USSR & USA in the
Middle East
The Resurgence
of Islam
Western Materialism = Bad
In addition to the existence of Israel and the
abundance of oil, Funda...
Iran becomes a
Theocracy
Ayatollah Khomeini returns from exile in 1979 and
began his Islamic Fundamentalist Revolution
I...
Iran-Iraq War:
1980-88
Saddam Hussein, leader of Iraq, feared
Khomeini's fundamentalist revolution
would take hold in Ira...
Iran-Iraq War
The two sides fought a nasty fight for 8 years, but
nobody won
Both sides used chemical weapons
Eventuall...
The Gulf War:
1990-1991In August 1990 Saddam Hussein, president of Iraq,
invaded his southern neighbor, oil rich Kuwait
...
International
ResponseThe world, especially the US, was
concerned that Iraq would control too
much of the world's oil sup...
International
ResponseA coalition force, led by the USA, assembled
(included Britain and Canada)
Saudi Arabia, Syria, an...
Operation Desert
Storm
Hussein did not withdraw, so the
coalition attacked
Baghdad was bombed for a month
The coalition...
Operation Desert
Storm
Iraq lost about 90,000 troops (killed,
captured, wounded
Hussein used the one weapon he had
left,...
SCUD Missile
Coalition Mistake
The UN resolution required that Hussein be
removed from Kuwait, not removed from power
Hussein continu...
The Soviets in
Afghanistan
the Afghan Marxist party took control in 1973
they were opposed by the Mujaheddin (Muslim
reb...
The USSR
Invaded in 1979Reasons
to support the Marxist
government against the Muslims
to install a puppet government
mo...
A Vicious War
followed 1980-88
The Soviets encountered hostile
resistance from the Mujaheddin
this became another guerri...
Soviets experience in Afghanistan
was similar to the American
experience in VietnamBoth experienced a war in which the na...
Ussr & usa in the middle east
Ussr & usa in the middle east
Ussr & usa in the middle east
Upcoming SlideShare
Loading in …5
×

Ussr & usa in the middle east

933 views

Published on

Published in: Education, News & Politics
0 Comments
1 Like
Statistics
Notes
  • Be the first to comment

No Downloads
Views
Total views
933
On SlideShare
0
From Embeds
0
Number of Embeds
191
Actions
Shares
0
Downloads
13
Comments
0
Likes
1
Embeds 0
No embeds

No notes for slide

Ussr & usa in the middle east

  1. 1. USSR & USA in the Middle East
  2. 2. The Resurgence of Islam Western Materialism = Bad In addition to the existence of Israel and the abundance of oil, Fundamentalist vs Moderate Islam is a major contributing factor to conflict in the Middle East (eq: Iran, Iraq)
  3. 3. Iran becomes a Theocracy Ayatollah Khomeini returns from exile in 1979 and began his Islamic Fundamentalist Revolution Iran became a theocracy – a country run by a religious government Religious laws became the laws of the country Iran is still a theocracy today, as is Saudi Arabia (and the Vatican)
  4. 4. Iran-Iraq War: 1980-88 Saddam Hussein, leader of Iraq, feared Khomeini's fundamentalist revolution would take hold in Iraq Brutal dictator, yes, but religious fundamentalist, no
  5. 5. Iran-Iraq War The two sides fought a nasty fight for 8 years, but nobody won Both sides used chemical weapons Eventually they agreed to peace terms About 1 million men died
  6. 6. The Gulf War: 1990-1991In August 1990 Saddam Hussein, president of Iraq, invaded his southern neighbor, oil rich Kuwait Why? Iraq claimed that Kuwait historically belonged to Iraq When the British drew the new borders after WWI, most of Basra went to Iraq, but Kuwait remained a British protectorate (gained independence in 1961) The British were protecting their dominance of the Persian Gulf by denying Iraq access to it
  7. 7. International ResponseThe world, especially the US, was concerned that Iraq would control too much of the world's oil supply and have too much power to control the Persian Gulf The UN ordered Iraq to remove troops by 15 January 1991
  8. 8. International ResponseA coalition force, led by the USA, assembled (included Britain and Canada) Saudi Arabia, Syria, and Egypt joined the coalition because they feared Hussein's intentions in the region The USA convinced Israel to stay out of the coalition so that the Arabs would stay in
  9. 9. Operation Desert Storm Hussein did not withdraw, so the coalition attacked Baghdad was bombed for a month The coalition also attacked with a large ground force and removed Hussein's forces from Kuwait in about 4 days
  10. 10. Operation Desert Storm Iraq lost about 90,000 troops (killed, captured, wounded Hussein used the one weapon he had left, SCUD missiles, against Israel and Saudi Arabia The US managed to keep Israel out in order to maintain the strength of the coalition – Patriot missiles
  11. 11. SCUD Missile
  12. 12. Coalition Mistake The UN resolution required that Hussein be removed from Kuwait, not removed from power Hussein continued to suppress his own people including ruthlessly putting down two uprisings after the Gulf War Shiites in the south, Kurds in the north Many blamed this on the Americans because they did not remove Hussein from power
  13. 13. The Soviets in Afghanistan the Afghan Marxist party took control in 1973 they were opposed by the Mujaheddin (Muslim rebel force) in 1978 a civil war broke out between the Marxist ruling party and the Mujaheddin rebels
  14. 14. The USSR Invaded in 1979Reasons to support the Marxist government against the Muslims to install a puppet government more closely linked with Moscow to gain further influence in the Persian Gulf / Middle East Region
  15. 15. A Vicious War followed 1980-88 The Soviets encountered hostile resistance from the Mujaheddin this became another guerrilla war the Soviets withdrew in disgrace beginning in 1988
  16. 16. Soviets experience in Afghanistan was similar to the American experience in VietnamBoth experienced a war in which the native population was largely against the foreign forces Both faced guerrilla forces dedicated to their cause Both military forces had to struggle with their own disillusioned troops World public opinion turned rapidly against both foreign invaders Both withdrew with discredited armed forces

×