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A History 12 lesson on the transition in the USSR after Stalin's death.

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  • Both Bulganin and Malenkov lost power to Khrushchev.
  • Both Bulganin and Malenkov lost power to Khrushchev.
  • L. Spitting on an executed state policeman. C. Unguarded donations in Budapest for the freedom fighters. R. freedom fighters – many students.
  • L. Spitting on an executed state policeman. C. Unguarded donations in Budapest for the freedom fighters. R. freedom fighters – many students.
  • L. Spitting on an executed state policeman. C. Unguarded donations in Budapest for the freedom fighters. R. freedom fighters – many students.
  • Aswan High Dam under construction.
  • T = Ike and Khrushchev. M = Ike signing Eisenhower Doctrine. B = Harold MacMillan (UK P.M.) and Khrushchev in Moscow 1959
  • The influx of students, soldiers, combine ops for the collective farms upset the population balance – now Slavs in with Kazakhs – eventually 6 mil. After 1991 many of the 6 mil Russians and Ukrainians emigrated from the now independent Kazakhstan.
  • Khrushchev

    1. 1. The Khrushchev Transition: or n or attiio n tta o ron f ron on f C on C ce ? n ce? iistte n x se o-e x C o-e C J. Marshall, 2009
    2. 2. Stalin dies: March 1953 • Stalin was a tyrant who held both top posts in the USSR: P.M. & Party Secretary • Georgi Malenkov was new PM = Peaceful Competition (replaced by Nikolai Bulganin in 1955). • Nikita Khrushchev becomes 1st Secretary in 1955 and forces out Bulganin in 1957 in order to take both top jobs (like Stalin).
    3. 3. Post-Stalin = a better position in the world for the USSR: • 1953 hydrogen bomb developed to match the USA’s 1952 test (remember, in 1949 USSR had the A-bomb). • Post WW2 economic recovery allows the USSR to give aid and allows Malenkov to consider cutting military spending in favour of consumer goods. (“Guns or Butter”) • Stalin is dead so now a thaw can possibly occur = détente?
    4. 4. Malenkov • Criticized by hard-liners as too capitalist. • Khrushchev used many of his policies once in power. • Still, in a post-Stalinist world at least he wasn’t purged to death - off to the power plant in Kazakhstan for you Georgi.
    5. 5. lganin Bu v hrushche K Malenkov
    6. 6. lganin Bu v hrushche K Malenkov
    7. 7. De-Stalinization • 20th Congress of the Soviet CP Khrushchev’s secret speech: – Condemns Stalin’s excesses and his cult of personality – CP support world-wide quickly drops in places such as the UK. – Warsaw Pact signatories given some say – 1956 Tito and Khrushchev agree there can be different roads to socialism. BUT…
    8. 8. The re wer el imit s:
    9. 9. Poland 1956 • Strikes and demonstrations vs. Soviet industrial policies that exploit Poland and too-rapid collectivization. • The RC Church had been almost eliminated. • Wladyslaw Gomulka is appointed 1st Sec of PCP to soothe people - he stands up against Khrushchev’s threats BUT does not attempt to take Poland out of Warsaw Pact. • In power 14 years: decollectivization, RC Church restrictions lifted
    10. 10. Gomulka Pragmatic in his demands – pushed….but not too far.
    11. 11. Hungary 1956 • HCP boss, Rakosi, too harsh - people say he must go! Revolt spreads to unions + military. • P.M. Imre Nagy (NODJ) can’t keep control and must promise free elections, gov’t with noncommunists + get Soviet army out! • Soviets start to back down: expecting Gomulka style compromise BUT…
    12. 12. • Nagy declares Hungary to pull out of Warsaw Pact and • become INDEPENDENT, like Austria. China demands USSR do something to stop crumbling bloc • 04 Nov 1956 Soviet tanks storm the capital – 30 000 dead – 200 000 flee to Austria - many taken to other western nations (guilt over Jews?) = Janos Kadar (Hungary’s Golumka) replaces Nagy who is tried and executed in 1958.
    13. 13. Budapest, 1956
    14. 14. • S Symbols
    15. 15. Refugees
    16. 16. Backyards: Why didn’t the WEST stop the invasion? • In October, 1956 the UK, Fr and Israel had just invaded the Suez to counter Nasser’s nationalization of the Canal Zone. • The USA had to intervene to stop her allies in Suez (threatened to cut off their oil from Latin America). • Hungary was in the Soviet sphere just as the West saw the Middle East in its sphere.
    17. 17. Berlin: the thorn in the Soviet’s side: • Kennedy and Khrushchev meet in Vienna in June 1961 - USSR wants West out/Kennedy is steadfast - increases US military presence. • 13 August 1961 Khrushchev orders the WALL built. • Ironically, both called soft on Berlin (why didn’t JFK send in the troops? Khrushchev- a wall: is that all?) • Both order more nuclear tests + JFK again increases the military (Vietnam). THEN, IN AUGUST ‘62, A U2 FLEW OVER CUBA…but that’s a different story.
    18. 18. Suez Crisis 1955-1956 • 1955 Egypt-Soviet trade agreement (arms from Czech = threat to Israel) • USA pulls support for High Aswan Dam • Fall, 1956 Israeli invasion (secret deal with UK/Fr) • Fr/UK orders both nations out of Canal Zone: peacekeepers • USSR gains influence in this Western sphere: Syria, Egypt, Iraq
    19. 19. Peaceful Co-Existence and the Eisenhower Doctrine • USSR = we can peacefully coexist. Khrushchev’s visit to the USA angered the Chinese! • USA answers with the Eisenhower Doctrine = we will send troops to block further expansion (CENTO was broken when Egypt shifted to the USSR after the Aswan Dam deal was broken
    20. 20. Khrushchev’s Virgin Lands: initial success… • 1955, 300,000 told to migrate – mostly Russians and Ukrainians • 1st year 200,00 km2 ploughed (1955) • 1st harvest was excellent (1956) • Soon soil erosion + waste due Kazakh SSR to lack of storage silos and insufficient logistics to distribute • Ended up buying wheat from Canada = loss of prestige “Break virgin lands”