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The behaviouristapproachPYB1Q1
Give me a dozen healthy infants,well formed, and my own specifiedworld to bring them up in. I’llguarantee to take any one ...
Assumptions   The behaviourist approach assumes that    everything about human behaviour is learned    through experience...
Pavlov   Pavlov discovered classical conditioning    by observing dogs behaviour at meal    times.
Classical conditioning inhumans   Menzies (1937) used the response of    vasoconstriction (constriction of blood vessels ...
Skinner Skinner developed the theory of operant  conditioning by conducting experiments  with animals such as rats and pi...
Reinforcement and punishment Reinforcement is anything that increases  the likelihood of a behaviour repeating Reinforce...
Influences on Psychology The behaviourist approach is one of the  most scientific approaches in psychology. They focus o...
Influences on Psychology The second major influence is the  practical use of the approach. Watson and Rayner showed how ...
Influences on Psychology The third main influence is the emphasis  on learning from the environment (nurture) This appro...
Activity   In small groups, come up with as many ‘real life’    examples of behaviour shaped by classical and    operant ...
PSYA2 - The Behaviourist Approach
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PSYA2 - The Behaviourist Approach

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PSYA2 - The Behaviourist Approach

  1. 1. The behaviouristapproachPYB1Q1
  2. 2. Give me a dozen healthy infants,well formed, and my own specifiedworld to bring them up in. I’llguarantee to take any one atrandom and train him to becomeany type of specialist I mightselect—doctor, lawyer, artist,merchant-chief, and yes, evenbeggarman and thief” John Watson
  3. 3. Assumptions The behaviourist approach assumes that everything about human behaviour is learned through experience. This learning occurs through either classical or operant conditioning. Classical conditioning involves learning through association. Operant conditioning involves learning through the consequences of actions = reward (reinforcement) and punishment. Behaviour is a result of stimulus-response.
  4. 4. Pavlov Pavlov discovered classical conditioning by observing dogs behaviour at meal times.
  5. 5. Classical conditioning inhumans Menzies (1937) used the response of vasoconstriction (constriction of blood vessels making the skin look pale). Every time a participant heard a buzzer, he placed his hand in a bucket of ice-cold water. When he became conditioned to this, whenever he heard the buzzer the vasoconstriction took place without putting his hands in the water.
  6. 6. Skinner Skinner developed the theory of operant conditioning by conducting experiments with animals such as rats and pigeons. One of his famous experiments involved a rat in a Skinner box. The rat had to learn to press the lever that would provide food and avoid the lever that would give an electric shock
  7. 7. Reinforcement and punishment Reinforcement is anything that increases the likelihood of a behaviour repeating Reinforcement can be either positive or negative. Positive reinforcement is reward Negative reinforcement involves removing something painful. Punishment is anything that reduces the likelihood of a behaviour repeating.
  8. 8. Influences on Psychology The behaviourist approach is one of the most scientific approaches in psychology. They focus on behaviour because that is what can be observed and measured. Therefore, they have added credibility to those aiming to get psychology recognised as a science
  9. 9. Influences on Psychology The second major influence is the practical use of the approach. Watson and Rayner showed how a phobia could be learned. Because of this, behaviourist techniques can be used to treat phobias (systematic desensitisation) It is also used widely to shape the behaviour of children.
  10. 10. Influences on Psychology The third main influence is the emphasis on learning from the environment (nurture) This approach to behaviour had a big influence on educational policy. If learning comes from the environment then achievement will be based on creating the right environment.
  11. 11. Activity In small groups, come up with as many ‘real life’ examples of behaviour shaped by classical and operant conditioning as you can. When you have completed the examples, think of as many examples of positive reinforcement, negative reinforcement and punishment as you can. Put your ideas on flip chart paper
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