Dijk 2013 embodied cognition lecture 1 drc small


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Dijk 2013 embodied cognition lecture 1 drc small

  1. 1. Embodied Cognition as a basis for Researching and Designing Interaction Part 1: Distributed Computation and Representation
  2. 2. Overview • Introduction • Cognitive Science • Embodied Cognition: the general idea • Three flavors BREAK • Distributed Computation and Representation • Applications in design: • Discussion of the DRC perspective
  3. 3. Introduction
  4. 4. Jelle van Dijk Utrecht, The Netherlands, 1975 Werkplaats Kees Boeke Bilthoven Cognitive Science Nijmegen Embodied Cognitive Development (neural network model) Pim Haselager fMRI on language learning FC Donders Centre Nijmegen Human Technology Den Haag Interactive Media Products Hogeschool Utrecht, Remko van der Lugt Industrial Design Eindhoven, Kees Overbeeke, Caroline Hummels Phd thesis: Creating Traces, Sharing Insight (2013) www.jellevandijk.org
  5. 5. Interaction design „beyond‟ the desktop Emerging themes: • Tangibility, physical-digital integration • Body augmenting devices, Movement detection • Social mediators • Context-aware systems • Intelligent „agents‟ Tags: Ubicomp, Wearables, Tangible Media, Augmented reality, Mobile computing, Ambient Intelligence, Human-Brain interfacing, And more… Conference: Tangible, Embodied and Embedded Interaction (TE
  6. 6. Theoretical perspective strongly influences the design A table-top surface… is a horizontal screen interface on which to present and manipulate digital information in an easy way A table-top surface… is a social mediator on which you express yourself skillfully, a physical table augmented with digital interactivity What is a table top surface?
  7. 7. Cognitive Science
  8. 8. Cognitive science Babbage‟s Mill (1837) Reacting against Behaviorism (192 Brain imaging (1970-present) I think, Therefore I am Computers (1940‟s - present)
  9. 9. Mind as an inner exercise “Thinking can best be understood in terms of representational structures in the mind and computational procedures that operate on those structures.” (Wikipedia quoting Paul Thagard)
  10. 10. Clark quoting Gleick quoting Feynman
  11. 11. Embodied Cognition
  12. 12. Embodied Cognition Clark 97 Kelso 95 Varela 91 Suchman 87Dourish 01 Kirsh 11 Clancey 97 Merleau-Ponty 62 Ingold 12 Dreyfus 72
  13. 13. Cognition is Sensorimotor Coupling Cognition is Socially Situated Cognition is Distributed Info- Processing Embodied Cognition: 3 flavors Modest………………………………………………………………………………………………………………Radical
  14. 14. Time for coffee!
  15. 15. Distributed representation and –computation (DR
  16. 16. Don Norman (1987) • knowledge in the world
  17. 17. External representation (External memory) How many „external representations‟ can you see in this scene? • Real objects as „stand-in‟ for „mental objects‟
  18. 18. Hutchins (1995) • Ethnographical approach • Tools (e.g. the nautical slide-rule for ship navigation) provide: – Representational media (external memory) – Constraints on the organization of action (computation) • Cognition is distributed over a system of people and tools
  19. 19. • Clark (1997) Scaffolding. Use the physical structure in the world to “think with” • Kirsh (1994) Epistemic action Reorganize the world such that the problem representation becomes more easy (or trivial) Montessori blocks (discussed in Klemmer et al, 2006) Abacus Distributed computation
  20. 20. Distributed computation, continued • Clark (1997) 007 principle: Information will be given to you on a need to know basis (by the locally available structure in the environment) • Agre et al (1997) Lifeworld analysis: human environments are pre-organized: this simplifies tasks (e.g. things that are needed together for a task are often found in the same location).
  21. 21. Applications in design
  22. 22. How NOT to do it: Some bad designs
  23. 23. …more bad designs
  24. 24. Classic application of DRC Ishii & Ullmer (1997) Tangible User Interfaces 1997
  25. 25. (TEI „08)
  26. 26. Djajadiningrat Augmenting Fun and Beauty: A Pamphlet J.P. Djajadiningrat C.J. Overbeeke S.A.G. Wensveen Delft University of Technology, Department of Industrial Design
  27. 27. Discussion of DRC and design
  28. 28. • Straightforward opportunities for application in interfaces and products. • Intuitive vocabulary for computer engineers • „Modest‟ adaption of cognitive science principles But • How to design good mappings? • Who determines the (predefined) mappings? • What grounds the meaning of the digital content? • Are humans part of computational systems, or is computation part of human practice? • Do we want technology to take over the cognitive load? • Is the body only a „physical constraint‟ or is there more to it? • Can we explain the significance of concrete design cases with DRC or do we need more?
  29. 29. DRC applied to design: take home msg Distributed representation and computation leads to the design of predefined mappings to digital meanings
  30. 30. Next lecture (2 weeks from now) Cognition is Distributed Computation Socially Situated!