Introduction (5 min)Jelle van DijkRecent trends: Tangibles, wearables, ubicomp, location awareness, mobile: Embodied TechnologySome conferences…Cognitive Science: classical view (10 min)Most popular in 1970’s, 1980’s, and still today. Originated in cyberneticsReaction to behaviorismFodor (philosopher), Chomsky (Linguist), Simon (organizational theorist/economist), Newell, Marr, Minsky (computer scientists/theorists)Read: … (the one seminal paper)The mind (implemented by brain activity) is a computer: an information processing system.The purpose of the mind is to ‘understand’ the world by modeling it internally as a system of ‘mental representations’ of that worldInput (before) -output model: first perceive new state of world, update internal world model, calculate appropriate responseFrom serial to network-style models: big revolution in cognitive science, still very much ‘representational’ (internal vs outer world)Embodied Cognition: general idea (10 min)Going beyond neural networks: what if the world itself becomes part of the ‘network’ of interacting components that brings about the cognitive process?Modest positions (perhaps some things are dealt with without explicit internal reasoning) and extreme positions (the whole of western rationalistic philosophy and materialist science needs to be abandoned)Clark: (modest) Being There: putting brain, body and world together again; Suchman: (more radical) Plans and Situated Action; Dreyfus, Chemero (radical)Historic antecedents (dust brushed off) MerleauPonty, Heidegger, Schutz, Dewey, bits of ‘cybernetics’ (early fore-runner of cognitive science in 1940’s)Three strands: DRC, SSH, SCE (based on my thesis)BREAKDistributed Computation and Representation (15 min)Norman: memory in the worldHutchins: reasoning in the world: cognition as systemic outcome of interactions of people and tools in network (ship navigation)Kirsh: reasoning in the world: epistemic actions Cottage cheese.Clark: scaffolded mind piggy backing on reliably presdentxternal structure, (niche’s, Agre’s principles). 007 principle, Clark 2: using your body as physical tool for thinking (let lower level dynamics ‘solve’ the problem, e.g. robot rubber joints). Applications in design: (15 min)DjajadiningratIshiiDiscussion of the DRC perspective (15 min)Straightforward opportunities for application. Both in GUI and in TUI.Speaks the language of information processing, easy to understand for designers with computer engineer backgroundBUTWho decides on the mapping between form and content? How to get to the good mapping? (How Donald, tell us how?)Where does the meaning of the content itself comes from?Are humans computational units? (Or is computation a human practice?)What does it mean for human autonomy, if your technology ‘takes over for you’?How ‘embodied’ is this? Is it just a ‘physical constraint’ (norman) or is there a deeper sense in which cognition is ‘embodied’?
THEORETICAL CONCLUSIONSMy theoretical analysis revealed three different interpretations of embodied cognition. The first focuses on the idea that people use the external world as a representation of information. The second focuses on the process of social coordination between people. And the third emphasizes the way sensorimotor couplings are formed while interacting with the environment.
Dijk 2013 embodied cognition lecture 1 drc small
Embodied Cognition as a basis for
Researching and Designing Interaction
Distributed Computation and Representation
• Cognitive Science
• Embodied Cognition: the general idea
• Three flavors
• Distributed Computation and Representation
• Applications in design:
• Discussion of the DRC perspective
Jelle van Dijk
Utrecht, The Netherlands, 1975
Werkplaats Kees Boeke Bilthoven
Cognitive Science Nijmegen
Embodied Cognitive Development (neural network model) Pim Haselager
fMRI on language learning FC Donders Centre Nijmegen
Human Technology Den Haag
Interactive Media Products Hogeschool Utrecht, Remko van der Lugt
Industrial Design Eindhoven, Kees Overbeeke, Caroline Hummels
Phd thesis: Creating Traces, Sharing Insight (2013)
Interaction design „beyond‟ the desktop
• Tangibility, physical-digital
• Body augmenting devices,
• Social mediators
• Context-aware systems
• Intelligent „agents‟
Tags: Ubicomp, Wearables, Tangible Media, Augmented reality,
Mobile computing, Ambient Intelligence, Human-Brain interfacing,
Conference: Tangible, Embodied and Embedded Interaction (TE
Theoretical perspective strongly influences the
A table-top surface… is a horizontal screen
interface on which to present and manipulate
digital information in an easy way
A table-top surface… is a social mediator on
which you express yourself skillfully, a physical
table augmented with digital interactivity
What is a table top surface?
Babbage‟s Mill (1837)
Reacting against Behaviorism (192
Brain imaging (1970-present)
Computers (1940‟s - present)
Mind as an inner exercise
“Thinking can best be
understood in terms of
representational structures in
the mind and computational
procedures that operate on
(Wikipedia quoting Paul
External representation (External memory)
How many „external representations‟ can you see in this scene?
• Real objects as „stand-in‟ for „mental objects‟
• Ethnographical approach
• Tools (e.g. the nautical slide-rule for ship
– Representational media (external memory)
– Constraints on the organization of action
• Cognition is distributed over a system of
people and tools
• Clark (1997) Scaffolding.
Use the physical structure in the world to “think with”
• Kirsh (1994) Epistemic action
Reorganize the world such that the problem representation
becomes more easy (or trivial)
Montessori blocks (discussed in Klemmer et al,
Distributed computation, continued
• Clark (1997) 007 principle:
Information will be given to you on a need to know basis
(by the locally available structure in the environment)
• Agre et al (1997) Lifeworld analysis:
human environments are pre-organized: this simplifies
tasks (e.g. things that are needed together for a task
are often found in the same location).
• Straightforward opportunities for application in
interfaces and products.
• Intuitive vocabulary for computer engineers
• „Modest‟ adaption of cognitive science principles
• How to design good mappings?
• Who determines the (predefined) mappings?
• What grounds the meaning of the digital content?
• Are humans part of computational systems, or is
computation part of human practice?
• Do we want technology to take over the cognitive
• Is the body only a „physical constraint‟ or is there more
• Can we explain the significance of concrete design
cases with DRC or do we need more?
DRC applied to design: take home
Distributed representation and computation leads to the
design of predefined mappings to digital meanings
Next lecture (2 weeks from now)
Cognition is Distributed Computation Socially Situated!