Stadthaus, murray grove case study presentation


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Craig Liddell presents a case study on the construction of Stadhaus, Murray Grove, the world's tallest wood framed residential high-rise at GBF2010

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  • Kiln dried 12%, +/- 2 finger jointed spruce – individual planks used to create layers
  • 2011 ETA due – seismic etc
  • Large format sheets or blanks....
  • Then CNC processed....
  • Final full prefabricated panels – individually identified and sequentially loaded
  • GF in concrete 11 one bed, 10 two bed, 5 three bed, 3 four bed. Every flat has a balcony – dual aspect, cross ventilation
  • City of London in the background....
  • Site – old pub. Vicinity – mainly social housing, relatively run down area to the north of east London. Two prev planning applications had been refused – therefore constraints on what could actually be built / what was acceptable. Developers engaged with local residents from an early stage
  • Surrounded by close vicinity shitty housing – 100% social housing in blocks
  • GF plan – commercial space ; part handed over to residents committee
  • 3 rd floor plan – typical affordable units
  • 5 th floor plan – private resi
  • floor panels are 146mm and the walls are 128mm throughout (could have been thinner higher up). Cross laminated timber – strength in 2 directions . The wall panel is not merely taking vertical loads straight down but acts as a beam using the secondary laminates and therefore brings the load down across the entire panel...    
  • Things to consider....
  • 0.2% shrinkage per percentage movement in moisture content.
  • Approx 3mm per floor
  • Within the UK we have a specific regulations that state how a variety of buildings must be designed in order to resist disproportionate collapse in the event of an accident, such as a gas explosion. This regulation was born from an number of accidents in the UK around the 1960’s where relatively minor failures of a part of the structure led to a disproportionate loss of other parts of the building.
  • Wind loads on the facades are transferred firstly into the external wall panels, and then into the floors. The floors then transfer the horizontal loads into the perpendicular internal and external load bearing walls by diaphragm action and finally into the reinforced concrete foundations. Externals walls had sufficient capacity to allow the architects to adjust fenestration to avoid repetitive elevations
  • Typical cross laminated construction is for wall panels to bear onto floor panels and then onto wall panels below. At Murray Gove flat layouts were generally configured to avoid large load transfers. Simple cellular construction with spans in the region of 3-4m results in generally low stresses. Wall panels, where the outermost timber is parallel to the load direction are approximately 10 times stronger than the floor panels where the load is perpendicular to the grain direction. This wall/floor/wall construction inevitably results in a ‘weak link’ which can be overcome by strengthening at points of high load.
  • Other points to consider with cross lam construction – not specific for tall buildings – acoustics and thermal performance. We tested the proposed build-ups in the factory prior to final design. Box in box solution – anecdotal marco the austrian!
  • Day one – first 3 floors of liftshaft being installed. Surface spread.....
  • 2 men in ties – not our guys....
  • Stairs in steelwork – lifted in by our crane. Steelwork fabricators struggled to keep up.....
  • All built up to this level with a standard mobile crane
  • Switched to self-erector....
  • To give you an idea of the process without’s one we built earlier...a job in Austria; ARCHITECTURAL BALSA MODEL....
  • 49 weeks versus 70 weeks concrete frame metsec infill . 3 / 4 day weeks fro KLH. Surveyed – 5mm out of plumb. Following trades using battery drills....
  • Door linings , M&E
  • Ultimately overclad throughout....developers portfolio
  • Note use of torch-on....
  • Insert gag
  • Refer to exchange rate at 2008
  • ....architects analysed the movement of shading during the day & designed the eternit cladding to reflect this. Inspired by the artwork of gerhard richter
  • The big reveal – prior to this it was like a Cristo artwork...
  • Australia – tested with aussie timber – very fast growing – very good results. Watch this space...
  • On 5 th May KHW and AW met with an Austrian delegation of politicians, planning officers and timber industry professionals, to discuss the use / lobby government of CLT in high rise buildings/give tour of Stadthaus. Austria- planning restrictions in place that prevent architects designing buildings over 4 storeys, and core must be built in concrete.
  • Cost exercise showed that it could be built even more economically than MG / stad.....
  • May be some available to purchase in the bookstore – cash only to me! Or a few labatts.....
  • Stadthaus, murray grove case study presentation

    2. 2. <ul><li>Manufacture and supply of large format cross-laminated timber construction elements. </li></ul><ul><li>Located in the timber region of Murau, Austria. </li></ul><ul><li>Factory capacity exceeding 750,000m² </li></ul><ul><li>First manufacturer to introduce a high pressure physical press into manufacturing process, which has yet to be surpassed. </li></ul><ul><li>Completely solvent and formaldehyde free PUR adhesive </li></ul><ul><li>2 subsidiary companies – KLH UK & KLH Solid Wood Scandinavia AB </li></ul><ul><li>Sales organisations throughout 17 Europe countries. </li></ul>KLH MASSIVHOLZ
    3. 3. <ul><li>Consultation, Design, Manufacture, Supply and Erection services </li></ul><ul><li>“ Formatting Operation” – from architectural drawings to product built on site </li></ul><ul><li>Close relationship between KLH UK and KLH Massivholz </li></ul><ul><li>Unique UK office set up </li></ul><ul><li>Collaborative working approach – key to success e.g. Stadthaus </li></ul><ul><li>Wide range of project experience </li></ul><ul><li>Working with numerous architects and engineers KLH UK assist in the development of sustainable and cost effective structural solutions - seeking to optimise the design and buildability of a project from the outset. </li></ul>KLH UK
    4. 5. KLH = K reuz L agen H olz Engl. = Cross Laminated Solid Timber Panels
    5. 6. KLH = K reuz L agen H olz Engl. = Cross Laminated Solid Timber Panels 90 degrees
    6. 7. PRODUCTION METHOD Pressure 5 to 7 kg/cm2 - equivalent 500 kN/m2 Maximum size after cutting = 2.95m (2.98) x 16.5m 500mm 3.0m 16.55mm Maximum width/height Maximum length
    7. 8. PRODUCTION METHOD Pressure 5 to 7 kg/cm2 - equivalent 500 kN/m2 500mm 3.0m 16.55mm Maximum width/height Maximum length Maximum size after cutting = 2.95m (2.98) x 16.5m
    8. 9. PRODUCTION METHOD Pressure 5 to 7 kg/cm2 - equivalent 500 kN/m2 500mm 3.0m 16.55mm Maximum width/height Maximum length Maximum size after cutting = 2.95m (2.98) x 16.5m
    9. 10. PRODUCTION METHOD Pressure 5 to 7 kg/cm2 - equivalent 500 kN/m2 500mm 3.0m 16.55mm Maximum width/height Maximum length Maximum size after cutting = 2.95m (2.98) x 16.5m
    10. 11. PRODUCTION METHOD Pressure 5 to 7 kg/cm2 - equivalent 500 kN/m2 500mm 3.0m 16.55mm Maximum width/height Maximum length Maximum size after cutting = 2.95m (2.98) x 16.5m
    11. 12. PRODUCTION METHOD Pressure 5 to 7 kg/cm2 - equivalent 500 kN/m2 500mm 3.0m 16.55mm Maximum width/height Maximum length Maximum size after cutting = 2.95m (2.98) x 16.5m
    12. 13. PRODUCTION METHOD Boards for floors ceilings etc.: DL (top layer longitudinal) Boards for walls: DQ (Top layer vertical)
    13. 16. <ul><li>Production process is zero-waste – all off-cuts, wood shavings, sawdust etc are re-used; KLH manufacture their own biomass pellets, & these are used to generate heat for the factory (excess is sold to local CHP plant) </li></ul><ul><li>Closed loop process – electricity for offices and factory are supplied by CHP plants fuelled by (KLH) biomass </li></ul><ul><li>Panels cut & processed using state-of-the-art CNC technologies – very high levels of precision </li></ul>PRODUCTION METHOD
    14. 17. <ul><li>KLH – Full European Technical Approval (ETA 06/138) </li></ul><ul><li>KLH – Boards + manufacturing process PEFC (Programme for the Endorsement of Forest Certification schemes) Certified </li></ul><ul><li>KLH – Manufactured with formaldehyde-free adhesive (Collano Purbond 110) </li></ul><ul><li>BRE (Building Research Establishment) Durability Report – 60 year lifespan </li></ul><ul><li>German, Spanish, French & Russian technical approvals </li></ul>TECHNICAL
    15. 23. <ul><li>Renaissance in the UK </li></ul><ul><li>Environmental benefits </li></ul><ul><li>Modern Methods of Construction </li></ul><ul><li>Speedy installation – reduced prelim costs... </li></ul>TIMBER CONSTRUCTION
    16. 24. <ul><li>Architects – Waugh Thistleton </li></ul><ul><li>Timber Engineer – Techniker </li></ul><ul><li>Structure supply & erect – KLH UK </li></ul><ul><li>Clients – Telford Homes and Metropolitan Housing Association </li></ul>STADTHAUS: 9 STOREY TIMBER HIGH RISE
    17. 25. <ul><li>Development of 29 apartments </li></ul><ul><li>Ground floor commercial space </li></ul><ul><li>3 floors of social housing </li></ul><ul><li>5 floors of private residential </li></ul>STADTHAUS: 9 STOREY TIMBER HIGH RISE
    18. 27. EXISTING SITE
    19. 29. <ul><li>Honeycomb structure </li></ul><ul><li>Rotated plans </li></ul><ul><li>Load-bearing walls, floors and cores </li></ul><ul><li>Tallest timber residential building in the world </li></ul>DESIGN
    20. 33. <ul><li>Horizontal Panel – 5 ply </li></ul>ADVANTAGES OF KLH CROSS LAMINATED TIMBER
    21. 34. <ul><li>Things to consider: </li></ul><ul><li>Movement – Creep/Compression & Moisture Content </li></ul><ul><li>Stability/Robustness – Design and Connections </li></ul><ul><li>Fire – Phases, Advantages of CLT and Design </li></ul>BUILDING HIGH
    22. 35. MOVEMENT - CREEP/COMPRESSION <ul><li>Shortening due to compression under load </li></ul>
    23. 36. MOVEMENT - MOISTURE <ul><li>Maximum moisture content at erection: 14 – 16 % </li></ul><ul><li>Minimum moisture content in use: 8 – 10% </li></ul>
    25. 38. STABILITY/ROBUSTNESS - DESIGN <ul><li>Disproportionate Collapse </li></ul><ul><ul><li>UK guidance for timber frame construction up to 6 storeys </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>No EU guidance </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>TRADA/ TFA suggest 7.5kN/m and notional removal of walls (based on timber frame construction) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Therefore, Techniker’s design concept was based on... </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Efficient Redundancy </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Floor panels designed to double span or cantilever under accidental loading </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Effective ties between floors and walls using simple ‘off-the-shelf’ brackets and screws </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>High in plane stiffness and cross lamination process provides ‘built-in’ redundancy </li></ul></ul>
    28. 41. FIRE – TWO DISTINCT PHASES <ul><li>Developing Phase: (Combustibility, ease of ignition, spread of flame, rate of heat release) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Combustibility can be modified by use of retarding chemicals but timber is still combustible ! </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Solid timber is not readily ignited, temperature in excess of 400 ˚C required (can be as low as 150 ˚C if the timber has been exposed to heat for a long time) </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Fully Developed Phase: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Exposed surfaces initially burn fairly vigorously but soon build up a layer of insulating charcoal </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Timber is a poor conductor of heat, minimal transfer of heat into un burnt material (Char layer 1/6 thermal conductivity of solid timber) </li></ul></ul>
    29. 42. FIRE – ADVANTAGES OF CLT BUILDINGS <ul><li>Combustibility is dependant on the surface/volume ratio. Therefore the charring rate of CLT panels is lower than for sawn timber/lumber (greater fire resistance) </li></ul><ul><li>No damaging thermal expansions </li></ul><ul><li>Loss of load bearing capacity is a result of reduced cross-section only </li></ul><ul><li>Timber is highly predictable when exposed to fully developed fire conditions </li></ul>
    30. 43. FIRE - DESIGN <ul><li>Linear relationship between charring depth and time </li></ul><ul><ul><li>0.64 mm/min for outer layers (KLH) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>0.76 mm/min for other layers (KLH) </li></ul></ul><ul><li>For tall timber buildings use 5 layer panels to ensure local stability of panels in fully developed phase </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Example: KLH 128mm 5 layer wall panel with 30mm outer layer provides 72 minutes with two vertical load bearing layers remaining </li></ul></ul>
    31. 44. ACOUSTICS
    32. 45. THERMAL <ul><li>Solid cross laminated panels contribute to the overall thermal performance </li></ul><ul><li>Timber has a lambda value of 0.13 </li></ul><ul><li>Stadthaus has 128mm KLH wall panels + 70mm Kingspan Kooltherm K15 (foil backed phenolic foam; thermal conductivity of 0.021-0.024) = u-value of 0.3; 15% better than UK requirements </li></ul><ul><li>Balcony detail – cantilevering floor panel; NO cold bridging issues </li></ul>
    33. 46. THE BUILD
    35. 62. BENEFITS OF CLT CONSTRUCTION <ul><li>Speedy construction </li></ul><ul><li>Benefits for following trades: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Very precise structural openings – windows can be pre-ordered, and fixing/detailing for airtightness is simplified </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Solid timber elements to fix back to </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Dimensional stability, precision, plumbness e.g. No shimming of cladding rails </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Clean, quiet, relatively dust-free working environment </li></ul><ul><li>No need for tower crane and therefore separate foundations </li></ul>
    37. 72. <ul><li>Energy produced during construction (i.e. production of construction materials etc) is rarely considered, BUT, this can account for around a 1/3 of the overall “carbon cost” of a building over it’s lifetime (although expended over a very short period of time) </li></ul><ul><li>The proposed potential option of a reinforced concrete frame would have resulted in a production process creating upwards of 125 tonnes of carbon......* </li></ul><ul><li>KLH superstructure actually stores approx 185 tonnes* </li></ul>CARBON COST & STORAGE
    38. 73. <ul><li>Therefore, the usual requirement of 10% carbon reduction through renewables would equate to the same saving only after 200 years of the building’s constant use* </li></ul><ul><li>Ultimately offered savings to the contractor/developer – only viable source of renewables was via GSHP, which would have required a basement to be built.... </li></ul><ul><li>Roof area was also freed up as an amenity space (no photovoltaics) </li></ul><ul><li>*figures from Michael Popper Associates </li></ul>CARBON COST & STORAGE
    39. 74. FAÇADE PANELS
    40. 75. FAÇADE PANELS
    41. 81. WHAT ARE THE LIMITS OF THIS FORM OF CONSTRUCTION? <ul><li>Elasticity of timber and its relative ‘softness’ are critical for future tall timber buildings </li></ul><ul><li>There is more strength capacity to be exploited - economic viability hinges on quantity and simplicity of detailing </li></ul><ul><li>Using simple wall/floor/wall construction 15 storeys possible </li></ul><ul><li>If bearing points are strengthened locally then two or three extra storeys might be added </li></ul>
    42. 82. PROFILE & LEGACY
    43. 85. SUMMARY OF PRESS COVERAGE <ul><li>UK </li></ul><ul><li>Building Design </li></ul><ul><li>Architects’ Journal </li></ul><ul><li>AJ Specification </li></ul><ul><li>Architect’s Choice </li></ul><ul><li>Architecture Today </li></ul><ul><li>Sustain Magazine - Offsite Construction </li></ul><ul><li>Timber & Sustainable Buildings </li></ul><ul><li>TRADA Book, website and newsletter </li></ul><ul><li>RIBA Journal – March 2009 </li></ul><ul><li>Mail on Sunday </li></ul><ul><li>USA </li></ul><ul><li>Architect Magazine </li></ul><ul><li>Securing feature with Architecture Record </li></ul><ul><li>American Institute of Architects </li></ul><ul><li>Building Design and Construction </li></ul><ul><li>Treehugger </li></ul><ul><li>AIA </li></ul><ul><li>Argentina </li></ul><ul><li>Maderadisegno </li></ul><ul><li>Clarin </li></ul><ul><li>  </li></ul><ul><li>Australia </li></ul><ul><li>TimberDESIGN Magazine </li></ul><ul><li>  </li></ul><ul><li>Austria </li></ul><ul><li>ProHolz publication </li></ul><ul><li>Holzbau Austria </li></ul><ul><li>Zuschnitt </li></ul><ul><li>ORF </li></ul><ul><li>  </li></ul><ul><li>Belgium </li></ul><ul><li>Houtnieuws </li></ul><ul><li>Le Courrier du Bois </li></ul><ul><li>Territoires & Bois </li></ul><ul><li>  </li></ul><ul><li>Canada </li></ul><ul><li>IMAGINE magazine </li></ul><ul><li>Cecobois </li></ul><ul><li>Structure Magazine </li></ul><ul><li>  </li></ul><ul><li>France </li></ul><ul><li>Ouest France </li></ul><ul><li>Paris du journal Le bois International </li></ul><ul><li>Architecture à vivre </li></ul><ul><li>EcologiK </li></ul><ul><li>Wood surfer </li></ul><ul><li>Le Moniteur </li></ul><ul><li>  </li></ul><ul><li>Germany </li></ul><ul><li>Architecture + Detail </li></ul><ul><li>ARCH + </li></ul><ul><li>MIKADO </li></ul><ul><li>Informations Dienst Holz </li></ul><ul><li>Deutsche bauzeitung </li></ul><ul><li>  </li></ul><ul><li>India </li></ul><ul><li>Wood News Magazine </li></ul><ul><li>  </li></ul><ul><li>Italy </li></ul><ul><li>Ville e case Prefabbricate </li></ul><ul><li>Modulo </li></ul><ul><li>Il Giornale Dell’ Architettura </li></ul><ul><li>  </li></ul><ul><li>Russia </li></ul><ul><li>Tall Buildings Magazine </li></ul><ul><li>  </li></ul><ul><li>  </li></ul>
    44. 87. FUTURE PROJECTS <ul><li>Proposed 12 storey residential development for housing association </li></ul>
    48. 91.