joseph Schumpeter
Capitalism, Socialism and Democracy (1942)
Robert
Moses,
with the
map of
the Five
Boroughs
of New York
City
behind him
Robert Moses (1888-1981)
a variety of unelected roles in New York State and New
York City
built parkways, beaches and bridges in and around New
York in the 1930s, using New Deal funds
postwar period, attention turned to expressways; he built a
number of them but failed to build the Lower Manhattan
Expressway
Moses projects
parkways: Northern State, Southern State, Wantaugh
Parkway, Meadowbrook Parkway
beaches: Jones Beach
pools: throughout the five boroughs
bridges: Triborough Bridge, Brooklyn-Battery Tunnel,
Throgs Neck, the Bronx-Whitestone, the Henry Hudson,
and the Verrazano–Narrows bridges.
expressways: I-278 (the Brooklyn-Queens Expressway
and Staten Island Expressway), Cross-Bronx Expressway,
developed Shea Stadium, Lincoln Center, and contributed
to the United Nations headquarters.
Jones Beach seen from Wantaugh Parkway
“When I first looked at this
project, I thought, "How the hell
are we going to get across
here?" It was probably one of
the most challenging highway
projects that had been
constructed, or even
conceived, up until that time. I
dare say that only a man like
Mr. Moses would have the
audacity to believe that one
could push (the expressway)
from one end of the Bronx to
the other.“
—Ernest Clark, design team
The "Cross Bronx"
Expressway
Moses vs. Jacobs
The Cross-Bronx Expressway, today
The Death and Life of
Great American Cities
(1961)
Has become a touchstone for planners and architects associated
with the New Urbanism.
Jacobs, p. 8
“Specifically, in the case of planning for cities, it is clear
that a large number of good and earnest people do care
deeply about building and renewing. Despite some
corruption, and considerable greed for the other man's
vineyard, the intentions going into the messes we make
are, on the whole, exemplary.”
Jacobs, p. 8
“Planners, architects of city design, and those
they have led along with them in their beliefs are
not consciously disdainful of the importance of
knowing how things work. On the contrary, they
have gone to great pains to learn what the saints
and sages of modern orthodox planning have
said about how cities ought to work and what
ought to be good for people and businesses in
them. They take this with such devotion that when
contradictory reality intrudes, threatening to
shatter their dearly won learning, they must shrug
reality aside.”
Her proposal:
Let’s study healthy streets and blocks and
develop a set of principles they share in
common.
We can use those principles to guide new
development.
“Smart Code,”
Duany Plater-
Zyberk,
originally
released 2003
“Smart Code” v. 9.2
Consider the most-loved towns of North America. They were
either carefully planned, or they evolved as compact, mixed
use places because of their geography and the limits of the
transportation and economics of their time. However, over
the past sixty years, places have evolved in a completely
different pattern. They have spread loosely along highways
and haphazardly across the country- side, enabled by the
widespread ownership of automobiles, by cheap petroleum
and cheap land, and by generalized wealth.
Such patterns are enabled by zoning codes that separate
dwellings from work- places, shops, and schools. These
codes include design standards that favor the automobile
over the pedestrian, and are unable to resist the
homogenizing effects of globalization.
These practices have produced banal housing subdivisions,
business parks, strip shopping, big box stores, enormous
parking lots, and sadly gutted downtowns. They have caused
the proliferation of drive-by eateries and billboards. They
have made walking or cycling dangerous or unpleasant.
They have made children, the elderly, and the poor utterly
dependent on those who can drive, even for ordinary daily
needs. They have caused the simultaneous destruction of
both towns and open space -- the 20th century phenomenon
known as sprawl.
The form of our built environment needs a 21st century
correction. But in most places it is actually illegal to build in a
traditional neighborhood pattern. The existing codes prevent
it. In most places people do not have a choice between
sprawl and traditional urbanism. Codes favor sprawl and
isolated residential sub- divisions. It is not a level playing
field.
The SmartCode was created to deal with this problem at the point of
decisive impact -- the intersection of law and design. It is a form-based
code, meaning it envisions and encourages a certain physical outcome --
the form of the region, community, block, and/or building. Form-based
codes are fundamentally different from conventional codes that are based
primarily on use and statistics -- none of which envision or require any
particular physical outcome.
The SmartCode is a tool that guides the form of the built environment in
order to create and protect development patterns that are compact,
walkable, and mixed use. These traditional neighborhood patterns tend to
be stimulating, safe, and ecologically sustainable. The SmartCode requires
a mix of uses within walking distance of dwellings, so residents aren’t
forced to drive everywhere. It supports a connected network to relieve
traffic congestion. At the same time, it preserves open lands, as it operates
at the scale of the region as well as the community.
A primary task of all urban architecture and
landscape design is the physical definition of
streets and public spaces as places of shared use.
Individual architectural projects should be
seamlessly linked to their surroundings. This issue
transcends style.
(see Vincent Scully, “The Death of the Street”)
Skidmore, Owings and Merrill
(SOM)
Lever House
1951-2
view down Park Avenue, showing the relationship between the older buildings
and the street
New York Racquet and Tennis Club, 370 Park Avenue
in the lobby of the Seagram’s Building, looking across to the Racquet Club
Mies van der Rohe, with interiors
by Philip Johnson
Seagram Building
375 Park Avenue
1954-8
The revitalization of urban places depends
on safety and security. The design of streets and buildings
should reinforce safe environments, but not at the expense
of accessibility and openness.
In the contemporary metropolis, development
must adequately accommodate automobiles. It
should do so in ways that respect the pedestrian and the
form of public space.
NYC bike path
reconfigured intersection, NYC
“Curbana” under construction, June 2014
Streets and squares should be safe, comfortable, and
interesting to the pedestrian. Properly configured, they
encourage walking and enable neighbors to know each other
and protect their communities.
Union Square, NYC
Architecture and landscape design should
grow from local climate, topography, history,
and building practice.
Guggenheim Museum, NYC, designed by Frank Lloyd Wright
Guggenheim Museum, Bilbao, Spain, designed by Frank Gehry
Civic buildings and public gathering places
require important sites to reinforce community
identity and the culture of democracy. They
deserve distinctive form, because their role is
different from that of other buildings and places that
constitute the fabric of the city.
All buildings should provide their inhabitants
with a clear sense of location, weather and time.
Natural methods of heating and cooling can be
more resource-efficient than mechanical systems.
Preservation and renewal of historic buildings,
districts, and landscapes affirm the continuity and evolution
of urban society.
Seaside, FL 1985
In 1978 after Robert Davis inherited an 80 acre plot of land in
the Florida Panhandle. Robert and his wife Daryl set out to build
a “livable” resort town in the “Redneck Riviera” and create a
haven for those who missed the communities that were
developed when cars were not the dominant form of
transportation.
Andrés Duany and Elizabeth Plater-Zyberk, a husband and wife
team from the prestigious architectural firm Arquitectonica.
(They later formed their own firm, DPZ.) The four of them, along
with European classicist and town planner Léon Krier, set out to
design the kind of place that had been overlooked in
contemporary American town planning. The kind of community
we all wish we could be from.
Seaside, Florida, 1982, Robert Davis, Andres Duany and Elizabeth Plater-Zyberk
Note the golfcart.
The Truman Show (1998),
dir. Peter Weir
Was filmed in Seaside, Florida,
which the director felt perfectly
expressed the set of reality
television show.
http://inframanage.com/urbanization-1950-2050-economist-magazine-interactive-
timeline-infrastructure-management-perspective/

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UVCSp15Module13.2

  • 1. Urban Planning A R T 1 0 0 U n d e r s t a n d i n g V i s u a l C u l t u r e
  • 2. agenda 3.23.15 the origins of modern planning Frederick Law Olmsted in NY and Chicago Haussmann in Paris a case study of modern planning: NYC two visions of the city the New Urbanism "the smart code"
  • 3. Central Park, Frederick Law OLMSTED and Calvert VAUX, 1858, completed 1873
  • 5.
  • 6. Chicago Parks The west park system of Chicago was established in 1869. Douglas, Garfield, and Humboldt parks and their connecting boulevards were laid out by architect William LeBaron Jenney in 1871. At Garfield, originally known as Central Park, Jenney’s plan was built-out slowly over the next three decades: • east lagoon, • suspension bridge • small conservatory • Victorian bandstand • horse racing track
  • 7. William LeBaron JENNEY, Garfield Park Suspension Bridge
  • 8. William LeBaron JENNEY, Humboldt Park, 1870-1906
  • 9. William LeBaron JENNEY, Humboldt Park, 1870-1906
  • 10. Paris
  • 12. "medieval" Paris streets are: • narrow and winding • doesn't permit traffic • doesn't permit troop movement • easily barricaded • paved with cobblestones • open sewer • unsanitary • unhealthy • poor inhabitants not necessarily friendly to Napoleon III
  • 13. Unidentified photographer [Barricades during the Paris Commune] 1871 © Det Kongelige Bibliotek
  • 14. Delacroix, Liberty Leading the People, 1830
  • 15. asphalt most roads today are surfaced with asphalt (byproduct of crude oil processing). leftovers are made into asphalt cement for pavement. 1824 asphalt block first used on the Champs-Élysées in Paris. modern road asphalt used in Battery Park and on Fifth Avenue in New York City in 1872 and on Pennsylvania Avenue, Washington D.C., in 1877.
  • 16. Charles Marville In 1862 Marville became the official photographer for the city of Paris. His job: to document the city, both the quarters marked for destruction and the grand boulevards that replaced them. Although his charge was to show that the existing urban fabric was "not worth saving," many drew the opposite conclusion from the archive he created. The entire body of his work burned in the destruction of the Hôtel de Ville during the Commune. Fortunately Marville had carefully stored his negatives and was able to replace the prints.
  • 17. from Le Vieux Paris by Louis Blanc in Paris-guide, par les principaux écrivains et artistes de la France, Librairie Internationale, 1867. “The time has come to clean up the insalubrious streets and create more wide-open spaces! The time has come to let the sun stream into the shady districts, to give Paris the lungs to breathe as it should; not for reasons of trend or fashion, but for the sake of hygiene and progress! Yet wherever the interests of public health, wherever the inevitable growth of civilization do not require Parisian dignitaries to display their relentless determination, mercy for the old streets of Paris! Mercy for the visible vestiges of the past that the present is so intent on destroying in every way...! Mercy! If only for a few warts and stains beloved of Montaigne!”
  • 18. Under Napoleon III • Haussmann undertook what many consider the first modern urban works project, demolishing many existing neighborhoods to make way for grand boulevards and parks. • He installed a sewer system. • Gas lighting was placed in major public places. • He hired photographers to document the medieval streets he was plowing under.
  • 19.
  • 20.
  • 21. Camille PISSARRO, Boulevard Montmartre, 1897, 29.1 × 36.5 in
  • 22. Camille Pissarro, Avenue de L’Opera, 1898
  • 23. Gustave CAILLEBOTTE, Traffic Island in the Boulevard Haussmann
  • 24.
  • 25. Charles Garnier, Paris Opera, built from 1860 to 1875
  • 27. razing the Butte des Moulins during construction of the Paris Opera house
  • 28. Vincent VAN GOGH, Outskirts of Paris near Montmartre, 1886
  • 29. Urban planning, NY style “I’d like to see the planner who can remove a ghetto without displacing some people, just like I’d like to see the chef who can make an omelette without breaking some eggs.” —Robert Moses, New York City planner and nemesis of Jane Jacobs
  • 31. Robert Moses, with the map of the Five Boroughs of New York City behind him
  • 32. Robert Moses (1888-1981) a variety of unelected roles in New York State and New York City built parkways, beaches and bridges in and around New York in the 1930s, using New Deal funds postwar period, attention turned to expressways; he built a number of them but failed to build the Lower Manhattan Expressway
  • 33. Moses projects parkways: Northern State, Southern State, Wantaugh Parkway, Meadowbrook Parkway beaches: Jones Beach pools: throughout the five boroughs bridges: Triborough Bridge, Brooklyn-Battery Tunnel, Throgs Neck, the Bronx-Whitestone, the Henry Hudson, and the Verrazano–Narrows bridges. expressways: I-278 (the Brooklyn-Queens Expressway and Staten Island Expressway), Cross-Bronx Expressway, developed Shea Stadium, Lincoln Center, and contributed to the United Nations headquarters.
  • 34. Jones Beach seen from Wantaugh Parkway
  • 35.
  • 36.
  • 37.
  • 38. “When I first looked at this project, I thought, "How the hell are we going to get across here?" It was probably one of the most challenging highway projects that had been constructed, or even conceived, up until that time. I dare say that only a man like Mr. Moses would have the audacity to believe that one could push (the expressway) from one end of the Bronx to the other.“ —Ernest Clark, design team The "Cross Bronx" Expressway
  • 40.
  • 42.
  • 43.
  • 44.
  • 45.
  • 46.
  • 47.
  • 48.
  • 49. The Death and Life of Great American Cities (1961) Has become a touchstone for planners and architects associated with the New Urbanism.
  • 50. Jacobs, p. 8 “Specifically, in the case of planning for cities, it is clear that a large number of good and earnest people do care deeply about building and renewing. Despite some corruption, and considerable greed for the other man's vineyard, the intentions going into the messes we make are, on the whole, exemplary.”
  • 51. Jacobs, p. 8 “Planners, architects of city design, and those they have led along with them in their beliefs are not consciously disdainful of the importance of knowing how things work. On the contrary, they have gone to great pains to learn what the saints and sages of modern orthodox planning have said about how cities ought to work and what ought to be good for people and businesses in them. They take this with such devotion that when contradictory reality intrudes, threatening to shatter their dearly won learning, they must shrug reality aside.”
  • 52. Her proposal: Let’s study healthy streets and blocks and develop a set of principles they share in common. We can use those principles to guide new development.
  • 53.
  • 55. “Smart Code” v. 9.2 Consider the most-loved towns of North America. They were either carefully planned, or they evolved as compact, mixed use places because of their geography and the limits of the transportation and economics of their time. However, over the past sixty years, places have evolved in a completely different pattern. They have spread loosely along highways and haphazardly across the country- side, enabled by the widespread ownership of automobiles, by cheap petroleum and cheap land, and by generalized wealth.
  • 56. Such patterns are enabled by zoning codes that separate dwellings from work- places, shops, and schools. These codes include design standards that favor the automobile over the pedestrian, and are unable to resist the homogenizing effects of globalization.
  • 57. These practices have produced banal housing subdivisions, business parks, strip shopping, big box stores, enormous parking lots, and sadly gutted downtowns. They have caused the proliferation of drive-by eateries and billboards. They have made walking or cycling dangerous or unpleasant. They have made children, the elderly, and the poor utterly dependent on those who can drive, even for ordinary daily needs. They have caused the simultaneous destruction of both towns and open space -- the 20th century phenomenon known as sprawl.
  • 58. The form of our built environment needs a 21st century correction. But in most places it is actually illegal to build in a traditional neighborhood pattern. The existing codes prevent it. In most places people do not have a choice between sprawl and traditional urbanism. Codes favor sprawl and isolated residential sub- divisions. It is not a level playing field.
  • 59. The SmartCode was created to deal with this problem at the point of decisive impact -- the intersection of law and design. It is a form-based code, meaning it envisions and encourages a certain physical outcome -- the form of the region, community, block, and/or building. Form-based codes are fundamentally different from conventional codes that are based primarily on use and statistics -- none of which envision or require any particular physical outcome. The SmartCode is a tool that guides the form of the built environment in order to create and protect development patterns that are compact, walkable, and mixed use. These traditional neighborhood patterns tend to be stimulating, safe, and ecologically sustainable. The SmartCode requires a mix of uses within walking distance of dwellings, so residents aren’t forced to drive everywhere. It supports a connected network to relieve traffic congestion. At the same time, it preserves open lands, as it operates at the scale of the region as well as the community.
  • 60. A primary task of all urban architecture and landscape design is the physical definition of streets and public spaces as places of shared use.
  • 61. Individual architectural projects should be seamlessly linked to their surroundings. This issue transcends style. (see Vincent Scully, “The Death of the Street”)
  • 62. Skidmore, Owings and Merrill (SOM) Lever House 1951-2
  • 63. view down Park Avenue, showing the relationship between the older buildings and the street
  • 64. New York Racquet and Tennis Club, 370 Park Avenue
  • 65. in the lobby of the Seagram’s Building, looking across to the Racquet Club
  • 66. Mies van der Rohe, with interiors by Philip Johnson Seagram Building 375 Park Avenue 1954-8
  • 67. The revitalization of urban places depends on safety and security. The design of streets and buildings should reinforce safe environments, but not at the expense of accessibility and openness.
  • 68. In the contemporary metropolis, development must adequately accommodate automobiles. It should do so in ways that respect the pedestrian and the form of public space.
  • 69.
  • 72.
  • 74. Streets and squares should be safe, comfortable, and interesting to the pedestrian. Properly configured, they encourage walking and enable neighbors to know each other and protect their communities.
  • 76. Architecture and landscape design should grow from local climate, topography, history, and building practice.
  • 77.
  • 78. Guggenheim Museum, NYC, designed by Frank Lloyd Wright
  • 79. Guggenheim Museum, Bilbao, Spain, designed by Frank Gehry
  • 80. Civic buildings and public gathering places require important sites to reinforce community identity and the culture of democracy. They deserve distinctive form, because their role is different from that of other buildings and places that constitute the fabric of the city.
  • 81.
  • 82.
  • 83.
  • 84. All buildings should provide their inhabitants with a clear sense of location, weather and time. Natural methods of heating and cooling can be more resource-efficient than mechanical systems.
  • 85. Preservation and renewal of historic buildings, districts, and landscapes affirm the continuity and evolution of urban society.
  • 86. Seaside, FL 1985 In 1978 after Robert Davis inherited an 80 acre plot of land in the Florida Panhandle. Robert and his wife Daryl set out to build a “livable” resort town in the “Redneck Riviera” and create a haven for those who missed the communities that were developed when cars were not the dominant form of transportation. Andrés Duany and Elizabeth Plater-Zyberk, a husband and wife team from the prestigious architectural firm Arquitectonica. (They later formed their own firm, DPZ.) The four of them, along with European classicist and town planner Léon Krier, set out to design the kind of place that had been overlooked in contemporary American town planning. The kind of community we all wish we could be from.
  • 87.
  • 88.
  • 89.
  • 90.
  • 91.
  • 92.
  • 93.
  • 94. Seaside, Florida, 1982, Robert Davis, Andres Duany and Elizabeth Plater-Zyberk
  • 95.
  • 96.
  • 97.
  • 98.
  • 99.
  • 100.
  • 101.
  • 103.
  • 104. The Truman Show (1998), dir. Peter Weir Was filmed in Seaside, Florida, which the director felt perfectly expressed the set of reality television show.

Editor's Notes

  1. Creator: Jenney, William LeBaron; Jenney, William Le Baron (1832 - 1907), American, architect; landscape architect Creator: Jensen, Jens (1860 - 1951), Danish; American, landscape architect Title: Humboldt Park Title: View Description: general view Title: Chicago West Parks System Work Type: Park (Recreation area) Date: 1870-1906 Location: Chicago, Illinois, United States Related Item: Source of information: Image Source (Book) Subject: Chicago West Parks System Subject: Parks (recreation areas) Subject: landscape architecture Subject: paths Subject: bridges (built works) Subject: lampposts Collection: SAHARA ID Number: Record: 20090448AVRN_0005 Source: Photographer: Wilson, Richard Guy Source: Wilson, Richard Source: University of Virginia Rights: R.G. Wilson Rights: Please note that if this image is under copyright, you may need to contact one or more copyright owners for any use that is not permitted under the ARTstor Terms and Conditions of Use or not otherwise permitted by law. While ARTstor tries to update contact information, it cannot guarantee that such information is always accurate. Determining whether those permissions are necessary, and obtaining such permissions, is your sole responsibility.
  2. Creator: Jenney, William LeBaron; Jenney, William Le Baron (1832 - 1907), American, architect; landscape architect Creator: Jensen, Jens (1860 - 1951), Danish; American, landscape architect Title: Humboldt Park Title: View Description: general view Title: Chicago West Parks System Work Type: Park (Recreation area) Date: 1870-1906 Location: Chicago, Illinois, United States Related Item: Source of information: Image Source (Book) Subject: Chicago West Parks System Subject: Parks (recreation areas) Subject: landscape architecture Subject: avenues Subject: paths Collection: SAHARA ID Number: Record: 20090448AVRN_0004 Source: Photographer: Wilson, Richard Guy Source: Wilson, Richard Source: University of Virginia Rights: R.G. Wilson Rights: Please note that if this image is under copyright, you may need to contact one or more copyright owners for any use that is not permitted under the ARTstor Terms and Conditions of Use or not otherwise permitted by law. While ARTstor tries to update contact information, it cannot guarantee that such information is always accurate. Determining whether those permissions are necessary, and obtaining such permissions, is your sole responsibility.