Intelligence Support Requirements for Offensive Computer Network Operations

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I gave this presentation at the 'Cyberwarfare and Nation States Conference' - one of the streams of the 'Safeguarding Australia' conference - in Canberra in September 2010. Whilst my paper preceded discussion of the Stuxnet (and other associated attacks) - the judgements I make in the presentation stack up pretty well.

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Intelligence Support Requirements for Offensive Computer Network Operations

  1. 1. Intelligence Support Requirements for Offensive CNO: An Achilles’ Heel? Jeff Malone - UNSW@ADFACyber Warfare and Nation States Conference Canberra - 23 September 2010
  2. 2. Scope• Overview of Offensive CNO• Intelligence Requirements Across the Weapon System Life Cycle• Intelligence Requirements of Offensive CNO• Implications for a Usable CNO Capability
  3. 3. Caveats• Presentation reflects my personal views• Dependence on US (military) literature• First principle arguments
  4. 4. CNO as an element of IO• Psychological Operations (PSYOP)• Military Deception (MILDEC)• Operational Security (OPSEC)• Electronic Warfare (EW)• Computer Network Operations (CNO)• Other Supporting Capabilities – Physical Attack (etc)Source: US Joint Publication 3-13, Information Operations, 13 February 2006
  5. 5. Components of CNO• Computer Network Attack (CNA)• Computer Network Exploitation (CNE)• Computer Network Defence (CND)
  6. 6. Access Approaches to Offensive CNO• Close Access• Proximate Access• Remote Access
  7. 7. Objectives of Offensive CNO• Tactical – immediate battlefield• Operational – theatre level• Strategic – national level
  8. 8. The Weapon System Life Cycle In-Service Modification and Upgrade Acquisition and Needs and Retirement and Development Introduction to In-Service UseRequirements Disposal Service
  9. 9. Intelligence Requirements Across the Weapon System Life Cycle Intelligence IntelligenceIntelligence Support Support Support In-Service Modification and Upgrade Acquisition and Needs and Retirement and Development Introduction to In-Service Use Requirements Disposal Service Intelligence Planning Support Intelligence Support Assessment Operations
  10. 10. Types of Intelligence Requirements for Offensive CNO• Access-centred – Relates to characteristics of target systems – Collection emphasis on CNE• Effect-centred – Relates to outcomes sought by attack – Collection emphasis will vary, but has greater role for all-source collection
  11. 11. Factors Influencing Intelligence Support Requirements for Offensive CNO• Difficulty/complexity of access• Precision of effect sought• Overt versus covert action• Target responsiveness
  12. 12. Vignette 1 – Close Access Attack on an Integrated Air Defence System
  13. 13. Vignette 2 – Proximate Attack on an Integrated Air Defence System
  14. 14. Vignette 3 – Remote Attack onStrategic C3I Enabling Systems
  15. 15. Vignette 4 – Remote Attack to undertake targeted PSYOP
  16. 16. Implications for a Usable Offensive CNO Capability• Intelligence support requirements crucial to a usable offensive CNO capability• Intelligence support requirements will impact on all collection disciplines, not just CNE• Intelligence support to offensive CNO as an opportunity cost• Less discriminate CNO attacks more likely to be viable
  17. 17. Conclusion

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