Interferons are a family species-specific proteins synthesized byeukaryotic cells in response to viruses and a variety of natural andsynthetic stimuli. There are several different interferons commonlyused as therapeutics, termed alpha, beta, and gamma. These peptidesare used to treat hairy cell leukemia, AIDS-related Kaposis sarcoma,laryngeal papillomatosis, genital warts, and chronic granulomatousdisease. Side effects include black tarry stools, blood in the urine,confusion, and loss of balance.
Time Course of the Progression of AIDS after HIV Infection Figure 9.21
•AIDS progression:–Phase I: few weeks to a few years; flu like symptoms, swollen lymph nodes, chills, fever, fatigue, body aches. Virus is multiplying, antibodies are made but ineffective for complete virus removal –Phase II: within six months to 10 years; opportunistic infections present, Helper T cells affected, 5% may not progress to next phase –Phase III: Helper T cells fall below 200 per cubic millimeterof blood AND the person has an opportunistic infection or type of cancer. Person is now termed as having “AIDS” May include pneumonia, meningitis, tuberculosis, encephalitis, Kaposi’s sarcoma, and non-Hodgkin’s lumphoma….
AIDS Pandemic• More than 36 million infected with HIV worldwide• Most infections in sub-Sahara of Africa• Increasing spread in Asia and India• Most often spread by heterosexual contact outside U.S.