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SOLUTION-FOCUSED
COUNSELING FOR
DEPRESSION
Education Session
American Counseling Association
Clayton V. Martin, M.S.
Jeffr...
Solution-Focused Counseling for Depression 2
Contents
About the Presenters ..................................................
Solution-Focused Counseling for Depression 3
About the Presenters
Clayton V. Martin, M.S. is a counselor in Atlanta, Georg...
Solution-Focused Counseling for Depression 4
Additional Events by the Presenters at the
2014 ACA Conference and Expo
Maste...
Solution-Focused Counseling for Depression 5
Selected Publications by Presenters
de Castro, S., & Guterman, J.T. (2008). S...
Solution-Focused Counseling for Depression 6
Education Session Description
Solution-focused counseling is a comprehensive ...
Solution-Focused Counseling for Depression 7
Implications of a Postmodern Position
for Solution-Focused Counseling
 Clini...
Solution-Focused Counseling for Depression 8
Common Change Factors
Research in the area of common change factors (Lambert,...
Solution-Focused Counseling for Depression 9
symptoms. It is assumed that if these exceptions are identified and amplified...
Solution-Focused Counseling for Depression 10
S.M.A.R.T. Goals
 Specific Goals
 Measurable Goals
 Achievable Goals
 Re...
Solution-Focused Counseling for Depression 11
Solution-Focused Tasks
Task # 1
The client is told and asked, “Between now a...
Solution-Focused Counseling for Depression 12
Solution Identification Form
Name ________________________Age (Years):____ S...
Solution-Focused Counseling for Depression 13
Scaling Form
Name ________________________Age (Years):____ Sex: M / F
Sessio...
Solution-Focused Counseling for Depression 14
Solution-Focused Checklist
 Did you carefully and patiently try to help the...
Solution-Focused Counseling for Depression 15
Outcome Rating Scale (ORS)
This scale is for illustration purposes only. The...
Solution-Focused Counseling for Depression 16
Session Rating Scale (SRS)
This scale is for illustration purposes only. The...
Solution-Focused Counseling for Depression 17
Child Outcome Rating Scale (CORS)
This scale is for illustration purposes on...
Solution-Focused Counseling for Depression 18
Child Session Rating Scale (CSRS)
This scale is for illustration purposes on...
Solution-Focused Counseling for Depression 19
Young Child Outcome Rating Scale (YCORS)
This scale is for illustration purp...
Solution-Focused Counseling for Depression 20
Young Child Session Rating Scale (YCSRS)
This scale is for illustration purp...
Solution-Focused Counseling for Depression 21
References and Suggested Readings
Aderka, I.M., Nickerson, A., Bøe, H.J., & ...
Solution-Focused Counseling for Depression 22
Held, B.S., (1992). The problem of strategy within the systemic therapies. J...
Solution-Focused Counseling for Depression 23
Suggested Internet Resources
Jeffrey T. Guterman, Ph.D.
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Solution-focused Counseling for Depression

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Solution-focused Counseling for Depression

  1. 1. SOLUTION-FOCUSED COUNSELING FOR DEPRESSION Education Session American Counseling Association Clayton V. Martin, M.S. Jeffrey T. Guterman, Ph.D. Friday, March 28, 2014 10:30 a.m. – 12:00 p.m. American Counseling Association 2014 Annual Conference Honolulu, Hawaii Hawaii Convention Center Copyright © 2014 by Clayton V. Martin and Jeffrey T. Guterman The PowerPoint for this Education Session is available at http://JeffreyGuterman.com
  2. 2. Solution-Focused Counseling for Depression 2 Contents About the Presenters ............................................................................................................... 3 Additional Events by Presenters ............................................................................................. 4 Selected Publications by Presenters ........................................................................................ 5 Education Session Description ............................................................................................... 6 Education Session Objectives ................................................................................................. 6 Formula First Session Task ..................................................................................................... 6 Principles of Solution-Focused Counseling ............................................................................ 6 Implications of a Postmodern Position ................................................................................... 7 Problem and Exception ........................................................................................................... 7 Theory of Change ................................................................................................................... 7 Common Change Factors ........................................................................................................ 8 Sudden Gains for Depression .................................................................................................. 8 Stages of Solution-Focused Counseling ................................................................................. 9 S.M.A.R.T. GOALS ............................................................................................................. 10 Identifying Exceptions .......................................................................................................... 10 Questions for Amplifying Exceptions .................................................................................. 10 Solution-Focused Tasks ........................................................................................................ 11 Solution Identification Form ................................................................................................. 12 Scaling Form ......................................................................................................................... 13 Solution-Focused Checklist .................................................................................................. 14 Outcome Rating Scale (ORS) ............................................................................................... 15 Session Rating Scale (SRS) .................................................................................................. 16 Child Outcome Rating Scale (CORS) ................................................................................... 17 Child Session Rating Scale (CSRS) ...................................................................................... 18 Young Child Outcome Rating Scale (YCORS) .................................................................... 19 Young Child Session Rating Scale (YCSRS) ....................................................................... 20 References and Suggested Readings ..................................................................................... 21 Suggested Internet Resources ............................................................................................... 23
  3. 3. Solution-Focused Counseling for Depression 3 About the Presenters Clayton V. Martin, M.S. is a counselor in Atlanta, Georgia. He has presented workshops on the topics of strength-based approaches to counseling and LGBTQ advocacy issues in counseling. He has written articles for counseling journals on solution-focused approaches to counseling and philosophical issues in counseling. He has extensive clinical experience in solution-focused counseling with children, adolescents, and young adults in various clinical settings. Contact Information Email: cmartin51277@gmail.com Phone: 404-449-3028 Jeffrey T. Guterman, Ph.D. is a mental health counselor in Fort Lauderdale, Florida. He is author of over 125 publications. The first edition of his book Mastering the Art of Solution- Focused Counseling was published by the American Counseling Association (ACA) in 2006, it was translated in Korean in 2007, and an updated and expanded second edition was published by ACA in 2013. He has presented numerous workshops on solution-focused counseling. Contact Information Email: jguterman@gmail.com Phone: 305-725-4583 Web: http://JeffreyGuterman.com Twitter: http://twitter.com/JeffreyGuterman.com – Clayton V. Martin, M.S. and Jeffrey T. Guterman, Ph.D. are available to provide training and workshops for your organization on various topics. Program topics and formats will be tailored to meet the needs of your organization.
  4. 4. Solution-Focused Counseling for Depression 4 Additional Events by the Presenters at the 2014 ACA Conference and Expo Mastering the Art of Solution-Focused Counseling Presenter: Jeffrey T. Guterman, Ph.D. Format: Author Content Session (90 Minute) Program ID # 150 Date: Friday, March 28, 2014 Time: 2:00 p.m. - 3:30 p.m. Location: Hawaii Convention Center, Room 316A ACA Author Book Signing Book Signing: Mastering the Art of Solution-Focused Counseling (2nd Edition) by Jeffrey T. Guterman Date: Friday March 28, 2014 Time: 4:00 p.m. - 5:00 p.m. Location: Hawaii Convention Center, ACA Bookstore Enhancing the Therapeutic Alliance with Youth Clients Presenters: Clayton V. Martin, M.S., Jeffrey T. Guterman, Ph.D. Format: Education Session (60-Minute) Program ID # 272 Date: Saturday, March 29, 2014 Time: 4:00 p.m. - 5:00 p.m. Location: Hawaii Convention Center, Room 316C
  5. 5. Solution-Focused Counseling for Depression 5 Selected Publications by Presenters de Castro, S., & Guterman, J.T. (2008). Solution-focused therapy for families coping with suicide. Journal of Marital and Family Therapy, 34, 93-106. Guterman, J. T. (1994). A social constructionist position for mental health counseling. Journal of Mental Health Counseling, 16, 226-244. Guterman, J.T. (1996a). Doing mental health counseling: A social constructionist re-vision. Journal of Mental Health Counseling, 18, 228-252. Guterman, J.T. (1996b). Farewell to families: Language systems in the postmodern era. The Family Journal: Counseling and Therapy for Couples and Families, 4, 139-142. Guterman, J.T. (1996c). Reconstructing social constructionism: A reply to Albert Ellis. Journal of Mental Health Counseling, 18, 29-40. Guterman, J.T. (1996d). Tales of mental health counseling. Journal of Mental Health Counseling, 18, 300-306. Guterman, J.T. (1998). Identifying pretreatment change before the first session. Journal of Mental Health Counseling, 20, 370-374. Guterman, J.T. (2013). Mastering the art of solution-focused counseling (2nd ed.). Alexandria, VA: American Counseling Association. Guterman, J.T., & Leite, N. (2006). Solution-focused counseling for clients with religious and spiritual concerns. Counseling and Values, 51, 39-52. Guterman, J. T., Martin, C.V., & Kopp, D.M. (2012). Science and humanities: A necessary unity for the counseling profession. Journal of Humanistic Counseling, 51, 145-154. Guterman, J.T., Mecias, A., Ainbinder, D.L. (2005). Solution-focused treatment of migraine headache. The Family Journal: Counseling and Therapy for Couples and Families, 13, 195-198. Guterman, J.T., & Schildbach, J. (in press). The stigma of mental illness and the noble savage. Counseling Today. Martin, C.V., Guterman, J.T., & Kopp, D.M. (2012). Extending the dialogue about science and humanities: A reply to Hansen. Journal of Humanistic Counseling, 51, 161-163. Martin, C.V., Guterman, J. T., & & Shatz, K. (2012). Solution-focused counseling for eating disorders. VISTAS, 1-11.
  6. 6. Solution-Focused Counseling for Depression 6 Education Session Description Solution-focused counseling is a comprehensive model that emphasizes clients' strengths, resources, and effective coping skills to bring about positive change. If these resources— called exceptions—are identified and amplified, then problem resolution can be brought about in an effective and efficient manner. This advanced session offers an opportunity to learn solution-focused principles and techniques for depression. Case examples illustrate using solution-focused counseling with a variety of clients dealing with depression. The program includes exercises aimed at helping attendees learn the material. Education Session Objectives 1. Identify and review the main principles of solution-focused counseling. 2. Identify and review a solution-focused conceptualization of depression. 3. Identify and review solution-focused techniques for depression. Formula First Session Task Between now and next time we meet, I want you to observe so that you can tell me next time, what happens in your life that you want to continue to have happen (cf. Molnar & de Shazer, 1987). Principles of Solution-Focused Counseling  Solution-focus  Collaborative approach  Small changes can lead to big results  Emphasis on process  Strategic eclecticism  Brief by design, but not always  Responsiveness to diversity
  7. 7. Solution-Focused Counseling for Depression 7 Implications of a Postmodern Position for Solution-Focused Counseling  Clinical reality as a social construction rather than an objective reflection of reality.  Counselors as participant-observers rather than independent of clients and problems.  A perspective that understands language as the distinction of treatment concern rather than human systems as the locus of problems.  A collaborative approach and an emphasis on cooperating rather than a perspective that views clients’ oppositions to change as resistance. Problem and Exception  Problem: o Problem: A subjective and/or intersubjective complaint o Problem/Exception : The subjective or intersubjective complaint is subsumed by the problem/exception formal theory which is used across cases to conceptualize problems and change  Exception: “Times when the complaint/problem does not happen even though the client has reason to expect it happen” (de Shazer, 1991, p. 83). Theory of Change Theory of Change: When the problem is the rule, then exceptions tend to remain hidden or decrease. When exceptions are identified and amplified, the problem tends to decrease. Exceptions can be amplified by encouraging clients to do more of the behaviors that have led them to solve the problem in the past, or to observe times when they are dealing better with the problem, or ascribe significant meaning to the exceptions.
  8. 8. Solution-Focused Counseling for Depression 8 Common Change Factors Research in the area of common change factors (Lambert, 1992) clearly supports the theory of change in solution-focused counseling (Guterman, 2013). Lambert identified four common change factors that contribute most to improvement in counseling and psychotherapy. According to Lambert, each of these common change factors accounts for the following percentages of improvement that occur in counseling and psychotherapy: 1. Client factors (or self-help): 40% 2. Client-counselor relationship factors: 30% 3. Expectancy factors: 15% 4. Model factors: 15% These findings support the theory of solution-focused counseling for two reasons. First, the finding that client factors accounts for the most improvement in counseling (40%) affirms solution-focused counseling’s theory of change. The primary function of a solution-focused counselor is to help clients tap into their problem-solving resources and potentials. Although a wide variety of techniques are used in the model (which accounts for 15% improvement based on the research), solution-focused counseling is to be considered a process model because it attributes change mainly to what the client does to solve problem rather than to the model. In effect, its focus on client factors is the model. The second reason that research on common change factors supports solution-focused counseling is because the model emphasizes the important role of the client-counselor relationship. The finding that client-counselor factors account for 30% of improvement supports the unique emphasis that solution- focused counseling places on developing a collaborative relationship between the client and counselor. Sudden Gains for Depression In contrast to the commonly held view that clients improve gradually and slowly over the course of treatment, research has shown that many clients experience significant improvements suddenly, quickly, and often in one between-session interval (Aderka, Nickerson, Bøe, & Hofmann, 2012; Hunnicutt-Ferguson, Hoxha, & Gollan, 2012; Tang & DeRubeis, 1999; Tang, Luborsky, & Andrusyna, 2002). Several important conclusions have been drawn regarding sudden gains. 1. Sudden gains can trigger an "upward-spiral" that contributes to clients eventually coming out of depression (Tang & DeRubeis). 2. Sudden gains tend to be occasioned by critical events in treatment in which substantial cognitive changes occur (Tang et al.). Research in the area of sudden gains holds promise for crystallizing our understanding of what transpires during change processes in the solution-focused treatment of depression. In solution-focused counseling, it is theorized that clients have preexisting coping skills, strengths, and resources (i.e., exceptions) that play a critical role in reducing depressive
  9. 9. Solution-Focused Counseling for Depression 9 symptoms. It is assumed that if these exceptions are identified and amplified, then marked shifts in the client’s thinking about their depression will occur. The client’s sudden cognitive shift to exceptions often contributes to an upward-spiral whereby significant improvement can transpire suddenly and unexpectedly. The change processes in solution-focused counseling can therefore be likened to the phenomenon of sudden gains (Tang & DeRubeis, 1999; Tang et al., 2002) insofar as significant progressions on the part of clients are not to be considered as chance events or flights into health. Rather, these events are expectable progressions. In order for solution-focused counseling to be effective in the treatment of depression, it is crucial for counselors to (a) recognize that sudden gains are inevitable and (b) assist clients in actualizing these sudden gains. A starting point for (a) above is for counselors to take a not- knowing position and join the client in the process of coconstructing the problem and goal. Doing so allows counselors to consider possibilities for solutions that might have otherwise been missed had they taken a more traditional, modernist perspective. Not knowing is not easy given the a priori assumptions regarding depression that counselors frequently bring to counseling. Counselors often search for—and find!—some cause to depression. Counselors assume that unless this objectively defined cause is identified and addressed, then the client will not get to the root of the problem and therefore significant problem resolution will not occur. Sadly, this effort to get to the cause of depression on the part of counselors often interferes with (b) above; that is, identifying and amplifying exceptions and thereby actualizing sudden gains. Stages of Solution-Focused Counseling  Coconstructing problems and goals  Identifying and amplifying exceptions  Coconstructing tasks  Evaluating the effectiveness of tasks  Reevaluating problems and goals
  10. 10. Solution-Focused Counseling for Depression 10 S.M.A.R.T. Goals  Specific Goals  Measurable Goals  Achievable Goals  Relevant Goals  Time-based Goals Identifying Exceptions  Presuppositional questions: Ask, “When has there been a time when _____ (the problem) has not happened?” or “When has _____ (the goal) happened?” rather than, “Has there been a time?  Identifying small exceptions  Identifying potential exceptions o The miracle question: Suppose that one night there is a miracle and while you are sleeping the problem . . . is solved: How would you know? What would be different? (de Shazer, 1988, p. 5) Questions for Amplifying Exceptions  How did you make it happen?  How is that different from how you have dealt with the problem in the past?  How did it make your day go differently?  Who else noticed?  What did you tell yourself to make it happen?  What does this say about you and your ability to deal with the depression?  What are the possibilities?
  11. 11. Solution-Focused Counseling for Depression 11 Solution-Focused Tasks Task # 1 The client is told and asked, “Between now and the next time, I would like you to observe, so that you can tell me next time, about those times when you are able to make it (the goal) happen.” Rationale: This task is given if the client is able to construct a problem and goal, and identify and amplify exceptions. Task # 2 The client is told and asked, “Between now and the next time, I would like you to pay attention to and make note of what you do when you are able to effectively cope with or deal with the problem.” Rationale: This task is given if the client is able to construct a problem and goal and identify exceptions, but is unable to amplify exceptions. Task #3 The client is told and asked, “Between now and the next time, I would like you to observe, so that you can tell me next time, what happens in your life (relationship, family, work situation) that you want to continue to have happen.” Rationale: This task is given if the client is able to construct a problem and goal, and potential exceptions, but is unable to identify exceptions. Task #4 The client is told and asked, “Try to avoid making any drastic changes. If anything, think about what you will be doing differently when things are improved.” Rationale: This task is given if the client is able to construct a problem, but is unable to construct a goal. Task #5 The client is told and asked, “The situation is very volatile. Between now and the next time, attempt to think about why the situation is not worse.” Rationale: This task is given if the client is in severe crisis.
  12. 12. Solution-Focused Counseling for Depression 12 Solution Identification Form Name ________________________Age (Years):____ Sex: M / F Session # ____ Date: ________________________ Who is filling out this form? Please check one: Self_______ Other_______ If other, what is your relationship to this person? ____________________________ Date and Time Describe the solution (What happened) Describe how you came up with the solution (What you did to make the solution happen)
  13. 13. Solution-Focused Counseling for Depression 13 Scaling Form Name ________________________Age (Years):____ Sex: M / F Session # ____ Date: ________________________ Who is filling out this form? Please check one: Self_______ Other_______ If other, what is your relationship to this person? ____________________________ Please rate your progress on the problem and goal for each day on a scale from 0 to 10 with “10” being the least and “0” or “1” being the best. Also, describe what you did to make the progress in relation to the problem and goal. Date Rating Describe what you did
  14. 14. Solution-Focused Counseling for Depression 14 Solution-Focused Checklist  Did you carefully and patiently try to help the client identify exceptions? o Small exceptions? o Potential exceptions?  Did you try asking questions differently?  Did you persist in your efforts?  Did you negotiate small, simple, and relevant goals that the client knows how to accomplish?  Did you try helping the client to amplify the exceptions?  Maybe the client identified a small or potential exception during the session but he or she—and you!—considered it to be irrelevant or unremarkable.  Did you try a strategic approach to eclecticism?  Did you try doing something different?
  15. 15. Solution-Focused Counseling for Depression 15 Outcome Rating Scale (ORS) This scale is for illustration purposes only. The actual scale, which includes 10-centimeter lines for each item, may be downloaded from http://www.scottdmiller.com. Adapted from Guterman (2013) and used with permission of Scott D. Miller (http://www.scottdmiller.com). Name ________________________Age (Years):____ Sex: M / F Session # ____ Date: ________________________ Who is filling out this form? Please check one: Self_______ Other_______ If other, what is your relationship to this person? ____________________________ Looking back over the last week, including today, help us understand how you have been feeling by rating how well you have been doing in the following areas of your life, where marks to the left represent low levels and marks to the right indicate high levels. If you are filling out this form for another person, please fill out according to how you think he or she is doing. ATTENTION CLINICIAN: TO INSURE SCORING ACCURACY PRINT OUT THE MEASURE TO INSURE THE ITEM LINES ARE 10 CM IN LENGTH. ALTER THE FORM UNTIL THE LINES PRINT THE CORRECT LENGTH. THEN ERASE THIS MESSAGE. Individually (Personal well-being) I----------------------------------------------------------------------I Interpersonally (Family, close relationships) I----------------------------------------------------------------------I Socially (Work, school, friendships) I----------------------------------------------------------------------I Overall (General sense of well-being) I----------------------------------------------------------------------I
  16. 16. Solution-Focused Counseling for Depression 16 Session Rating Scale (SRS) This scale is for illustration purposes only. The actual scale, which includes 10-centimeter lines for each item, may be downloaded from http://www.scottdmiller.com. Adapted from Guterman (2013) and used with permission of Scott D. Miller (http://www.scottdmiller.com). Name ________________________Age (Years):____ Sex: M / F Session # ____ Date: ________________________ Who is filling out this form? Please check one: Self_______ Other_______ If other, what is your relationship to this person? ____________________________ Please rate today’s session by placing a mark on the line nearest to the description that best fits your experience. Relationship I-------------------------------------------------------------------------I Goals and Topics I------------------------------------------------------------------------I Approach or Method I-------------------------------------------------------------------------I Overall I------------------------------------------------------------------------I I felt heard, understood, and respected. I did not feel heard, understood, and respected. We worked on and talked about what I wanted to work on and talk about. We did not work on or talk about what I wanted to work on and talk about. Overall, today’s session was right for me. There was something missing in the session today. The therapist’s approach is a good fit for me. The therapist’s approach is not a good fit for me.
  17. 17. Solution-Focused Counseling for Depression 17 Child Outcome Rating Scale (CORS) This scale is for illustration purposes only. The actual scale may be downloaded from http://www.scottdmiller.com. Adapted from Guterman (2013) and used with permission of Scott D. Miller (http://www.scottdmiller.com). Name ________________________Age (Years):____ Sex: M / F_________ Session # ____ Date: ________________________ Who is filling out this form? Please check one: Child_______ Caretaker_______ If caretaker, what is your relationship to this child? ____________________________ How are you doing? How are things going in your life? Please make a mark on the scale to let us know. The closer to the smiley face, the better things are. The closer to the frowny face, things are not so good. If you are a caretaker filling out this form, please fill out according to how you think the child is doing. Me (How am I doing?) I------------------------------------------------------------------------------------I Family (How are things in my family?) I------------------------------------------------------------------------------------I School (How am I doing at school?) I------------------------------------------------------------------------------------I Everything (How is everything going?) I------------------------------------------------------------------------------------I
  18. 18. Solution-Focused Counseling for Depression 18 Child Session Rating Scale (CSRS) This scale is for illustration purposes only. The actual scale may be downloaded from http://www.scottdmiller.com. Adapted from Guterman (2013) and used with permission of Scott D. Miller (http://www.scottdmiller.com). Name ________________________Age (Years):____ Sex: M / F_________ Session # ____ Date: ________________________ Who is filling out this form? Please check one: Child_______ Caretaker_______ If caretaker, what is your relationship to this child? ____________________________ How was our time together today? Please put a mark on the lines below to let us know how you feel. Listening I-----------------------------------------------------------------------------------I How Important I-----------------------------------------------------------------------------------I What We Did I-----------------------------------------------------------------------------------I Overall I-----------------------------------------------------------------------------------I The therapist listened to me. The therapist did not always listen to me. What we did and talked about were important to me. What we did and talked about was not really that important to me. I hope we do the same kind of things next time. I wish we could do something different. I liked what we did today. I did not like what we did today.
  19. 19. Solution-Focused Counseling for Depression 19 Young Child Outcome Rating Scale (YCORS) This scale is for illustration purposes only. The actual scale may be downloaded from http://www.scottdmiller.com. Adapted from Guterman (2013) and used with permission of Scott D. Miller (http://www.scottdmiller.com). Name ________________________Age (Years):____ Sex: M / F_________ Session # ____ Date: ________________________ Who is filling out this form? Please check one: Child_______ Caretaker_______ If caretaker, what is your relationship to this child? ____________________________ Choose one of the faces that shows how things are going for you. Or, you can draw one below that is just right for you.
  20. 20. Solution-Focused Counseling for Depression 20 Young Child Session Rating Scale (YCSRS) This scale is for illustration purposes only. The actual scale may be downloaded from http://www.scottdmiller.com. Adapted from Guterman (2013) and used with permission of Scott D. Miller (http://www.scottdmiller.com). Name ________________________Age (Years):____ Sex: M / F_________ Session # ____ Date: ________________________ Who is filling out this form? Please check one: Child_______ Caretaker_______ If caretaker, what is your relationship to this child? ____________________________ Choose one of the faces that shows how things are going for you. Or, you can draw one below that is just right for you.
  21. 21. Solution-Focused Counseling for Depression 21 References and Suggested Readings Aderka, I.M., Nickerson, A., Bøe, H.J., & Hofmann, S.G. (2012). Sudden gains during psychological treatments of anxiety and depression: A meta-analysis. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology, 80, 93-101. Bailey, R.K., Patel, M., Barker, N.C., Ali, S., Jabeen, S. (2011). Major depressive disorder in the African American population. Journal of the National Medical Association. 103, 548-557. Berg, I.K., & Miller, S.D. (1992). Working with the problem drinker: A solution-focused approach. New York: Norton. de Castro, S., & Guterman, J.T. (2008). Solution-focused therapy for families coping with suicide. Journal of Marital and Family Therapy, 34, 93-106. de Shazer, S. (1982). Patterns of brief family therapy. New York: Norton. de Shazer, S. (1984). The death of resistance. Family Process, 23, 11-17. de Shazer, S. (1985). Keys to solution in brief therapy. New York: Norton. de Shazer, S. (1988). Clues: Investigating solutions in brief therapy. New York: Norton. de Shazer, S. (1991). Putting difference to work. New York: Norton. de Shazer, S. (1994). Words were originally magic. New York: Norton. de Shazer, S. (1997). Commentary: Radical acceptance. Families, Systems, & Health, 15, 375-378. de Shazer, S., Berg, I. K., Lipchik, E., Nunnally, E., Molnar E., Gingerich, K., & Weiner- Davis, M. (1986). Brief therapy: Focused solution development. Family Process, 25, 207-222. Duncan. B.L., Miller, S.D., & Sparks, J.A. (2004). The heroic client: A revolutionary way to improve effectiveness through client-directed, outcome-informed therapy. San Francisco: Jossey-Bass. Estrada, B., & Beyebach, M. (2007). Solution-focused therapy with depressed deaf persons. Journal of Family Psychotherapy, 18(3), 45-63. Franklin, C., Trepper, T.S., McCollum, E.E., & Gingerich, W.J. (2011). Solution-focused brief therapy: A handbook of evidence-based practice. New York: Oxford University Press. Gergen, K.J. (2009). An invitation to social construction (2nd ed.). Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage. Guterman, J. T. (1994). A social constructionist position for mental health counseling. Journal of Mental Health Counseling, 16, 226-244. Guterman, J.T. (1996). Doing mental health counseling: A social constructionist re-vision. Journal of Mental Health Counseling, 18, 228-252. Guterman, J.T. (1998). Identifying pretreatment change before the first session. Journal of Mental Health Counseling, 20, 370-374. Guterman, J.T. (2013). Mastering the art of solution-focused counseling (2nd edition) Alexandria, VA: American Counseling Association. Guterman, J.T., & Leite, N. (2006). Solution-focused counseling for clients with religious and spiritual concerns. Counseling and Values, 51, 39-52. Guterman, J.T., Mecias, A., Ainbinder, D.L. (2005). Solution-focused treatment of migraine headache. The Family Journal: Counseling and Therapy for Couples and Families, 13, 195-198.
  22. 22. Solution-Focused Counseling for Depression 22 Held, B.S., (1992). The problem of strategy within the systemic therapies. Journal of Marital and Family Therapy, 18, 25-35. Hunnicutt-Ferguson, K., Hoxha, D., & Gollan, J. (2012). Exploring sudden gains in behavioral activation therapy for major depressive disorder. Behaviour Research and Therapy, 50, 223-230. Knekt, P, Lindfors, O., Härkänen, T., Välikoski, M., Virtala, E., Laaksonen, M. A., Marttunen, M., Kaipainen, M., Renlund, C. (2008). Randomized trial on the effectiveness of long- and short-term psychodynamic psychotherapy and solution- focused therapy on psychiatric symptoms during a 3-year follow-up. Psychological Medicine, 38, 689-703. Lambert, M.J. (1992). Implications of outcome research for psychotherapy. In J.C. Norcross M.R. Goldfried (Eds.), Handbook of psychotherapy integration (pp. 94-129). New York: Basic Books. Lipchik, E. (2002). Beyond technique in solution-focused therapy: Working with emotions and the therapeutic relationship. New York: Guilford. Martin, C.V., Guterman, J. T., & & Shatz, K. (2012). Solution-focused counseling for eating disorders. VISTAS, 1-11. Molnar A., & de Shazer, S. (1987). Solution-focused therapy: Toward the identification of therapeutic tasks. Journal of Marital and Family Therapy, 13, 349-358. Murphy, J.J. (2008). Solution-focused counseling in middle and high schools (2nd ed.) Alexandria, VA: American Counseling Association. O'Hanlon, B., & Rowan, T. (2003). Solution oriented therapy for chronic and severe mental illness. New York: Norton. O'Hanlon, W. H., & Weiner-Davis, M. (1989). In search of solutions: A new direction in psychotherapy. New York: Norton. Tang, T. Z. & DeRubeis, R. J. (1999). Sudden gains and critical sessions in cognitive- behavioral therapy for depression. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology, 67, 894-904. Tang, T.Z., Luborsky, L., & Andrusyna, T. (2002). Sudden gains in recovering from depression: Are they also found in psychotherapies other than cognitive-behavioral therapy? Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology, 70(2), 444-447.
  23. 23. Solution-Focused Counseling for Depression 23 Suggested Internet Resources Jeffrey T. Guterman, Ph.D. PowerPoint for this Institute is available at http://JeffreyGuterman.com Twitter: http://twitter.com/JeffreyGuterman Facebook: http://facebook.com/solutionbook International Center for Clinical Excellence (ICCE) http://www.centerforclinicalexcellence.com Scott D. Miller, Ph.D. http://www.scottdmiller.com Institute for Solution-Focused Therapy http://www.solutionfocused.net Solution-Focused Brief Therapy Association (SFBTA) http://www.sfbta.org Kenneth J. Gergen, Ph.D. http://www.swarthmore.edu/academics/kenneth-j-gergen.xml The Taos Institute http://www.taosinstitute.net The Progress-Focused Approach http://www.progressfocusedapproach.com

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