Russian Revolution Political Groups


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A review of the political landscape in Russia from around Bloody Sunday, 1905 to the revolutions in 1917. These slides were created by students in my History 12 class at Pender Harbour Secondary School on the Sunshine Coast of B.C. Each slide includes explanations that can't, unfortunately, be viewed on Slideshare.

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  • Clockwise from top left:Russian Coat of Arms, Bolshevik Star, Nihilist sBlack Flag, Octobrists Flag, Russian Empire Flag, Bolsheviks Red Flag.
  • The Nihilist movement was a Russian movement in the 1860s which rejected all authorities.[1] It is derived from the Latin word "nihil", which means "nothing". After the assassination of Tsar Alexander II in 1881, the Nihilists were known throughout Europe as proponents of the use of violence in order to bring about political change.Beginning with the reign of Peter the Great (1682–1725), many in the Russian elite were fascinated by the technological, artistic, and intellectual achievements of Western Europe:A nihilist student, by Ilya Repin"During the 1820s and 1830s Russian thought was influenced powerfully by several waves of German Romantic idealism and then the philosophy of Hegel, both of which raised...the concept of distinct national identity and of “inevitable” historical progress…" (Wasiolek, 3)After the Crimean War (1853–56) however the Nihilists rejected the German-influenced liberals of the 1830–40s generation, decrying previous reforms as ineffective. Both sets of reformers were opposed by the conservative Slavophiles, who sought to defend established traditions and values.
  • Mitchell Williams-Rice, 2011Such as Britain and France.The Russian State often suppressed such groups, as they were a serious threat not only politically, but to the very security of the officials lives.Not an incorrect opinion either – many peasants made their way from farms to ghettos during the Industrialization of Russia.This was known by the Nihilists as “propaganda of the deed” and was an attempt to spur the people into violent revolution.Alexander II was killed the very same day in 1881 as making this request.
  • Rowan Van Werch, 2011The Bolsheviks believed inoverthrowing the Tsar through violent revolution. They were lead by Vladimir Lenin after they slit from the Marxist Russian Social DemocraticLabour party.
  • ?, 2011Martovreturned to Russia but too late to stop the Mensheviks from joining the Provisional Government. He strongly criticized those who supported the war effort. Mensheviks sided with the Provisional Government after the March Revolution.Mensheviks lost most of their support when they joined with Kerensky. Peasants didn’t like Kerensky, and that’s where they had their support. Bolsheviks got all Mensheviks old votes. Bolsheviks more popular now. 1904 spit- Social Democratic Party= Mensheviks and Bolsheviks. Martov and Lenin were disputing and then cause the split.Both believed mainly same thing but Bolsheviks were further left. And Mensheviks were more moderate. Both believed that a Revolution was necessary.Mensheviks=Minority…Bolsheviks= Majority ( however Mensheviks started with the majority)
  • Eileen Glowaki, 2011In 1905 Kerensky joined the Socialist Revolutionary Party and became the editor of the radical newspaper. He was soon arrested and sent into exile. Eventually, he came back and in 1912 he joined the Russian Labour Party and was elected to the State Duma. In 1917, Kerensky rejoined the Socialist Revolutionary Party and called for the removal of the Tsar. Kerensky then became the Prime Minister of the provisional government.
  • Amanda Mudry, 2011
  • ?, 2011
  • Mike Crystall, 20111 -Alexander Guchkov receivedmuch of his support came from centrist-liberalist, businessmen, and some bureaucrats.3 – However several party members, particularly Guchkov and Mikhail Rodzianko, continued to play a significant role in Russian politics until 1917.
  • Natasha Jerema, 2011Originally the party was to the immediate left of the Octobrists on the spectrum and wanted universal suffrage and a Constituent Assembly. But later in 1906 with the revolution in retreat they abandoned revolutionary beliefs and showed their support for a constitutional monarchy. During the February Revolution Kadets in the Duma formed the core of the new Russian Provisional Government. They abolished limitations based on religion and nationality and introduced an element of self determination.Formally known as Party of Popular FreedomFormed in Moscow Russia October 12th to 18th 1905PavelMiliukov = leader Was first liberal and on the left, but late 1906 switched because of revolution retreat ----- > show support for const. monarchyParty members known as Kadets – Prince Lvov was oneFeb Revolution 1917 Kadets in the Duma formed newly formed Russian Provisional Government. Abolished limitations based on religion and nationality. And introduced the element of self determination by transferring power from governor-generals to local representatives.
  • Janine Snell, 2011(1)and allied with the left wing of the Octobrists. (2) The Lena massacre and decline in party members separated the left and right sides of the party even more.-The Lena Massacre is the shooting or striking goldfield workers by Russia’s tsarist army on April 17, 1912 in northeast Siberia near the Lena River.(3)Criticized the governments prosecution of the war.(4)Kadet newspapers were shut down(5)but continued publishing newspapers abroad, mainly in Paris,until WWII.March Revolution of 1917, Kadet deputies in the Duma formed the core of the Russian Provisional Government which introduced limitations on religion and nationality, and introduced a form of self-determination.
  • Dylan Bogert, 2011The supreme body of URP was called Main Board Sergei Wittewas a rare occasion among high-ranking officials being "unequivocally hostile to the URP"[2] (in his memoirs he calls Dubrovin a "high-handed and abusive leaders).Its leaders organized a series of political assassinations of deputies and other representatives of parties which supported the Russian Revolution of 1905.
  • Russian Revolution Political Groups

    1. 1. Russian Political Organizations<br />The Pre-Revolutionary Landscape<br />J. Marshall, 2011<br />
    2. 2. The Spectrum<br />Nihilists (anarchists)<br />Constitutional Democrats - Cadets<br />Social Democratic Party - Bolsheviks<br />Octobrists<br />LIBERAL BOURGIOSIE<br />Social Democratic Party - Mensheviks<br />Monarchists Constitutionalists<br />Socialists<br />Social Revolutionaries<br />Independents<br />
    3. 3. Nihilists (anarchists)<br />Narodnaya Volya (People’s Will) thought democratic and socialist reforms could be achieved through peasant revolution – eventually used terrorism.<br />The Circle of Tchaikovsky: a Russian literary society of the intelligentsia – Named after Nicolas Tchaikovsky 1851-1926.<br />Land and Liberty considered any agitation, organization (strike) or revolt useful as a means for a peasant vs. worker revolution. <br />
    4. 4. Russian Nihilists (Anarchists) <br />Primarily introduced by Ivan Turgenev in his book “Fathers and Sons” but was based off the ideals of German theologian Friedrich Heinrich Jacobi.<br /><ul><li> The Russian Nihilists believed Russia was backwards from life in Western Countries, which was cause for much of their outrage.
    5. 5. Known throughout Europe to use violence to bring about political change.
    6. 6. The Nihilist movement began in the 1860’s.
    7. 7. They were known for denying authority figures.
    8. 8. Reached it’s height in the 1870’s when underground groups like the Circle of Tchaikovsky, People's Will and Land and Liberty were formed.
    9. 9. These members believed that the emancipated serfs were not free, but simply making a transition to factory slavery.
    10. 10. They Denied authorities and assassinated many government officials.
    11. 11. The violent push of the Nihilst’s helped push the Tsar, Alexander II, into calling an assembly to consider new reforms.
    12. 12. By 1905, the Nihilist influence was basically null.</li></li></ul><li>*Were a Fraction of the Marxist Russian Social Democratic Labour Party<br />*Personal conflicts between Lenin and Martov split the party into the Bolsheviks and the Mensheviks <br />*The Bolsheviks ultimately became the Communist Party of the Soviet Union<br />Stalin took control<br />Of the party after <br />Lenins death<br />Lenin leader of the party until his death in January 21 1924<br />
    13. 13. Mensheviks<br />Julius Martov<br /><ul><li>Emerged on 1904 after Social Democratic Party disputed and spit up (Bolsheviks and Mensheviks)
    14. 14. both parties believed that a “bourgeois democratic” revolution was necessary, Mensheviks were more moderate. (closer to the center)</li></ul>MENSHEVIKS = MINORITY<br /><ul><li>1917- out of 822 delegates in the Constituent Assembly, Mensheviks had 248.
    15. 15. Believed in pure Marxism
    16. 16. Joined with Kerensky and Provisional Government, which wasn’t popular with peasants. Mensheviks started loosing vote, while Bolsheviks won them.
    17. 17. wanted Russia to continue fighting the war
    18. 18. Martov, who was away, came back in a hurry to try to stop them joining with Kerensky, but was too late.</li></li></ul><li>Socialist Revolutionary Party<br />Leader: Alexander Kerensky <br />The SRs appealed to the peasants for support. <br />They gave to the peasantry a greater and more independent role in the revolutionary process. <br />They thought that all land should be the property of the state and the state should parcel out land to all peasants on the basis of their labour ownership. <br />They concentrated on assassination and other terrorist methods to achieve their goals. <br />
    19. 19. Social Revolutionary Party<br />Leader: Alexander Kerensky.<br />The social revolutionary party was a major political party in the early 20th century Russia and a key player in the Russia Revolution.<br />After the February revolution of 1917 it shared power with the other liberal and democratic socialist forces within the Russian Provisional Government. Also in 1917, it won the majority of the national vote in Russia’s first-ever democratic elections, but soon split and was defeated and destroyed by the Bolsheviks in the course of the Russian Civil War and subsequent persecution.<br />
    20. 20. <ul><li>1917, Russian peasants were 86% of the population
    21. 21. The peasants were betrayed by the government with expropriations of the land
    22. 22. The November Revolution (led by Bolsheviks) recognized the right of peasants to be “masters of the land” they worked on
    23. 23. Bolsheviks realized that the energy of the peasants would be a great force in the next revolution
    24. 24. In 1918, peasantry moved in the direction of conservatism because they gained everything they wanted in the revolution and needed to defend their property
    25. 25. Crises’ such as bosses’ lock-outs, the Civil War, the collapses of transportation and mass hunger in cities were the causes of the “War Communism” which the peasants were opposed to
    26. 26. All peasant movements were led by Makhno in Ukraine from 1918-1921
    27. 27. Their military force was a “typical” peasant army</li></ul>IndependentsThe Peasants<br />Nestor Makhno<br />
    28. 28. Union of October 17<br /><ul><li>Founded in late October 1905
    29. 29. Lead by Alexander IvanovichGuchkov
    30. 30. Firmly committed to constitutional monarchy
    31. 31. Supported by centrist-liberal gentry, businessmen, and some bureaucrats
    32. 32. The Octobrists' program included private farming and further land reform</li></li></ul><li>OctobristParty<br />The Party committed to a system of constitutional monarchy<br /><ul><li>The party was led by the industrialist Alexander Guchkov.
    33. 33. The party was founded in late October of 1905.
    34. 34. By 1915 the octobrists ceased to exist anywhere</li></ul> in Russian except the capital of St. Petersburg.<br /><ul><li>With the fall of the Romanovs in March, the party</li></ul> became one of the ruling parties in the first<br /> Provisional Government.<br />
    35. 35. Constitutional Democrats Kadets<br />Formed in Moscow, Russia – October 12th to 18th, 1905<br />Main leader: PavelMiliukov<br />Mainly supported by professionals like lawyers and professors <br />Originally to the immediate left of the Octobrists on the spectrum. Wanted universal suffrage and a Constituent Assembly. 1906 with the revolution in retreat they abandoned revolutionary aspirations for a constitutional monarchy.<br />February Revolution Kadets in the Duma formed the core of the new Russian Provisional Government. Abolished limitations based on religion and nationality and introduced an element of self determination.<br />
    36. 36. Constitutional Democrats<br />Kadets<br /><ul><li> 1910, Kadets didn’t support the government’s Russification campaign (1)
    37. 37. A small group of Kadets headed by Pyotr Struve agreed with a moderate version of Russification which threatened to split the party. (2)
    38. 38. August 1915-formed the Progressive Bloc along with the Progressive faction, the Octobrists faction, and a part of the Nationalists faction in the Duma. (3)
    39. 39. Kadets position was further eroded when they resigned from the government in protest against concessions to the Ukrainian independence movement.
    40. 40. Bolshevik seizure of power on October 25-26, 1917, Party </li></ul>was suppressed by new regime.(4)<br /><ul><li>After civil war, most Kadet leaders were forced to emigrate (5)</li></li></ul><li>Monarchists Constitution Party<br />Lead by Alexander Dubrovin<br />Founded in 1905<br />Mostly made up of bourgeoisie, landowners, and some peasantry<br />The Black Hundreds is a group of <br /> ultra nationalistic people who <br /> supported the house of Romanov<br />