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Sanitation Innovations - Hygiene Improvement Project


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Sanitation Innovations - Hygiene Improvement Project

  1. 1. Sanitation Innovations USAID H ygiene I mprovement P roject CORE Spring Meeting April 29, 2010
  2. 2. WORLDWIDE STATE OF EMERGENCY! <ul><li>2.6 billion people or 39 per cent of the world’s population live without access to basic sanitation. </li></ul><ul><li>Some good news: Open defecation declining </li></ul><ul><li>BUT </li></ul><ul><li>1.1 billion people still defecate in the open. 81% in 11 countries: India, Indonesia, China, Ethiopia, Pakistan, Nigeria, Sudan, Nepal, Brazil, Niger and Bangladesh </li></ul>
  3. 3. THIS CRISIS CALLS FOR NEW APPROACHES! <ul><li>The old way – “one size fits all” latrines subsidized by development partners – simply has not worked. </li></ul><ul><li>USAID’s Hygiene Improvement Project is trying some new ways of increasing access to sanitation: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Community-Led Total Sanitation and Hygiene </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Sanitation as a Business </li></ul></ul>
  4. 4. Ethiopia: Total Sanitation and Hygiene Behavior Change … <ul><li>Integrated into the national Health Extension Program </li></ul><ul><li>Walk of shame & disgust through open defecation sites - </li></ul><ul><li>Ignites the community to ACT. </li></ul><ul><li>Follow up with IPC to help negotiate improved practices, moving “up the ladder” over time. </li></ul>Key learning : Sustainability comes through linking to a national strategy, and also by linking total sanitation to hygiene and handwashing through household IPC
  5. 5. Sanitation as a Business <ul><li>Madagascar </li></ul><ul><li>1. Production and marketing of latrine </li></ul><ul><li>slabs through local small enterprises </li></ul><ul><li>2. Local masons trained to become community entrepreneurs for building latrines </li></ul><ul><li>3. PPP pay-for-use toilet/shower </li></ul><ul><li>facilities, privately managed – </li></ul><ul><li>Portion of revenue creates revolving </li></ul><ul><li>fund for reinvestment in sanitation </li></ul>
  6. 6. Peru: Alternative Pro-poor Sanitation Solutions A market approach for sanitation A catalog of sanitation options according people’s expectation Affordable market loans for sanitation Integrated communication marketing strategy Strengthening of local providers. Key learning : The poor aspire to aesthetically pleasing toilets that don’t look like latrines that ID them as poor
  7. 7. Uganda: Sanitation Marketing - District pilot effort linked to CLTS <ul><li>Training of local masons in improved latrine design </li></ul><ul><li>Formalized training through local vocational training institutes </li></ul><ul><li>Design innovations (unreinforced dome shape) to reduce materials needed latrine </li></ul><ul><li>Cost reduction measures for cement and rebar </li></ul><ul><li>Public advertising for local certified latrine entrepreneurs </li></ul>
  8. 8. <ul><li>Improved Hygiene Behaviors that HIP promotes </li></ul><ul><li>“ Use and maintenance of improved or hygienic latrines” </li></ul><ul><li>and … </li></ul>
  9. 9. <ul><li>“ Handwashing with soap at critical times” (e.g. after latrine use) </li></ul>
  10. 10. DESPERATELY SEEKING….. Multiple communication channels and non-traditional partners for new approaches to the sanitation crisis
  11. 11. <ul><ul><li>NGOs and Unusual Partners (ex. Scouts) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Create demand for sanitation and hygiene services and products </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Private sector </li></ul><ul><ul><li>meet customer demand for improved sanitation </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Local entrepreneurs </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Provide affordable, appropriate goods and services </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Community extension or frontline health workers </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Promote good practices </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Communities </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Community-led total sanitation to end open defecation </li></ul></ul>
  12. 12. Tools And Products For Hygiene And Sanitation Behavior Change
  13. 13. Creating demand through advertising, and community promotion Peru poster promoting toilets as thrones for royalty! Madagascar poster advertising enabling products for sale for the 3 key practices
  14. 14. Simple, affordable enabling technologies
  15. 15. Latrines adapted to needs of persons living with AIDS
  16. 16. Tools for negotiating small doable actions with households
  17. 18. Measuring household hygiene and sanitation improvement: <ul><li>“ Access and Behavioral Outcome Indicators for Water, Sanitation, and Hygiene” </li></ul><ul><li>A MANUAL DEVELOPED BY HIP </li></ul><ul><li>PUBLISHED FEBRUARY 2010 </li></ul><ul><li>AVAILABLE AT HTTP://HIP.WATSAN.NET </li></ul>
  18. 19. The manual includes “Essential and Expanded Hygiene Indicators” Hygiene Content Area Indicator Hand Washing with Soap at Critical Moments HW1. % of respondents who know all critical moments for hand washing HW2. % of households with soap and water at a hand washing station commonly used by family members HW3. % of households with soap and water at a hand washing station inside or within 10 paces of latrines HW4. % of households with soap or locally available cleansing agent for hand washing anywhere in the household
  19. 20. Hygiene Content Area Indicator Access to and Use of Sanitary Facilities for the Disposal of Human Excreta SAN1. % of households with access to an improved sanitation facility (urban and rural) SAN2. % of households with reliable access to sanitary facilities SAN3. % of households spending less than 10 minutes to travel to public or shared facilities SAN4. % of children <36 (or 60) months whose feces were disposed of safely SAN5. % of households using the available (improved) sanitation facility SAN6. % of households with sanitary facilities that practice adequate cleanliness to encourage use SAN7. % of households with sanitary facilities that practice adequate maintenance to keep them operational SAN8. # of communities achieving open defecation free status SAN9. % of communities that are maintaining their open defecation free status
  20. 21. Access to sanitation, Madagascar P e r c e n t
  22. 23. HANDWASHING WITH SOAP! REDUCES DIARRHEA BY NEARLY 50% <ul><li>The easiest practice to integrate into CS/MCH programs: </li></ul>
  23. 24. Integration possibilities include: <ul><li>Handwashing stations and promotion in health centers </li></ul>
  24. 25. Handwashing promotion at the community level
  25. 26. Handwashing and hygiene promotion for home-based care givers and people living with HIV-AIDS
  26. 27. Handwashing promotion in schools And in church!
  27. 28. Celebrate GLOBAL HANDWASHING DAY October 15 An initiative of the Public Private Partnership for Handwashing
  28. 29. Thank You!