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Passive House for New Orleans


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Paul Dowsett of Sustainable.TO architects showcases his competition winning design for an affordable super-energy efficient home for New Orleans.

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Passive House for New Orleans

  1. 1. Low Cost / Low Energy House A Passive House for New Orleans <br />
  2. 2. New Orleans <br />New Orleans is a proud city, determined to preserve her cultural heritage.<br />
  3. 3. New Orleans <br />
  4. 4. New Orleans <br />
  5. 5. Climate<br />
  6. 6. Climate<br />
  7. 7. Climate<br />
  8. 8. Climate<br />
  9. 9. Climate<br />
  10. 10. The Challenge<br /> Design Challenge Requirements<br /><ul><li>A single family design solution
  11. 11. A well-balanced concept of sustainability
  12. 12. Minimal impact on the local environment
  13. 13. Affordable to heat and cool
  14. 14. Affordable to build and purchase
  15. 15. Require no special skills
  16. 16. Shotgun typology
  17. 17. Meet the demanding energy efficiency standards of the Passive House
  18. 18. Meet post-Katrina building codes, guidelines, and best practices
  19. 19. Demonstrate that affordable and sustainable homes can also be beautiful</li></li></ul><li>Shotgun Type<br />Image source: An Introduction to New Orleans Housing Types: Carrie & Scott Bernhard. (2006) <br />
  20. 20. Shotgun Type<br /><ul><li> First appeared in New Orleans during the 1830s
  21. 21. Shotguns are the most abundant traditional house type in New Orleans
  22. 22. A linear progression of spaces aligned perpendicularly with the street
  23. 23. Gabled roof that pitches toward the sides
  24. 24. One or two stories
  25. 25. 40 to 70 feet in length.
  26. 26. The floor is generally raised 18 to 36 inches
  27. 27. Typical lot size of 32 by 120 feet
  28. 28. Situated roughly 2 to 4 feet from the side property lines
  29. 29. Rooms are arrayed one after the next. Circulation flows from room to room or along a hallway or gallery
  30. 30.  Shotgun variations are categorized by the number of bays along the front facade</li></ul>Image source: New Orleans Houses: A House-Watchers Guide. Lloyd Vogt. (2003) <br />
  31. 31. 2-Bay Shotgun<br />"Shotgun Single“ <br /><ul><li> One room wide and three or more rooms deep.
  32. 32. Rectangular house with all the rooms arranged directly behind one another in a straight line, front to back. </li></ul>Image source: An Introduction to New Orleans Housing Types: Carrie & Scott Bernhard. (2006) <br />
  33. 33. 3-Bay Shotgun<br />Back Hall<br />Side Gallery<br />Entry Hall<br /><ul><li> A Single with an added 3rd bay
  34. 34. Intended as a single residence
  35. 35. Features an entrance hall to one side, usually two rooms deep, then a side gallery, then a back hall </li></ul>Image source: An Introduction to New Orleans Housing Types: Carrie & Scott Bernhard. (2006) <br />
  36. 36. 4-Bay Shotgun<br />"Shotgun Double”<br /><ul><li> Two singles placed side by side, divided by a shared wall,
  37. 37. Intended as two separate residences. </li></ul>Image source: An Introduction to New Orleans Housing Types: Carrie & Scott Bernhard. (2006) <br />
  38. 38. Raised Shotgun<br /><ul><li> Pre-existing Single, Double or 3-Bay Shotgun that has been raised off the ground to avoid flooding and/or to add usable square footage.
  39. 39. The added space is usually used either for parking or commercial purposes. </li></ul>Image source: An Introduction to New Orleans Housing Types: Carrie & Scott Bernhard. (2006) <br />
  40. 40. Cantilevered Gallery<br /><ul><li> Once their advantages in providing shade from the sun became apparent they became a standard feature of colonial architecture.
  41. 41. The abundance of rainfall also contributed to their popularity.
  42. 42. Traditionally, shaded outdoor spaces are an important part of life in New Orleans. Porches, balconies, galleries arid courtyards can all provide relief from the summer sun, access to gardens, entertainment space, and can even contribute to the public life of the city.
  43. 43. New Orleans is still a place where people sit on their front porches, talk to passers-by, and keep an eye on the neighbourhood.</li></ul>Image source: New Orleans Houses: A House-Watchers Guide. Lloyd Vogt. (2003) <br />
  44. 44. The Balloon Frame<br />With this construction method a house could be easily put together by any careful workman capable of sawing to a line and driving a nail.<br />
  45. 45. <ul><li> Typical New Orleans lots are
  46. 46. Long and narrow
  47. 47. 32 by 120 feet
  48. 48. Positioned perpendicular to the sidewalk</li></li></ul><li>
  49. 49. The south facade's deep roof overhang:<br /><ul><li> Provides passive solar protection for the building's interior in the summer,
  50. 50. allowing passive solar heat gain in the winter. </li></ul>Sliding panels on the south facade <br /><ul><li> Offer flexibility
  51. 51. Protect from the sun, rain and wind when required. </li></ul>Galvalume roof and wall cladding<br /><ul><li> Recyclable
  52. 52. Highly reflective, self-venting,
  53. 53. Provides a lasting 'lifetime' cladding material,
  54. 54. Effectively minimizes solar heat gain
  55. 55. Protects the recessed local cypress cladding.</li></li></ul><li>Primary energy needs are reduced via:<br /><ul><li> A balanced energy recovery ventilation system,
  56. 56. Split-zoned high-efficiency heating and cooling units,
  57. 57. An ultra high-efficiency on-demand water heater for domestic hot water,
  58. 58. Supplemental radiant floor heating,</li></ul>The structure is raised 7 feet above grade, ensuring:<br /><ul><li> security in case of flooding,
  59. 59. cooling air to circulate under the building,
  60. 60. shaded living and parking spaces,
  61. 61. minimal disturbance to the site.</li></li></ul><li>Passive House Standard<br /><ul><li> Airtight
  62. 62. Thermal bridge free
  63. 63. Super-insulated envelope
  64. 64. Passive and active shading in the summer
  65. 65. Thermal mass to temper solar heat gain in winter
  66. 66. Natural day-lighting and ventilation</li></ul>Airtight building shell ≤ 0.6 ACH @ 50 pascal pressure (simple, well-detailed construction)<br />Annual heat requirements ≤ 15kWh/m²/year (4.75 kBtu/sf/yr)<br />Primary Energy ≤ 120 kWh/m²/year (38.1 kBtu/sf/yr)<br />
  67. 67. <ul><li> Shade and cross-ventilation are necessary </li></ul>for human comfort<br /><ul><li> “Raised" usually applies to those structures </li></ul>lifted six to ten feet above grade.<br /><ul><li> The space below can:
  68. 68. Help cool the living spaces above
  69. 69. Be used as storage
  70. 70. Be used as parking space
  71. 71. Be enclosed to create utility areas</li></li></ul><li>Cantilevered side Gallery with sliding shutter panels to control light, solar heat gain, ventilation, privacy, and rain.<br />
  72. 72. Interior side hall, main living space, with interconnected side gallery<br />
  73. 73. Main living space, interior side hall, with interconnected side gallery.<br />
  74. 74.
  75. 75.
  76. 76. Low Cost, Low Energy House<br /><ul><li> An efficient linear organization
  77. 77. Integrates both passive and active environmental systems with program, circulation and the building enclosure
  78. 78. Simple building shape lends itself to the demands of airtight, thermal bridge-free construction
  79. 79. Allows the opportunity for more cost-effective, higher-quality prefabrication
  80. 80. Proves that an affordable and sustainable house can also be attractive.</li>