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In this class we talk about the development of printing technologies.

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  1. 1. Class 11.2 Making Multiples A r t 1 0 0 U n d e r s t a n d i n g V i s u a l C u l t u r e
  2. 2. agenda 11.3.16 • what is printing? what is a print? • where is printing inventeD? • recording things: how do we keep records? • clay tablets [Sumeria] • papyrus [Egypt] • bamboo, silk, paper [China] • qipu [Andes] • parchment [Europe]
  3. 3. some of the earliest images...
  4. 4. ...were made by "printing"
  5. 5. what is "printing"? • Complex term: • 1. Creation of a single controlling surface from which multiples can be generated; the intention is that all resulting copies are identical (though there may be differences in practice). Just because it's possible to make multiples doesn't mean that you are required to. • 2. When printing, the controlling surface is covered in ink or some other pigment, and then transferred to a receiving surface through pressure. • 3. "Printing" can also refer to the creation of written materials using moveable type.
  6. 6. what is a "print"? • An image or design impressed or stamped on a support such as paper or fabric. The term encompasses a wide range of techniques used to produce multiple versions of an original design. • There are many different techniques for printing. Today, we'll discuss two of them: • wood block printing • engraving
  7. 7. early printing • Woodblock printing • Invented during the Tang Dynasty (618-907) • Popularized during the Song Dynasty (960-1279) • Moveable metal invented in Korea during the 9th century; many extant copies of Korean metal-type printed texts from the 12th and 13th centuries. • There were also sets of moveable wood type.
  8. 8. Buddhist text China c. 1300 woodblock
  9. 9. cast bronze type
  10. 10. tray of set metal type
  11. 11. what else is needed for printing? • a receptive surface. The Chinese were technologically advanced in this way as well. • Silk makes an excellent receptive surface and was used for texts and images as well as clothing. • Paper! Printing on paper dates to the 8th century in China. • Buddhism, which emphasizes that sacred texts should be produced in mass quantity, to multiply their blessings and spread their faith, was a key force in the development of printing. • This is why we see paper, print, and Buddhist content joined together in the earliest extant woodblock printed image in global history.
  12. 12. what are some other "receptive surfaces"
  13. 13. clay tablet British Museum Society Tablet Mespotamian, Late Uruk (3100BC-3000BC) clay with impressed cuneiform 3.7 in H x 2.7 in W x .91 in D record of beer consumed on account of different workers; impressed with five different types of numerical symbols
  14. 14. clay tablets PROS CONS
  15. 15. Lesley Perrins, How Paper Is Made. (Facts on File: New York, 1985): 16. Processing Papyrus stalks into paper
  16. 16. water, sun and pressure compact the individual strips into a single sheet; to make larger sheets, individual sheets are glued together
  17. 17. papyrus fragment Simonides [Greek] epic poem about a Greek military victory
  18. 18. Fragment of Gospel of John 3.5 x 2.5 inches script style dates this to 125-150 oldest surviving fragment of New Testament Rylands
  19. 19. scholar examining one of the "Dead Sea Scrolls"
  20. 20. papyrus CONSPROS
  21. 21. China calligraphy on bamboo strips c. 300 BCE history text
  22. 22. Paper and Systems of Notation • rise of paper production in Baghdad late eighth/early ninth sparks production of books, scholarly activity, development of libraries • it also impacts the develop of systems of notation, new ways of representing human knowledge in various fields • math (numerals) • commerce (numerals, coinage, standard accounting procedures) • geography (cartography) • cooking • music (counter-example of dance notation) • genealogy • battle plans
  23. 23. qipu or khipu (pronounced KEE-poo): based upon the Quechua word for "knot," an unique record-keeping system developed in the Inca Empire.
  24. 24. Data is stored in the position of the strings, their length, and the number, size and position of the knots.
  25. 25. The Inca Empire expanded rapidly in the 15th century. Thousands of miles of roads were built across the Empire; soldiers needed payment; temples required maintenance.
  26. 26. The qipu were stored and used by “khipucamayuq”— administrators of the Inca Empire who used them to encode census and tax data.
  27. 27. In the West the technique of printing from woodblocks on dates from the early 15th century. Prints of this kind that have survived include religious images and playing cards. As we might predict, printing in Europe was developed after paper began to be manufactured there. So what was this monk writing on?
  28. 28. animal hides were stretched, dried and treated to create velvety smooth surfaces for writing
  29. 29.
  30. 30. “Giant” Bible of Mainz completed July 9, 1453
  31. 31. parchment PROS CONS
  32. 32. sheet of playing cards Venice 1462
  33. 33. 1454 or 1455 printed using moveable metal type; ¼ of the copies printed on parchment, the other ¾ printed on imported Italian paper
  34. 34. Jost AMMANN (1539-1591) “The Printer's Workshop,” from The Book of Trades woodcut 1568 114 woodcuts illustrating different trades, each with a poem In the background, two men are selecting letters from a double-type case, which they would assemble in a line on a hand-held tray according to the manuscripts pinned beside them. In the foreground, the man on the right is inking the lines of type, while the man on the left removed a completed page from the hinged frame. The whole assembly is then slid under the press, which is forced down by one horizontal pull of the handle. Woodcut blocks can be printed in this press at the same time as text.
  35. 35. early printed format  broadsheet/broadside: a single sheet that was used to print announcements or notices on one side only.  could be posted publicly and read/viewed by all
  36. 36. Erhard Schoen, broadsheet titled "A scary story of the devil and a terrible woman that happened at Schilta during Holy Week 1533.” woodcut
  37. 37. Georg Mack the Elder Broadsheet recording the sighting of a comet at Nürnberg in November 1577 woodcut, colored single leaf
  38. 38. etching 1797 France
  39. 39. design of printing press London, 17th century
  40. 40. hand-cranked printing press, but now in cast iron, allowing greater pressure to be exerted on the plates
  41. 41. early design for steam-powered printing press