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An introduction of the most simple machine learning method - naive bayes classifier

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- 1. 1 Naïve Bayes Classifier
- 2. Naïve Bayes Classifier • Only utilize the simple probability and Bayes’ theorem • Computational efficiency Definition Potential Use Cases In machine learning, Naive Bayes classifiers are a family of simple probabilistic classifiers based on applying Bayes' theorem with strong (naive) independence assumptions between the features. It is one of the most basic text classification techniques with various applications • Email Spam Detection • Language Detection • Sentiment Detection • Personal email sorting • Document categorization Advantages
- 3. Basic Probability Theory • 2 events are disjoint (exclusive): if they can’t happen at the same time (a single coin flip cannot yield a tail and a head at the same time). For Bayes classification, we are not concerned with disjoint events. • 2 events are independent: when they can happen at the same time, but the occurrence of one event does not make the occurrence of another more or less probable. For example the second coin-flip you make is not affected by the outcome of the first coin-flip. • 2 events are dependent: if the outcome of one affects the other. In the example above, clearly it cannot rain without a cloud formation. Also, in a horse race, some horses have better performance on rainy days. Events and Event Probability Event Relationship An “event” is a set of outcomes (a subset of all possible outcomes) with a probability attached. So when flipping a coin, we can have one of these 2 events happening: tail or head. Each of them has a probability of 50%. Using a Venn diagram, this would look like this: events of flipping a coin events of rain and cloud formation
- 4. Conditional Probability and Independence Two events are said to be independent if the result of the second event is not affected by the result of the first event. The joint probability is the product of the probabilities of the individual events. Two events are said to be dependent if the result of the second event is affected by the result of the first event. The joint probability is the product of the probability of first event and conditional probability of second event on first event. Chain Rule for Computing Joint Probability )|()(),( ABPAPBAP ⋅= For dependent events For independent events
- 5. Conditional Probability and Bayes Theorem • Posterior Probability (This is what we are trying to compute) • probability of instance X being in class c • Likelihood (Being in class c, causes you to have feature X with some probability) • probability of generating instance X given class c • Class Prior Probability (This is just how frequent the class c, is in our database) • probability of occurrence of class c • Predictor Prior Probability (Ignored because it is constant) • probability of instance x occurring )()|()()|(),( cPcXPXPXcPXcP ⋅=⋅=Conditional Probability: )( )()|( )|( XP cPcXP XcP ⋅ = Likelihood Class Prior Probability Posterior Probability Predictor Prior Probability Bayes Theorem:
- 6. Bayes Theorem Example Let’s take one example. So we have the following stats: • 30 emails out of a total of 74 are spam messages • 51 emails out of those 74 contain the word “penis” • 20 emails containing the word “penis” have been marked as spam So the question is: what is the probability that the latest received email is a spam message, given that it contains the word “penis”? These 2 events are clearly dependent, which is why you must use the simple form of the Bayes Theorem:
- 7. Naïve Bayes Approach For single feature, applying Bayes theorem is simple. But it becomes more complex when handling more features. For example =),|( viagrapenisspamP To simplify it, strong (naïve) independence assumption between features is applied Let us complicate the problem above by adding to it: • 25 emails out of the total contain the word “viagra” • 24 emails out of those have been marked as spam so what’s the probability that an email is spam, given that it contains both “viagra” and “penis”?
- 8. Naïve Bayes Classifier Learning 1. Compute the class prior table which contains all P(c) 2. Compute the likelihood table which contains all P(xi|c) for all possible combination of xi and c; Scoring 1. Given a test instance X, compute the posterior probability of every class c; 2. Compare all P(c|X) and assign the instance x to the class c* which has the maximum posterior probability ∏= ≈ K i i cPcXPXcP 1 )()|()|( The constant term is ignored because it won’t affect the comparison across different posterior probabilities ∏= = N i iXPXP 1 )()( ∑= += K i ic cXPcPc 1 * ))|(log())(log(maxarg ∑= +≈ K i i cXPcPXcP 1 ))|(log())(log()|(log To avoid floating point underflow, we often need an optimization on the formula
- 9. Handling Insufficient Data Problem Both prior and conditional probabilities must be estimated from training data, therefore subject to error. If we have only few training instances, then the direct probability computation can give probabilities extreme values 0 or 1. Example Suppose we try to predict whether a patient has an allergy based on the attribute whether he has cough. So we need to estimate P(allergy|cough). If all patients in the training data have cough, then P(cough=true|allergy)=1 and P(cough=false|allergy)=1-P(true|allergy)=0. Then we have • What this mean is no not-coughing person can have an allergy, which is not true. • The error is caused by there is no observations in training data for non- coughing patients Solution We need smooth the estimates of conditional probabilities to eliminate zeros. 0)()|()|( ==∝= allergyPallergyfalsecoughPfalsecoughallergyP
- 10. Laplace Smoothing Assume binary attribute Xi, direct estimate: Laplace estimate: equivalent to prior observation of one example of class k where Xi=0 and one where Xi=1 Generalized Laplace estimate: • nc,i,v: number of examples in c where Xi=v • nc: number of examples in c • si: number of possible values for Xi ic vic i sn n cvXP + + == 1 )|( ,, 2 1 )|0( 0,, + + == c ic i n n cXP 2 1 )|1( 1,, + + == c ic i n n cXP c ic i n n cXP 0,, )|0( == c ic i n n cXP 1,, )|1( ==
- 11. Comments on Naïve Bayes Classifier • It generally works well despite blanket independence assumption • Experiments shows that it is quite competitive with other methods on standard datasets • Even when independence assumptions violated, and probability estimates are inaccurate, the method may still find the maximum probability category • Hypothesis constructed directly from parameter estimates derived from training data, no search • Hypothesis not guaranteed to fit the training data

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