Ch. 07: Methods of Decreasing BehaviorJemimah Valencia ED457 March 08, 2012
Chapter ObjectivesO Describe seven (7) methods of decreasing behavior.O Demonstrate the appropriate methods for specific target behaviors
Aversives in the Educational Setting Aversives –unpleasantconsequence, intervention as action by the teacher to decreaseappropriate behavior, and restriction as the degree of regulation to control the use of an intervention.
Differential Reinforcement• Defined as the process of reinforcing an appropriate behavior in the presence of one stimulus and, simultaneously, not reinforcing an inappropriate behavior in the presence of another stimulus.
Three Types of Differential Reinforcements:O Differential reinforcement of zero rates of behavior (DRO)O Differential reinforcement of incompatible behaviors (DRI)O Differential reinforcements of lower rates of behavior (DRL)
Extinction O Thediscontinuation orwithholding of the reinforcer of abehavior that has previously been reinforcing the behavior.
ReprimandsO To scold, “yell at,” “bawl out,” or otherwise verbally chastise for exhibiting an inappropriate target behavior.
Loss of PrivilegesO Deprivation of privileges or response cost
Time-Out The removal of a child from an apparently reinforcing setting to apresumably nonreinforcing setting fora specified and limited period of time
QuestionsO Would you consider utilizing all methods for decreasing behavior? Why or Why not?O Of the methods discussed, which would you utilize the least? Why?O Which method do you feel is most flexible/fitting in almost any kind of behavior type?
SummaryO Differential Reinforcement allows us to „accentuate the positive to eliminate the negative.‟O Extinction is also known as „systematic ignoring.‟O Reprimands are verbal statements made on the exhibition of an undesirable target behavior.O Loss of privileges are also known as „response-cost.‟O Time-Out removes students from educational opportunities.O Punishment is only effective for short-term changes.O Desensitization presents a series of experiences to lessen the fear or anxiety related to a specific experience or event.
ReferencesInformation:O “Behavior Management” A Practical Approach for Education, 9th ed. By James E. Walker, thomas M. Shea, and Anne M. BauerO http://iris.peabody.vanderbilt.edu/bi2/bi2_07.htmlO http://specialed.about.com/od/glossary/g/Extinction- Eliminating-Problem-Behaviors.htmO http://www.education.com/reference/article/time-outs- decreasing-problem-behavior/O http://www.indiastudychannel.com/resources/97705- Classroom-Reprimands-Is-right-do-so.aspxImagesAll images from GoogleImages