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  1. 1. Man and His Environment Ü Ecosystem Part :)
  2. 2. Ecosystem <ul><li>All living and non-living things in a given area that interact with one other, make up an ecosystem. The non-living part of an ecosystem includes water, rocks, air, light, and soil. All the different organisms that live together in an ecosystem is called a community. </li></ul>
  3. 3. <ul><li> - functional units consisting of living things in a given area, non-living chemical and physical factors of their environment, linked together through nutrient cycle and energy flow. </li></ul><ul><li> - plants and other photosynthetic organisms are the producers that provide the food. Ecosystems can be permanent or temporary. Ecosystems usually form a number of food webs </li></ul>
  4. 4. Etymology <ul><li>The term ecosystem was coined in 1930 by Roy Clapham to mean the combined physical and biological components of an environment. British ecologist Arthur Tansley later refined the term, describing it as &quot;The whole system, … including not only the organism-complex, but also the whole complex of physical factors forming what we call the environment&quot;. </li></ul>
  5. 5. Examples of Ecosystems <ul><li>Coral Reefs </li></ul><ul><li>Prairies </li></ul><ul><li>Lotic Ecosystem </li></ul><ul><li>Rainforest </li></ul><ul><li>Taiga </li></ul>
  6. 6. Species in the Ecosystem <ul><li>Producers / Autotrophs </li></ul><ul><li>Consumers / Heterotrophs </li></ul><ul><li>Herbivores | Carnivores | Omnivores | Detritivores </li></ul><ul><li>Decomposers </li></ul>
  7. 7. Food Chain <ul><li>A food chain is a linear sequence of links in a food web starting from a trophic species that eats no other species in the web and ends at a trophic species that is eaten by no other species in the web. </li></ul><ul><li>Represents a series of events in which food and energy are transferred from one organism in an ecosystem to another. </li></ul>
  8. 9. Food Web <ul><li>Charles Elton – the pioneer of Food Web and Cycles </li></ul><ul><li>Complicated and diverse version of a food chain </li></ul><ul><li>Involves longer length than food chain </li></ul>
  9. 11. Ecological Pyramid <ul><li>An ecological pyramid (also trophic pyramid or energy pyramid) is a graphical representation designed to show the biomass or biomass productivity at each trophic level in a given ecosystem. </li></ul><ul><li>It has three types: </li></ul><ul><li>Pyramid of Biomass Pyramid of Numbers </li></ul><ul><li>Pyramid of Productivity </li></ul>
  10. 13. Inter-specie Biological Interactions <ul><li>Predation </li></ul><ul><li>Mutualism </li></ul><ul><li>Symbiosis </li></ul><ul><li>Commensalism </li></ul><ul><li>Parasitism </li></ul><ul><li>Competition </li></ul>
  11. 14. <ul><li>The END~! </li></ul><ul><li>jeje . Ü </li></ul>
  12. 17. Pyramid of Numbers <ul><li>An ecological pyramid of numbers shows graphically the population of each level in a food chain. </li></ul>back to eco pyramid :”> image :”>
  13. 19. Pyramid of Productivity <ul><li>An ecological pyramid of productivity is often more useful, showing the production or turnover of biomass at each trophic level. Typical units would be grams per meter 2 per year or calories per meter 2 per year. </li></ul><ul><li>When an ecosystem is healthy, this graph produces a standard ecological pyramid . This is because in order for the ecosystem to sustain itself, there must be more energy at lower trophic levels than there is at higher trophic levels. This allows for organisms on the lower levels to not only maintain a stable population, but to also transfer energy up the pyramid. </li></ul>back to eco pyramid :”>
  14. 21. Pyramid of Biomass <ul><li>An ecological pyramid of biomass shows the relationship between biomass and trophic level by quantifying the amount of biomass present at each trophic level of an ecological community at a particular moment in time. Typical units for a biomass pyramid could be grams per meter 2 , or calories per meter 2 </li></ul>back to eco pyramid :”> image :”>
  15. 23. back to eco pyramid :”>
  16. 25. back to eco pyramid :”>
  17. 27. Competition <ul><li>Competition is one of many interacting biotic and abiotic factors that affect community structure. Competition among members of the same species is known as intraspecific competition, while competition between individuals of different species is known as interspecific competition </li></ul><ul><li>According to the competitive exclusion principle, species less suited to compete for resources should either adapt or die out. According to evolutionary theory, this competition within and between species for resources plays a critical role in natural selection, however, competition may play less of a role than expansion among larger groups such as families. </li></ul>balik sa eco relasyon :”> image :”>
  18. 29. Parasitism <ul><li>Parasitism is a type of symbiotic relationship between organisms of different species where one organism, the parasite , benefits at the expense of the other, the host </li></ul><ul><li>Parasites are generally much smaller than their host. Parasite show a high degree of specialization for their mode of life, and reproduce at a faster rate than their hosts. Classic examples of parasitism include interactions between vertebrate hosts and diverse animals such as tapeworms , flukes , the Plasmodium species , and fleas . </li></ul>balik sa eco relasyon :”>
  19. 31. Commensalism <ul><li>In ecology, commensalism is a class of relationship between two organisms where one organism benefits but the other is neutral (there is no harm or benefit). </li></ul><ul><li>Commensalism derives from the English word commensal , meaning &quot;sharing of food &quot; in human social interaction, which in turn derives from the Latin cum mensa , meaning &quot;sharing a table &quot;. . </li></ul>balik sa eco relasyon :”> image :”>
  20. 33. Symbiosis <ul><li>is close and often long-term interaction between different biological species. In 1877, Bennett used the word symbiosis (which previously had been used of people living together in community) to describe the mutualistic relationship in lichens. In 1879 by the German mycologist Heinrich Anton de Bary , defined it as &quot; the living together of unlike organisms. &quot; </li></ul>balik sa eco relasyon :”> image :”>
  21. 35. Mutualism <ul><li>Mutualism is the way two organisms biologically interact where each individual derives a fitness benefit (i.e. increased reproductive output). Similar interactions within a species are known as co-operation. </li></ul><ul><li>Mutualism and symbiosis are sometimes used as if they are synonymous, but this is strictly incorrect: symbiosis is a broad category, defined to include relationships which are mutualistic, parasitic or commensal. Mutualism is only one type . </li></ul>balik sa eco relasyon :”> image :”>
  22. 37. Predation <ul><li>Predation describes a biological interaction where a predator (an organism that is hunting) feeds on its prey (the organism that is attacked). </li></ul><ul><li>Other categories of consumption are herbivory (eating parts of plants) and detritivory, the consumption of dead organic material (detritus). All these consumption categories fall under the rubric of consumer-resource systems. </li></ul>balik sa eco relasyon :”> image :”>
  23. 40. back to competition :”>
  24. 41. Plasmodium
  25. 42. Flea
  26. 43. Tapeworm
  27. 44. Fluke
  28. 45. back to eco relasyon :”>
  29. 46. back to eco relasyon :”>
  30. 47. balik sa eco relasyon :”>
  31. 48. balik sa eco relasyon :”>
  32. 49. Decomposers <ul><li>Like herbivores and predators, decomposers are heterotrophic, meaning that they use organic substrates to get their energy, carbon and nutrients for growth and development. Decomposers use deceased organisms and non-living organic compounds as their food source. The primary example is a Fungi . </li></ul>back to species :”>
  33. 50. Detritivores <ul><li>Detritivores are an important aspect of many ecosystems. They can live on any soil with an organic component, and even live in marine ecosystems where they are termed interchangeably with bottom feeders. </li></ul><ul><li>Examples : Typical detritivorous animals include millipedes, woodlice, dung flies, slugs, many terrestrial worms, sea stars, fiddler crabs, and some sedentary polychaetes such as amphitrites ( Amphitritinae , worms of the family terebellidae) and other terebellids. </li></ul>back to species :”> image :”>
  34. 51. Omnivores <ul><li>Omnivores are species that eat both plants and animals as their primary food source. They are opportunistic, general feeders not specifically adapted to eat and digest either meat or plant material primarily. </li></ul><ul><li>from Latin: omni all, everything; vorare to devour </li></ul>back to species :”> image :”>
  35. 52. Carnivores <ul><li>A carnivore , meaning 'meat eater', is an organism that derives its energy and nutrient requirements from a diet consisting mainly or exclusively of animal tissue, whether through predation or scavenging. </li></ul><ul><li>The word came from the Latin carne meaning 'flesh' and vorare meaning 'to devour‘ </li></ul><ul><li>Has two types : obligate and facultative </li></ul>back to species :”> image :”> image :”>
  36. 53. Obligate and Facultative Carnivores <ul><li>Obligate or true carnivores depend solely on the nutrients found in animal flesh for their survival. </li></ul><ul><li>ex. Domesticated Cat </li></ul><ul><li>Facultative Carnivores are those that also consume non-animal food </li></ul>back to species :”>
  37. 54. Herbivores <ul><li>Herbivores are organisms that are anatomically and physiologically adapted to eat plant-based foods. Herbivory is a form of consumption in which an organism principally eats autotrophs. </li></ul><ul><li>Herbivores are derived from Herbivora ( Latin herba meaning a small plant or herb, and vora, from vorare, to eat or devour.) </li></ul>back to species :”> image :”>
  38. 55. Consumers / Heterotrophs <ul><li>Heterotrophs function as consumers in food chains: they obtain organic carbon by eating other heterotrophs or autotrophs. They break down complex organic compounds (e.g., carbohydrates, fats, and proteins) produced by autotrophs into simpler compounds (e.g., carbohydrates into glucose, fats into fatty acids and glycerol, and proteins into amino acids) </li></ul>back to species :”> Image :”>
  39. 56. Producers / Autotrophs back to species :”> <ul><li>Autotrophs are fundamental to the food chains of all ecosystems in the world. They take energy from the environment in the form of sunlight or inorganic chemicals and use it to create energy-rich molecules such as carbohydrates. </li></ul><ul><li>They can be phototrophs or lithotrophs (chemoautotrophs). Phototrophs use light as an energy source, while lithotrophs oxidize inorganic compounds, such as hydrogen sulfide, elemental sulfur, ammonium and ferrous iron. </li></ul>img :”>
  40. 58. back to species :”>
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  47. 65. back to decomposers :”>
  48. 66. back to topic :”>
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