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Chapter 3 perception communication (pp)


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Chapter 3 perception communication (pp)

  1. 1. Perception <ul><li>Perception is the process by which an organism attains awareness or understanding of its environment by organizing and interpreting sensory information. </li></ul><ul><li>(From Wikipedia) </li></ul>
  2. 2. Perception in Communication <ul><li>In living our lives and communicating with each other our perception of reality is less important than reality itself. </li></ul><ul><li>Our perceptions are influence by: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>physical elements - what information your eye or ear can actually take in, how your brain processes it. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>environmental elements - what information is out there to receive, its context. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>learned elements - culture, personality, habit: what filters we use to select what we take in and how we react to it. </li></ul></ul>
  3. 3. Perception in Communication
  4. 4. <ul><li>Colour blind people will not perceive &quot;red&quot; the way as other people do. Those with normal vision may physically see &quot;red&quot; similarly, but will interpret it culturally: </li></ul><ul><li>Red meaning &quot;stop&quot; or &quot;anger&quot; or &quot;excitement&quot; or &quot;in debt&quot; (US). </li></ul><ul><li>Red meaning &quot;good fortune&quot; (China). </li></ul><ul><li>Red meaning your school's colours. </li></ul>
  5. 6. Selective Attention <ul><li>The world deluges us with sensory information every second. Our mind produces interpretations and models and perceptions a mile a minute. To survive, we have to select what information we attend to and what we remember. </li></ul>
  6. 7. Information That Attracts Our Attention <ul><li>Sends out strong physical stimulus: contrast, blinking, loudness, etc. </li></ul><ul><li>Elicits emotion -- TV dramas, memory aid: when taking notes on an article, write your emotional response to it. </li></ul><ul><li>Is unexpected? (This may draw your attention or conversely, you may miss it entirely with your mind filling in the missing pieces you expected to receive.). </li></ul><ul><li>Fits a pattern. </li></ul><ul><li>Previous knowledge that gives it context. </li></ul>
  7. 8. <ul><li>Interests you. </li></ul><ul><li>Connects to basic needs (belonging, sex, danger, hunger...). </li></ul><ul><li>Is useful. </li></ul><ul><li>Note how important your cultural filters will be in determining the answers to these questions--what hooks your emotions? What is &quot;normal&quot; and what is &quot;unexpected&quot;, etc. </li></ul>
  8. 9. <ul><li>Some sample visual perception </li></ul>
  9. 10. Perception Process <ul><li>Perception is a three phase process of selecting , organizing and interpreting information , people, objects, events, situations and activities. You can understand interpersonal situations better if you appreciate how you and another person construct perceptions. </li></ul>
  10. 11. <ul><li>We select only certain things to notice, and then we organize and interpret what we have selectively noticed. </li></ul><ul><li>What we select to perceive affects how we organise and interpret the situation. </li></ul><ul><li>How we organise and interpret a situation affects our subsequent selections of what to perceive in the situation. </li></ul>
  11. 12. <ul><li>Who would you like to be your girlfriend ? </li></ul>
  12. 13. Selection <ul><li>Notice what is going on around you. Is the room warm or cold? Messy or clean? Large or small? Light or dark? Can you smell anything? </li></ul><ul><li>Are sleepy, hungry comfortable? </li></ul><ul><li>We narrow our attention to what we defined as important in that moment. </li></ul>
  13. 14. Selection <ul><li>We notice things that STAND OUT , and even change. </li></ul><ul><li>Hear a loud voice than a soft one. </li></ul><ul><li>We deliberately influence what we notice by indicating things to ourselves. </li></ul><ul><li>Smoking is a habit; Focus on burning smell of the match, the smoke, the nasty view of ashtrays with cigarette butts, how bad a room smells when you smoke in it. </li></ul>
  14. 15. Selection <ul><li>What we select to notice also influenced by who we are and what is going on in us. Looking for a job. </li></ul><ul><li>Motives, thirsty people stranded on desert see an oasis. </li></ul><ul><li>Expectations, likely to perceive what we expect to perceive and what others have led us to perceive. </li></ul>
  15. 16. Organization <ul><li>Once we selected what to notice, we must make sense of it. </li></ul><ul><li>Organize in meaningful ways. </li></ul><ul><li>Constructivism; we organize and interpret experience by applying cognitive structures called schemata. </li></ul>
  16. 17. Schemata <ul><li>Prototypes; most representative example of a category. Defines categories by identifying ideal cases. </li></ul><ul><li>Ideal models for friendship, family, business group, or relationship. </li></ul><ul><li>Personal Construct; bipolar, mental yardstick we use to measure people and situation. </li></ul><ul><li>Intelligent – unintelligent, kind – unkind. </li></ul>
  17. 18. Schemata <ul><li>Stereotype; predictive generalization about individuals and situations based on the category into which we place them. </li></ul><ul><li>May be accurate or inaccurate. </li></ul><ul><li>Scripts; guide to action in particular situation. </li></ul><ul><li>A sequence of activities that define what we and others are expected to do in specific situation. </li></ul><ul><li>Daily activities – dating, talking to professors, dealing with clerks, interacting with co-workers </li></ul>
  18. 19. Schemata <ul><li>Organize our thinking about people and situation. </li></ul><ul><li>Make sense of what we notice and figure out how to act. </li></ul><ul><li>Social perspectives and cultural views. </li></ul>
  19. 20. Interpretation <ul><li>After selection and organizing our perception, what they mean is not clear. </li></ul><ul><li>Interpretation – subjective process of explaining perceptions in ways that let us make sense of them. </li></ul><ul><li>Attribution; explanation of why things happen and why people act as they do. </li></ul>
  20. 21. Interpretation <ul><li>In judging whether others can control their actions, we decide whether to hold them responsible for what they do. </li></ul><ul><li>We can be positive depending on how we explain what they do. </li></ul><ul><li>Self serving bias; bias favour to ourselves. </li></ul><ul><li>Inclined to make positive actions or negative actions. E.g passing and failing an exam. </li></ul><ul><li>Can distort our perception . </li></ul>
  21. 22. Influences on Perception <ul><li>Everyone does not perceive situations and people in the same way. </li></ul><ul><li>Physiology; we differ in our sensory abilities and physiologies. </li></ul><ul><li>We tend to perceive more negatively when tired. </li></ul><ul><li>Medical conditions; drugs that affect our thinking. </li></ul><ul><li>Age; the older we are, the richer our perspective for perceiving life and people. </li></ul><ul><li>Culture; beliefs, values, understandings, and practices. </li></ul>
  22. 23. Influences on Perception <ul><li>Social roles; the training we receive to fulfill a role and the actual demands of the role. </li></ul><ul><li>Editor thinks about layout, and design features. </li></ul><ul><li>Law graduates tend to be analytical, argumentative and logical. </li></ul><ul><li>Physicians are trained to observe physical symptoms. </li></ul><ul><li>Cognitive abilities; how elaborately we think about situations and people and our personal knowledge of others. </li></ul><ul><li>Self; how we perceive people reflects as much about us and our experiences as about those people. </li></ul>
  23. 24. Guidelines for Improving Perception and Communication <ul><li>Recognize that all perceptions are partial and subjective. </li></ul><ul><li>Avoid mindreading – one of the behaviours that contribute to conflict. </li></ul><ul><li>Check perceptions with others. </li></ul><ul><li>Distinguish between facts and inferences. </li></ul><ul><li>Guard against the self serving bias. </li></ul>