U.S. Federal Regulations and Avian Welfare

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Presented to the Phoenix Landing group in 2012, this talk covers the background and challenges to creating regulations for avian welfare under the Animal Welfare Act.

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U.S. Federal Regulations and Avian Welfare

  1. 1. Federal Regulations and Avian Welfare Jeleen Briscoe,VMD, DABVP (Avian) USDA APHIS Animal Care Program Johanna.Briscoe@aphis.usda.gov @JeleenVMD Phoenix Landing November 2012
  2. 2. United States Department of Agriculture Secretary of Agriculture Marketing and Regulatory Programs Agricultural Marketing Service Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service Grain Inspection, Packers, and Stockyards Administration Biotechnology Regulatory Services International Services Plant Protection and Quarantine Veterinary Services Wildlife Services Animal Care
  3. 3. What Animal Care is NOT
  4. 4. What Animal Care is NOT
  5. 5. What Animal Care is NOT
  6. 6. What Animal Care is NOT
  7. 7. What Animal Care is NOT
  8. 8. Animal Care Mission
  9. 9. Horse Protection Act
  10. 10. Emergency Response for Pets
  11. 11. Animal Welfare Act Federal law Minimum standards Care and treatment
  12. 12. Animal Welfare Act Bred for Commercial Sale
  13. 13. Animal Welfare Act Used in Research
  14. 14. Animal Welfare Act Transported Commercially
  15. 15. Animal Welfare Act Exhibited to the Public
  16. 16. Not covered
  17. 17. Not covered
  18. 18. Not covered Birds, rats, mice , bred for use in research
  19. 19. APHIS Animal Care Inspections housing ventilation lighting interior surfaces primary enclosures sanitation pest control outdoor shelter feeding and watering compatibility record-keeping handling transport (contingency plans)
  20. 20. APHIS Animal Care Inspections housing ventilation lighting interior surfaces primary enclosures sanitation pest control outdoor shelter feeding and watering compatibility record-keeping handling transport (contingency plans)
  21. 21. APHIS Animal Care Inspections housing ventilation lighting interior surfaces primary enclosures sanitation pest control outdoor shelter feeding and watering compatibility record-keeping handling transport (contingency plans)
  22. 22. APHIS Animal Care Inspections housing ventilation lighting interior surfaces primary enclosures sanitation pest control outdoor shelter feeding and watering compatibility record-keeping handling transport (contingency plans)
  23. 23. APHIS Animal Care Inspections housing ventilation lighting interior surfaces primary enclosures sanitation pest control outdoor shelter feeding and watering compatibility record-keeping handling transport (contingency plans)
  24. 24. APHIS Animal Care Inspections housing ventilation lighting interior surfaces primary enclosures sanitation pest control outdoor shelter feeding and watering compatibility record-keeping handling transport (contingency plans)
  25. 25. APHIS Animal Care Inspections housing ventilation lighting interior surfaces primary enclosures sanitation pest control outdoor shelter feeding and watering compatibility record-keeping handling transport (contingency plans)
  26. 26. APHIS Animal Care Inspections housing ventilation lighting interior surfaces primary enclosures sanitation pest control outdoor shelter feeding and watering compatibility record-keeping handling transport (contingency plans)
  27. 27. APHIS Animal Care Inspections housing ventilation lighting interior surfaces primary enclosures sanitation pest control outdoor shelter feeding and watering compatibility record-keeping handling transport (contingency plans)
  28. 28. APHIS Animal Care Inspections housing ventilation lighting interior surfaces primary enclosures sanitation pest control outdoor shelter feeding and watering compatibility record-keeping handling transport (contingency plans)
  29. 29. APHIS Animal Care Inspections housing ventilation lighting interior surfaces primary enclosures sanitation pest control outdoor shelter feeding and watering compatibility record-keeping handling transport (contingency plans)
  30. 30. APHIS Animal Care Inspections housing ventilation lighting interior surfaces primary enclosures sanitation pest control outdoor shelter feeding and watering compatibility record-keeping handling transport (contingency plans)
  31. 31. APHIS Animal Care Inspections housing ventilation lighting interior surfaces primary enclosures sanitation pest control outdoor shelter feeding and watering compatibility record-keeping handling transport (contingency plans)
  32. 32. APHIS Animal Care Inspections housing ventilation lighting interior surfaces primary enclosures sanitation pest control outdoor shelter feeding and watering compatibility record-keeping handling transport (contingency plans)
  33. 33. AWA Enforcement Actions Photos courtesy of Dr. Laurie Gage
  34. 34. T=39 days Photos courtesy of Dr. Laurie Gage
  35. 35. How Did We Get Here?!
  36. 36. Definition of Animal Pre Farm Bill 2002 Live or dead dog, cat, monkey, guinea pig, hamster, rabbit, or such other warmblooded animal...but such term excludes (1) birds, rats of the genus Rattus and mice of the genus Mus bred for use in research...
  37. 37. 90-95% of animals used in research are rats, mice, or birds
  38. 38. Slice of History 1989: Remove the exclusion Petition (ALDF & HSUS) 1999: Remove the exclusion LAWsuit (ARDF, IVI) 2000: USDA settled Suit 2000-2002: lobbying against exception (NABR) 2000: Farm Bill amendment (“Helms Amendment”)
  39. 39. “Approval of this amendment will make sure that none of the important work taking place in the medical research community will be delayed, made more expensive, or be otherwise compromised by regulatory shenanigans on the part of the U.S. Department of Agriculture.”
  40. 40. The Farm Bill 2002 THE COMMAS BEFORE: excludes (1) birds, rats of the genus Rattus and mice of the genus Mus bred for use in research AFTER: excludes (1) birds, rats of the genus Rattus, and mice of the genus Mus, bred for use in research...
  41. 41. Why federal regulations?
  42. 42. The General Life Cycle of an Issue Politicians Publicity Exposure and who is involved Public Media Fringe Phase Scientists Academia Interest Groups Emergence Best opportunity to Save Resources Trigger Event Crisis/Public Positioning Anticipatory Resolution Crisis Time Source: Corporate Environmental Strategy, Autumn, 1997 Courtesy of Don Butler Deborah Anderson, Procter & Gamble
  43. 43. The General Life Cycle of an Issue Politicians Publicity Exposure and who is involved Public Media Fringe Phase Scientists Academia Interest Groups Emergence Best opportunity to Save Resources Trigger Event Crisis/Public Positioning Anticipatory Resolution Crisis Time Source: Corporate Environmental Strategy, Autumn, 1997 Courtesy of Don Butler Deborah Anderson, Procter & Gamble
  44. 44. How does our “System” respond? Hurricane Katrina The PETS Act “The dog was taken away from this little boy, and to watch his face was a singularly revealing and tragic experience. This legislation was born at that moment.” -- Rep Tom Lantos (D-CA)
  45. 45. Animal Welfare Act History
  46. 46. Animal Welfare Act Animal: “...birds, rats of the genus Rattus, mice of the genus Mus, not bred for use in research”
  47. 47. notice of proposed rulemaking 2004 BirDs, Rats, Mice Number and size of entities? Types of species? Facilities and operations? ID, diet, sanitation, housing? Transportation? Biosafety? Exemptions?
  48. 48. What next? Regulation Proposed rule Comment period Final rule Implementation Training Inspection Guides Policy Guides Enforcement Program
  49. 49. Regulation
  50. 50. Subpart B §3.29 Feeding Guinea Pigs and Hamsters (a) ...The food shall be free from contamination, wholesome, palatable, and of sufficient quantity and nutritive value to meet the normal daily requirements for the condition and size of the guinea pig or hamster.
  51. 51. Feeding and Watering
  52. 52. §3.6 Primary enclosures Dogs and Cats (a)(2)(xi) Provide sufficient space to allow each dog and cat to turn around freely, to stand, sit, and lie in a comfortable, normal position, and to walk in a normal manner
  53. 53. Engineering- vs. performance- based
  54. 54. §2.131 Handling of animals (c)(1) During public exhibition, any animal must be handled so there is minimal risk of harm to the animal and to the public, with sufficient distance and/or barriers between the animal and the general viewing public so as to assure the safety of animals and the public.
  55. 55. Subpart D Nonhuman Primates §3.81 Environmental enhancement to promote psychological well-being (b) Environmental enrichment. The physical environment in the primary enclosures must be enriched by providing means of expressing noninjurious species-typical activities. Species differences should be considered when determining the type or methods of enrichment.
  56. 56. Subpart D Attending Veterinarian and Adequate Veterinary Care (a) Each dealer or exhibitor shall have an attending veterinarian who shall provide adequate veterinary care to its animals in compliance with this section. (1) Formal arrangement (2) Ensure veterinarian has appropriate authority (b) Veterinary program should include: (1) Appropriate facilities and personnel (2) Appropriate methods (3) Daily observation (4) Adequate guidance to personnel (5) Adequate pre- and post-procedural care
  57. 57. Implementation
  58. 58. How many facilities? Research Facilities Distributors Breeders Exhibitors Carriers/Transporters
  59. 59. Exempt Activities Breeders that earn less than $500 gross income annually from wholesale of regulated animals
  60. 60. The Bird Challenge: Variety Over 9000 species from 30 taxonomical orders Chilean Flamingos Lincoln Park Zoo American Flamingos National Zoo
  61. 61. The Bird Challenge: Range Small Parrot Breeder “Hobby Breeder” Large Commercial Parrot Breeding Facility
  62. 62. The Bird Challenge: number Alex Pepperberg Grey Parrot Sylvan Heights Waterfowl
  63. 63. The Bird Challenge: expertise
  64. 64. Aviculturists
  65. 65. Researchers
  66. 66. Exhibitors
  67. 67. Veterinarians Feeding Basic Care Signs of Illness Feather Loss Health Examination Chlamydiosis When Should I Take My Bird to a Vet? Injury Prevention & Emergency Care Behavior
  68. 68. Animal Rights Organizations
  69. 69. Who influences the development of federal regulations?
  70. 70. Minimum Requirements Scientific? Effective? Enough?
  71. 71. Why should you care?
  72. 72. 'I take bad birds ... and I give them a life' By ANGEL McCURDY / Daily News Published: Wednesday, October 17, 2012 at 14:13 PM.
  73. 73. Jeleen Briscoe Johanna.Briscoe@aphis.usda.gov JeleenVMD@gmail.com @JeleenVMD 301-275-8164

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