From the analysis of my position in part one of the study on the job design of my brokers position at my organization it became clear that what was lacking at my company to hinder job satisfaction and productivity was assistance from employees. I identified that my having the entire responsibilities at the company was preventing me from achieving full autonomy of being able to do the tasks that I want to do that could be more productive. To be more productive I need to have less low end responsibilities and more time for more important responsibilities. To accomplish this will require designing a position for a new hire and a plan on how to do so. To design the position properly I will review the job design methods.
According to Campion and Thayer’s study of more than 120 jobs they collected information on, they found that there are four job design approaches with each having a different set of outcomes. Each approach has its pros and cons with no one approach being practical for all situations. These approaches are the mechanistic, biomechanics, perceptual/motor, and the motivational job design.
The first approach identified is the mechanistic job-approach which is for jobs that can be completed by almost anyone with little training for the purpose of high productivity. This approach has its downfall of less satisfied and low motivated employees. The approach thus has many criticisms and is used by companies with the sole interest of high productivity in simple jobs (Campion & Thayer, 2001).
A second approach to job design is derived from biomechanics appropriately titled Biological Job-Design. With this approach the goal is to ensure people’s physical capabilities are not exceeded by the way the job is designed. This method has been associated with creating lower absenteeism and higher job satisfaction. This method has been extensively applied to physically demanding jobs and would appear to have no drawbacks. In application though it can be prohibitively expensive and even create a lethargic workforce with high end achievers that strive for hard work (Campion & Thayer, 2001).
The perceptual/motor job design approach is the third type of approach and is similar to biological in that it ensures that ones mental capabilities are not exceeded. The positive side is this design reduces the chances of stress and can be implemented at a relatively low cost compared to the other methods. On the negative side however job satisfaction may be reduced from the job being made less stimulating thus reducing motivation as well (Campion & Thayer, 2001).
The Fourth approach is the motivational approach whose basis comes from organizational psychology. This approach is the one that the remainder of this study will be the focus on. With this approach the designer is focused on the needs of the individual such as the need for achievement, affiliation, power, variety, and feedback. With rapid feedback a individual can be motivated by the positive emotions generated such as pride, job satisfaction, and a feeling of competence. All of these aspects of motivational job design promotes increased productivity (Campion & Thayer, 2001).
My goal system is not in need of repair or replacement but my goal monitoring and assessment is. I need to regularly assess where I am and set goals to achieve any incongruity of where I am and where I want to be. To accomplish the productivity level and job satisfaction level I want to achieve I must have a goal. As I identified I specificallyneed to hire someone to increase my available time to be more productive. This is achievable but I understand the limitations I have as a small company. Many small real estate companies accomplish hiring someone so it is certainly possible. Realistically I am not sure if I have the resources to hire someone full time so I know it will have to be someone through the temp agency. This gives me the freedom to have help only when I need it too.
Without a plan goals are mere ideas or dreams. To reach my goal I have set up the following plan. Using the motivational job design approach I will design a job that is motivational. It may be a challenge to motivate a worker when hiring through a temp agency. The temporary worker may approach the position with little enthusiasm assuming the job could be short lived so I may need to offer extrinsic rewards to increase productivity by rewarding for productivity.Contacting the temp agencies and locating one that has licensed real estate staff will be the next step. After reviewing the services available I will approve service from the available selection, hire their temporary worker and begin moving forward with my responsibilities. Remaining focused and being persistent in the use of the temp service will help me to achieve higher productivity and greater job satisfaction.
Of all of the job design approaches the motivational approach is the only one that takes the workers needs into consideration. It is the only approach that challenges the worker to work harder and take on challenging, rewarding jobs. This is the reason the motivational approach creates higher job satisfaction and motivates the worker to reach organizational goals. The motivational job design approach creates greater productivity in rewarding and challenging positions. No one method is suitable for all jobs however. Since job redesign can have unintended consequences, all approaches should be considered. Too often jobs are designed without using any approach, giving no consideration to the mental or physical aspects to the job, or to the needs of the worker.
Campion, M.A. & Thayer, P.W. (2001). Job design: approaches, outcomes, and trade offs. Retrieved from http://carmine.se.edu/cvonbergen/Job%20Design_A pproaches,%20Outcomes,%20and%20Trade-offs.pdf Reeve, J. (2009). Understanding motivation and emotion. (5th ed.). Retrieved from the University of Phoenix eBook Collection database.
Redesigning Broker Position• To Increase Productivity• To Increase Job Satisfaction
Four Approaches to Job Design• Mechanistic• Motivational• Biological• Perceptual
Advantages• Easy to Train• High ProductivityPossible Shortfalls• Less Job Satisfaction• Less Motivation
Advantages• Lower Absenteeism• High Job SatisfactionPossible Shortfalls• Can Be Expensive• Can Reduce Motivation
Advantages• Lower Stress• Low Training CostsPossible Shortfalls• Lowered Job Satisfaction• Can Reduce Motivation
Focuses on Needs and AchievementMotivates Positive EmotionsProvides FeedbackPromotes Job SatisfactionIncreases Productivity
Assess Needs• Set Goals RegularlySet Goals to:• Make the Goal Specific• Make the Goal Achievable• Make the Goal Realistic
• Design The Job• Locate Temp Agencies• Approve Temp Service Plan• Remain Persistent
The Motivational Approach to Job Design• Creates Higher Job Satisfaction• Encourages Motivation• Promotes Greater Productivity
ReferencesCampion, M.A. & Thayer, P.W. (2001). Job design:approaches, outcomes, and trade offs. Retrieved from http://carmine.se.edu/cvonbergen/Job%20Design_A pproaches,%20Outcomes,%20and%20Trade-offs.pdfReeve, J. (2009). Understanding motivation and emotion. (5th ed.). Retrieved from the University of Phoenix eBook Collection database.