Design Thinking - NYU Ambition Conference

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A presentation I gave on design thinking for technology, business, and entrepreneurship students at NYU.
These slides were accompanied by a lot of group participation, Q&A, and a design challenge, so some slides may feel a little sparse.
These slides are adapted from a design thinking presentation co-authored with Melanie Kahl in 2011. Thanks for viewing!

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Design Thinking - NYU Ambition Conference

  1. 1. Design Thinking. NYU AMBITION NYU-POLY JEFF WENZINGER MARCH 23, 2012
  2. 2. MECHANICAL ENVIRONMENTAL ENERGY ENGINEERING COMPLIANCE ENGINEERINGCAPSTONE PROJECT ENGINEERING IN BUILDINGS RESPONSIBLE INSTITUTE FOR CLEAN BUSINESS SOCIAL ENERGY CONSULTING ENTREPRENEURSHIP EDUCATION
  3. 3. MECHANICAL ENVIRONMENTAL ENERGY ENGINEERING COMPLIANCE ENGINEERINGCAPSTONE PROJECT ENGINEERING IN BUILDINGS PRODUCT PROCESS SYSTEMS DESIGN DESIGN DESIGN RESPONSIBLE INSTITUTE FOR CLEAN BUSINESS SOCIAL ENERGY CONSULTING ENTREPRENEURSHIP EDUCATION SERVICE DESIGN THINKING EXPERIENCE DESIGN WORKSHOP DESIGN
  4. 4. I create social impact through design and engineering.
  5. 5. I CAN’T COVER ALL OF DESIGN THINKINGIN ONE HOUR...But I can give you terms,examples, and tools toempower you to usedesign thinking in yourwork.
  6. 6. FOR THE NEXT HOUR...Re-framing designA new way of thinkingDesign Thinking toolsDesign challengeDiscussion
  7. 7. Amtrak, the U.S. passenger rail corporation, was preparingto launch its Acela high-speed train service along theBoston-to-Washington metropolitan corridor. It askedIDEO to design the interior of its Acela rail coaches.  Amtrak wanted a railcar that was more attractive andfunctional than the interior of the passenger airliners thatwere Amtraks primary competition.Your turn: if you were IDEO, how would you helpAmtrak?
  8. 8. ABOUT THE EXPERIENCE LEARNING PLANNING STARTING ENTERING TICKETING WAITINGONLY ABOUT BOARDINGTHE RIDE RIDING ARRIVING CONTINUING
  9. 9. WHICH AIRLINE IS THIS?
  10. 10. THE WORLD IT’S UP TO YOU TOOFTEN ASKS YOU DISCOVER THE TO SOLVE THE RIGHT PROBLEMWRONG PROBLEM. TO SOLVE. DESIGN THINKING TEACHES YOU TO EXPLORE COMPLEX SITUATIONS AND DISCOVER HIDDEN CUSTOMER NEEDS.
  11. 11. SO,What is “design thinking?”
  12. 12. FIRST,What is “design?”
  13. 13. “”YOU’VE GOT TOSTART WITH THECUSTOMEREXPERIENCE ANDWORK BACKWARDSFOR THETECHNOLOGY. –Steve Jobs
  14. 14. “”IN MOST PEOPLE’S VOCABULARIES,DESIGN MEANS VENEER. IT’S INTERIORDECORATING. IT’S THE FABRIC OFTHE CURTAINS AND THE SOFA. BUT TOME, NOTHING COULD BE FURTHER FROMTHE MEANING OF DESIGN. DESIGN IS THEFUNDAMENTAL SOUL OF A MAN-MADECREATION THAT ENDS UP EXPRESSINGITSELF IN SUCCESSIVE OUTER LAYERS OFTHE PRODUCT OR SERVICE. –Steve Jobs, CNNMoney/Fortune, January 24, 2000
  15. 15. “”THE ANGLO-SAXONINLANGUAGE THERE’SONLY ONE WORD FORDESIGN, WHICH IS“DESIGN”...
  16. 16. “” IN HOLLAND, WE HAVE TWO WORDS FOR DESIGN. Vormgeving is more to make things look nice. So for instance, packaging for a perfume or for chocolate in order to make things fashionable... While ontwerpe means, and the Anglo-Saxon word, but its stronger, means engineering. THAT MEANS YOU AS A PERSON TRY TO INVENT A NEW THING—WHICH IS INTELLIGENT, WHICH IS CLEVER, AND WHICH WILL HAVE A LONG-LIFE. AND THAT’S CALLED STYLISTIC DURABILITY. IT MEANS YOU CAN USE IT FOR A LONG TIME. -Gert Dumbar
  17. 17. design vs. Design
  18. 18. design vs. Design
  19. 19. design vs. Design
  20. 20. designMORE THAN VENEERENGINEERING, EXPRESSIONdesign vs. Design
  21. 21. SO,What is “design thinking?”
  22. 22. “”DESIGN THINKING REFERS TO THEMETHODS AND PROCESSES FORINVESTIGATING ILL-DEFINED PROBLEMS,ACQUIRING INFORMATION, ANALYZINGKNOWLEDGE, AND POSITING SOLUTIONSIN THE DESIGN AND PLANNING FIELDS.AS A STYLE OF THINKING, IT ISGENERALLY CONSIDERED THE ABILITYTO COMBINE IN A HOLISTIC MANNER:EMPATHY FOR THE CONTEXT OF APROBLEM, CREATIVITY IN THEGENERATION OF INSIGHTS ANDSOLUTIONS, AND RATIONALITY TOANALYZE AND FIT SOLUTIONS TO THECONTEXT.  
  23. 23. human-centeredconnection seekingbias towards actionprocess of discovery
  24. 24. design thinking.discovering brainstorming prototypingthe problem ideas solutions challenging and evolving
  25. 25. Some overlap with:user experience designcustomer development the lean startup
  26. 26. OKAY, SO...How can I learn this wayof “thinking?”
  27. 27. “” IF THE ONLY TOOL YOU HAVE IS A HAMMER, YOU TEND TO SEE EVERY PROBLEM AS A NAIL. –Abraham Maslow, psychologist DESIGN YOU ARE HERE YOU ARE HEREENGINEERING BUSINESS DISCIPLINES STAKEHOLDERS } PERSPECTIVES
  28. 28. The solutions that emerge from Human-Centered Design should hit the overlap of these three lenses: they need to be Desirable, Feasible, and Viable.
  29. 29. Design Engineering BusinessSee holistically across disciplines
  30. 30. + Enthusiasm
  31. 31. Cultivate your T-Shapebroadened perspectivesLEARN (KINDLE + COMMUTE, GOOGLE READER)HANG OUT WITH MULTIDISCIPLINARY PEOPLETRAVEL OFTENASK QUESTIONS OF DISCOVERYconnect disparate ideas“YES AND...” IMPROV COMEDYLEARN BY DOING - EXPERIMENTLOOK FOR DUCT TAPE “SOLUTIONS”
  32. 32. How do I apply “designthinking” to the real world?
  33. 33. “”DESIGN THINKING REFERS TO THEMETHODS AND PROCESSES FORINVESTIGATING ILL-DEFINED PROBLEMS,ACQUIRING INFORMATION, ANALYZINGKNOWLEDGE, AND POSITING SOLUTIONSIN THE DESIGN AND PLANNING FIELDS.AS A STYLE OF THINKING, IT ISGENERALLY CONSIDERED THE ABILITYTO COMBINE IN A HOLISTIC MANNER:EMPATHY FOR THE CONTEXT OF APROBLEM, CREATIVITY IN THEGENERATION OF INSIGHTS ANDSOLUTIONS, AND RATIONALITY TOANALYZE AND FIT SOLUTIONS TO THECONTEXT.  
  34. 34. “ When my husband left me, I had nothing. Today, everyone knows me. I am someone. ”
  35. 35. design thinking realizes everybody has a story.and human-centeredsolutions are rooted in stories.
  36. 36. DEFER JUDGEMENT ENCOURAGE WILD IDEASBUILD ON THE IDEAS OF OTHERS STAY FOCUSED ON THE TOPICONE CONVERSATION AT A TIME BE VISUAL GO FOR QUANTITY IDEO
  37. 37. TTTTTHOW TO USE DESIGN THINKING IN THE REALWORLD?Your best bet is tocultivate and empower aT-shaped team.
  38. 38. TTTTTLOOK AROUND YOU.NYU Ambition: yourT-shaped team membersare all around you.
  39. 39. So, who’s ready for adesign challenge?
  40. 40. designMORE THAN VENEERENGINEERING, EXPRESSIONdesign vs. DesignthinkingEMPATHIZE AND BLEND PERSPECTIVESCULTIVATE YOUR T-SHAPEMEET OTHER T-SHAPED PEOPLEdesign thinkingHUMAN CENTERED, CONNECTIONSEEKING, BIAS TOWARDS ACTION,PROCESS OF DISCOVERY, HOLISTIC
  41. 41. What’s this?
  42. 42. Notice L/R image labeling
  43. 43. Infection appears on radiological imageWhat about under the skin?
  44. 44. L/R image label is manually inputted by CT operator
  45. 45. L/R errors in symmetricalareas can go unnoticed...
  46. 46. ...which can lead to wrong-site surgery, harm to patient, and malpractice suits.
  47. 47. Design Challenge:Develop a verification system todouble-check technologist’sinput and ensure L/R imagelabeling is accurate on all CTscans.Stakeholders:Chief Radiologist (MD), Chair of Patient Safety CommitteeCT Scan Technologist (operator)Chief Radiology Scientist (Ph.D)Nurses with deep knowledge of patients’ needs
  48. 48. The solutions that emerge from Human-Centered Design should hit the overlap of these three lenses: they need to be Desirable, Feasible, and Viable. What do people desire?
  49. 49. Customer Needs:1. Be highly reliable2. Take little time3. Be unobtrusive to patient4. Implement in current system5. Minimize radiation exposure6. Minimize image streakingTechnical Concerns:• Material (metals create streaks in images)• Easy implementation• Time added to procedure• Radiation exposure• Few Components• Fatigue lifetime
  50. 50. Proposed Solution1. Use headrest and footrest inserts to identify orientation2. Implement radio frequency identification (RFID) chips (low metal content)3. RFID receiver sends signal to compare with control room tech’s input4. CT scan halted until signals match5. CT process commences only when signals match Insert appropriate headrest or RFID receiver detects insert and footrest based on patient orientation sends double check information to computer
  51. 51. Here’s the point:Through discovery and design, it’s possible to find ahuman-centered, low-cost, low-tech solution.Technical knowledge is a critical part of the toolkit,but it’s not the solution in and of itself.Strive to frame every challenge in terms of humanneeds, and combine technology and businessmethods to create a holistic solution. “” PEOPLE DON’T WANT QUARTER-INCH DRILLS - THEY WANT QUARTER-INCH HOLES. – Ted Levitt, marketing guru
  52. 52. More on Design Thinking...
  53. 53. designMORE THAN VENEERENGINEERING, EXPRESSIONdesign vs. DesignthinkingEMPATHIZE AND BLEND PERSPECTIVESCULTIVATE YOUR T-SHAPEMEET OTHER T-SHAPED PEOPLEdesign thinkingHUMAN CENTERED, CONNECTIONSEEKING, BIAS TOWARDS ACTION,INHERENT OPTIMISM, HOLISTIC
  54. 54. “”DESIGN THINKING ISN’T FAIRY DUST. IT’SA TOOL TO BE USED APPROPRIATELY. ITMIGHT HELP TO ILLUMINATE AN ANSWERBUT IT IS NOT THE ANSWER IN AND OFITSELF. -Helen Walters for FastCoDesign
  55. 55. “ CREATIVITY IS JUST CONNECTING THINGS. THE BROADER ONES UNDERSTANDING OF THE HUMAN EXPERIENCE, THE BETTER DESIGN WE WILL HAVE. ” Steve Jobs
  56. 56. TTTTTNow go be awesome. Thanks! @jeffwenzinger jeff.wenzinger@gmail.com www.linkedin.com/in/jeffwenzinger

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