Introduction to The Great Depression and the New Deal


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  • Owners let tenants use the land for a share of the crops produced.
  • Using handouts, have students names the agencies on the stamp.
    Ex. re. success: private power companies were opposed to the TVA
  • Hoover Dam
  • Harry Hopkins – use handouts to discover which agencies he ran:
    Ie. first = FERA = May 1933 Fed Emerg Relief Agcy(p. 120 from Howarth text)
    next = WPA = April 1935 Works Progress Admin p.121 Howarth text)
  • Caption: Meanwhile What About the Main Line Express?
    Source/Date: Saturday Evening Post, August 18, 1934
    Ultimate Source(if different):
    Creator: Herbert Johnson
    Remarks: One of many anti-New Deal cartoons in the Post. All the utopian, dreamy experiments are holding up the business express -- a common conservative critique.
  • Anti-New Deal Cartoon, 1936
  • Title New Deal: Cartoon, 1943 Artist Granger
    Description NEW DEAL: CARTOON, 1943. American cartoon by Clifford Berryman, 1943, illustrating President Roosevelt's remark that 'Dr. Win the War' was supplanting 'Dr. New Deal' in the priorities of his administration.
  • Introduction to The Great Depression and the New Deal

    1. 1. The New Deal Blessing or Curse? J. MARSHALL, 2008
    2. 2. Reasons for the Crash and other factors that led to depression • The stock market was a relatively new thing stocks vs. gold (traders and buyers were inexperienced) • Buying on margin - a license to print money • Panicked selling over almost a week caused the Wall St. market to collapse on Black Tuesday, Oct 29, 1929 ke did ma ot caus dn rash di e. The c g wors rin e suffe th it ssion e e Depr e th
    3. 3. Other economic problems • The price of wheat had been falling since 1927: over-production didn’t drop so prices did farmers’ mortgages suffered: no cash means no new tractors • Manufacturers were over-producing consumer goods = few consumers = layoffs = less spending money = fewer consumers • USA protectionist tariffs = trade barriers for all • Germany’s inability to pay reparations affected the Allies’ ability to repay loans to USA
    4. 4. The Beginning was Worst: Looking at Canada • Canada’s economy was very closely connected to the USA - trading/branch plants/investors: – Wheat (40% of world supply) – Newsprint (65% of world supply) • As the economy failed people lost their jobs and the ability to pay rent: vagrancy meant jail time • To collect POGEY or the “DOLE” (Relief vouchers) one had to publicly declare her poverty: why would so may do without relief? • Private charity/soup kitchens
    5. 5. Laissez Faire - let it be Women and their children suffered as men looked for work, often “riding the rods”
    6. 6. Herbert Hoover 1928-1932 • Rich/Republican • Blindsided by the Depression • Didn’t want to threaten the “American Way of Life” (free enterprise) = Hoovervilles
    7. 7. On the eve of FDR’s inauguration
    8. 8. Franklin D. Roosevelt 1932-1945 • Democrat • Called Keynes a “fool” (interesting) • “Nothing to fear…” • New Deal - 3 Rs • First 100 Days Relief Recovery Reform
    9. 9. FDR listened to the economist: “SPEND YOUR WAY OUT OF DEPRESSION” John Maynard Keynes (“Canes”) ug ig eno b ent is m govern e problem Only h l with t to dea h
    10. 10. Herbert Hoover vs. Roosevelt • Hoovervilles • Hoover’s strategy was to lower interest rates the problem was too big! • FDR’s 100 days in 1933 – – – – – Close banks for three days New Deal = “alphabet agencies” Every letter to the President will be answered End Prohibition create CONFIDENCE and give LEADERSHIP
    11. 11. min nal Recovery Ad Natio Tennessee V alley Authority W o r ks Public Admin Works Progress Admin gricultural A Adjustment Admin
    12. 12. Mass Communication • Fireside Chats the soap box is dead! • All letters to the President will be answered! (1000s / day)
    13. 13. Millions were Suffering • Sharecroppers were displaced ex. Grapes of Wrath
    14. 14. Eleanor Roosevelt
    15. 15. Alphabet Agencies • Success was mixed C po or eS at r te? ta
    16. 16. What did they do? WPA? Make work?
    17. 17. How successful were they? • Is a minimum wage a good thing? • Predict outcome for workers? …for owners? …for the country? Blue Eagle!
    18. 18. W5 ? GOP?
    19. 19. Separating myth from reality…
    20. 20. FDR Hopkins “Just in case they ever wanted to slow down,” Mar 5, 1936
    21. 21. 1937 saw a new recession.
    22. 22. Meanwhile What About the Main Line Express?
    23. 23. Bias?
    24. 24. When did the debt rise the most?
    25. 25. Search for arguments on the effectiveness of The New Deal: • • • • Statistics New Deal Effectiveness New Deal Criticism New Deal New Deal Extended the Depression • Benefits of the New Deal • Damage of the New Deal