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Approaching   Africa  ART 299Spring 2012
As students of African art begin to consider the African past, they must   also consider how Western conceptions of "race"...
Jean-MichelBasquiatHollywoodAfricans1983
Trayvon Martin photographed in a hoodieDavid Hammons, In the ‘Hood, 1993
This realization has led historians to seek out alternative   sources of information less influenced by European   preoccu...
The Sahara Desert stretches 3000 miles across northern Africa - from the Atlanticocean in the west to the Red Sea on the e...
Part INorth Africa
Take a moment to look at the geography of North Africa on this topographic map
Unique Geographical Featuresof North Africa• Coastline (on the Mediterranean sea)• Sahara Desert (arid)—an ocean of  sand•...
Unique Cultural Features ofNorth Africa• Strong Islamic presence     • History of Islamic rule     • Arabic language     •...
Kasbah, Morocco
Koran created for Sharifi Sultan Abd‘Allah IbnMuhummad, c. 1568
Marrakech, MoroccoAl ‗Badi Palace
Great Mosque, TangierBegun under Sultan Mouley Ismail, 17thc.
Tangier, Morocco Sultan‘s Palace
Detail of tilework, Sultan‘s palace
Fez, Morocco
Fez, aerial view of the Medina
Rimonim(Torah scrollornaments), silver, producedin Fez
Atlas mountains
Right: Terraced farmingAbove: Beverages kept chilledfor sale in the HighAtlas, Morocco
City of Meknes, Morocco
The Traveling    Tuareg  southward through theSahel to West    Africa   ARTH 115  Spring 2009
Area of Tuareg people
Tuareg people, fleeing drought in Mali; photo taken in 1974, southern Algeria
Sand Dunes in the SaharaTuareg man
―Great Eastern Sand Sea,‖ Algeria
Above: Oasis, Sahara, AlgeriaLeft: Mski Oasis, Sahara, Morocco
Taghit Oasis and Township, Sahara, North Africa
Relating Aesthetics to Way of               Life• Tuareg art is:  – Portable (nomadic people)     • Lightweight materials ...
Tuareg, perfumed powder container, late 19th/early 20thc.
Tuareg, Box to Hold Tea Glasses, late 19thc.
Tuareg, Treasure Box, late 19th c., silver and brass, 6 1/2 x 4 3/4 x 7 1/4 in.
Tuareg, all-purpose tool, 20thc.
Tuareg, sugar hammer, silver, late 19th/early 20thc.
Traditional cone of sugar
Tuareg, Knife and Sheath, c. 1950
Tuareg, Assroun’swoul. What might this object be used for?
Tuareg woman   Tuareg man
Tuareg, Assroun’swoul(robe weight), late 19th/early 20thc.
Tuareg, Assroun‘swoul (robe weight), 20thc.
Tuareg men in traditional garbTuareg, camel saddle
Tuareg, leatherwork, camel saddlebag
Tuareg, leather-work,pillowcovers
Tuareg, panel or cushion cover, 19thc., cotton
Part IICentral Africa
Key Cultural Groups fromCentral Africa:The Chokwe  Chibinda Ilunga  mid-19th century  Africa, northeastern  Angola, Chokwe...
Key Cultural Groups from Central Africa:The Chokwe    Chokwe (people)    ChibindaIlunga (type of    figure)    He is a roy...
Key Cultural Groups from Central Africa:The Kongo Kongo (people) NkisiNkonde (type of figure)      NkisiNkonde      20th c...
Nkisi Nkonde Figures (plural: Minkinsi            Minkonde)                    • Each blade and                      nail ...
•The nkisinkondeexpresses the idea ofcaptured forces held under control. Itis only powerful, however, when filledwith ‗med...
ART299Spring12Wk11ApproachingAfrica
ART299Spring12Wk11ApproachingAfrica
ART299Spring12Wk11ApproachingAfrica
ART299Spring12Wk11ApproachingAfrica
ART299Spring12Wk11ApproachingAfrica
ART299Spring12Wk11ApproachingAfrica
ART299Spring12Wk11ApproachingAfrica
ART299Spring12Wk11ApproachingAfrica
ART299Spring12Wk11ApproachingAfrica
ART299Spring12Wk11ApproachingAfrica
ART299Spring12Wk11ApproachingAfrica
ART299Spring12Wk11ApproachingAfrica
ART299Spring12Wk11ApproachingAfrica
ART299Spring12Wk11ApproachingAfrica
ART299Spring12Wk11ApproachingAfrica
ART299Spring12Wk11ApproachingAfrica
ART299Spring12Wk11ApproachingAfrica
ART299Spring12Wk11ApproachingAfrica
ART299Spring12Wk11ApproachingAfrica
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ART299Spring12Wk11ApproachingAfrica

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ART299Spring12Wk11ApproachingAfrica

  1. 1. Approaching Africa ART 299Spring 2012
  2. 2. As students of African art begin to consider the African past, they must also consider how Western conceptions of "race" and "racial" difference have influenced our notions of the African past. These ideas, which have usually contrasted the presumed inferiority of black peoples with the superiority of whites, arose in Western societies as Europeans sought to justify their enslavement of Africans and the subsequent colonization of Africa. Historians now recognize that ideas of racial inferiority have inspired the belief that in the past African peoples lived in a state of primitive barbarism. At the same time, they have realized that many of the European writings which they use to reconstruct the African past -- such as accounts by nineteenth-century missionaries and travelers, for example -- are themselves tainted by these same notions of African inferiority.—James Giblin
  3. 3. Jean-MichelBasquiatHollywoodAfricans1983
  4. 4. Trayvon Martin photographed in a hoodieDavid Hammons, In the ‘Hood, 1993
  5. 5. This realization has led historians to seek out alternative sources of information less influenced by European preoccupation with racial difference. These alternative sources include writings by Africans (which are found in only a few portions of Sub-Saharan Africa before the twentieth century), the much fuller bodies of oral tradition which are found throughout Africa, the vocabularies and structures of African languages themselves, and the physical artifacts uncovered by archaeologists. African art is also one of these alternative sources of information. Like the other alternative sources, it helps us to understand African history not from the standpoint of Europeans, but from the perspective of Africans themselves. —James Giblin
  6. 6. The Sahara Desert stretches 3000 miles across northern Africa - from the Atlanticocean in the west to the Red Sea on the east. Its width spans from theMediterranean Sea on the north and extends 1200 miles to the south to centralAfrica. It covers an area of approximately 3.5 million square miles, occupyingportions of Morocco, WesternSahara, Algeria, Tunisia, Libya, Egypt, Mauritania, Mali, Niger, Chad, Ethiopa, Eritrea and Somalia..
  7. 7. Part INorth Africa
  8. 8. Take a moment to look at the geography of North Africa on this topographic map
  9. 9. Unique Geographical Featuresof North Africa• Coastline (on the Mediterranean sea)• Sahara Desert (arid)—an ocean of sand• The Sahel (semiarid)—capable of sustaining pasturage or small-scale crops, in places• Mountains (The Atlas Mountain range)
  10. 10. Unique Cultural Features ofNorth Africa• Strong Islamic presence • History of Islamic rule • Arabic language • Islamic religious forms• Strong European presence, particularly French • French language • Morocco drew many US writers, like Paul and Jane Bowles, William S. Burroughs • Significant number of prominent French intellectuals are from Algeria: Albert Camus, Louis Althusser, Hélène Cixous, Jacques Derrida, Jacques Rancière• Existing nomadic peoples (generally referred to as the Berbers)
  11. 11. Kasbah, Morocco
  12. 12. Koran created for Sharifi Sultan Abd‘Allah IbnMuhummad, c. 1568
  13. 13. Marrakech, MoroccoAl ‗Badi Palace
  14. 14. Great Mosque, TangierBegun under Sultan Mouley Ismail, 17thc.
  15. 15. Tangier, Morocco Sultan‘s Palace
  16. 16. Detail of tilework, Sultan‘s palace
  17. 17. Fez, Morocco
  18. 18. Fez, aerial view of the Medina
  19. 19. Rimonim(Torah scrollornaments), silver, producedin Fez
  20. 20. Atlas mountains
  21. 21. Right: Terraced farmingAbove: Beverages kept chilledfor sale in the HighAtlas, Morocco
  22. 22. City of Meknes, Morocco
  23. 23. The Traveling Tuareg southward through theSahel to West Africa ARTH 115 Spring 2009
  24. 24. Area of Tuareg people
  25. 25. Tuareg people, fleeing drought in Mali; photo taken in 1974, southern Algeria
  26. 26. Sand Dunes in the SaharaTuareg man
  27. 27. ―Great Eastern Sand Sea,‖ Algeria
  28. 28. Above: Oasis, Sahara, AlgeriaLeft: Mski Oasis, Sahara, Morocco
  29. 29. Taghit Oasis and Township, Sahara, North Africa
  30. 30. Relating Aesthetics to Way of Life• Tuareg art is: – Portable (nomadic people) • Lightweight materials and small objects – Useful • virtually everything that is carried is ornamented, but nothing is carried that has no function) – Designed for beauty in motion
  31. 31. Tuareg, perfumed powder container, late 19th/early 20thc.
  32. 32. Tuareg, Box to Hold Tea Glasses, late 19thc.
  33. 33. Tuareg, Treasure Box, late 19th c., silver and brass, 6 1/2 x 4 3/4 x 7 1/4 in.
  34. 34. Tuareg, all-purpose tool, 20thc.
  35. 35. Tuareg, sugar hammer, silver, late 19th/early 20thc.
  36. 36. Traditional cone of sugar
  37. 37. Tuareg, Knife and Sheath, c. 1950
  38. 38. Tuareg, Assroun’swoul. What might this object be used for?
  39. 39. Tuareg woman Tuareg man
  40. 40. Tuareg, Assroun’swoul(robe weight), late 19th/early 20thc.
  41. 41. Tuareg, Assroun‘swoul (robe weight), 20thc.
  42. 42. Tuareg men in traditional garbTuareg, camel saddle
  43. 43. Tuareg, leatherwork, camel saddlebag
  44. 44. Tuareg, leather-work,pillowcovers
  45. 45. Tuareg, panel or cushion cover, 19thc., cotton
  46. 46. Part IICentral Africa
  47. 47. Key Cultural Groups fromCentral Africa:The Chokwe Chibinda Ilunga mid-19th century Africa, northeastern Angola, Chokwe people Wood, hair, and hide 16 x 6 x 6 in. (40.6 x 15.2 x 15.2 cm)
  48. 48. Key Cultural Groups from Central Africa:The Chokwe Chokwe (people) ChibindaIlunga (type of figure) He is a royal ancestor of the Chokwe people. ChibindaIlunga became a culture hero and model for Chokwe chiefs because of his great hunting and leadership skills. What qualities of good leadership and manhood are represented here? ChibindaIlunga How are these traits visible in the form of Figure, 19th–20th century the figure? Chokwe Angola Wood
  49. 49. Key Cultural Groups from Central Africa:The Kongo Kongo (people) NkisiNkonde (type of figure) NkisiNkonde 20th century Kongopeople [today: live in Zaire] wood, iron, mirror, clay
  50. 50. Nkisi Nkonde Figures (plural: Minkinsi Minkonde) • Each blade and nail in the figure represents a kind of contract between two parties. The nkisinkondeserves as a powerful witness who holds the parties to their agreement.
  51. 51. •The nkisinkondeexpresses the idea ofcaptured forces held under control. Itis only powerful, however, when filledwith ‗medicines‘ or magicalingredients (known as bilongo).• A ritual specialist (known as anganga), would construct theseobjects and select the appropriatebilongoto fill their concealed cavities.

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