Proportional representation is different than the first-past-the-post system we currently use: The party gets the same percentage of seats as their percentage of the vote. The Weimar gov’t was unpopular and unstable/fractured. The people were very nationalistic and would easily have sacrificed democracy for authority and a more stable gov’t. When Hitler came to power in 1933 (after outlawing the Communists) he had 17 million of 39 million ballots cast.
Interesting to note that the Friekorps also assassinated Matthius Erzberger, (signed Armistice) and Walther Ratheneau (Weimar Jewish Foreign Minister) Friekorps usually went unpunished.
Freikorps = FREE CORPS
The SA arrest Socialist city councilmen
4 state police and 16 putschists dead
“ My Struggle “ – part autobiography, part political ideology Served only 8 months – 500 RM fine – everything reported in the newspaper = publicity for Hitler’s message
Inter-War Germany and the Putschs x3
DO NOT SHOW THIS SLIDE <ul><li>READ NOTES AT BOTTOM OF SLIDE PRIOR TO SHOWING PPT TO CLASS </li></ul>
Challenges to the Weimar Republic J. Marshall, 2009 Putsch 1 Putsch 2 Putsch 3
Problems from the Outset: <ul><li>Versailles (ouch, my back hurts 231 times) </li></ul><ul><li>Democracy (slow to work/create changes/ </li></ul><ul><li>weak/people used to autocratic authority) </li></ul><ul><li>Economy (inflation and reparations) </li></ul><ul><li>Nationalism (where did the sun go?) </li></ul><ul><li>Reichstag (proportional rep = minority gov’ts) </li></ul><ul><li>Revolution (attacks from R and L: communists + monarchists/soldiers) </li></ul>
Putsch - “push” (coup d’état) <ul><li>The Spartacist (communist) Putsch of </li></ul><ul><li>Jan 1919 was the first challenge. </li></ul>BERLIN Demonstrations in Rhur Rosa Luxemburg &Karl Liebnecht Munich Soviet Republic Put down by Freikorps - leaders jailed and then murdered
Not pro Weimar, but anti communist (many were right-wing socialists = SDP) Freikorps (militia/vets)
Imperial & National Loyalty Join the Freikorps!
Dr. Wolfgang Kapp (extreme right winger) think: Kornilov Affair <ul><li>General von Luttwitz and Lt Cdr Ehrhardt seize Berlin with Freikorps soldiers. </li></ul><ul><li>13 March,1920 - leaders declare Kapp Chancellor and Ehrhardt commander of the army. </li></ul><ul><li>President Friedrich Ebert flees with gov’t to Stuttgart. </li></ul>
<ul><li>Freikorps soldiers were mostly veterans - the army and police would not put them down! </li></ul>
Resist! <ul><li>Ebert encouraged the people to resist by non-cooperation… </li></ul><ul><li>bankers </li></ul><ul><li>newspaper printers </li></ul><ul><li>bureaucrats, all… </li></ul><ul><li>REFUSED TO LISTEN TO THE KAPPISTS </li></ul><ul><li>AFTER 4 DAYS OF GENERAL STRIKE BY WORKERS & GOV’T OFFICIALS , THE PUTSCH WAS OVER! </li></ul>
Sorry Boys, the jig is up! Are you counting? That was 2.
#3: The Munich Putsch (the Beer Hall Putsch) <ul><li>November 8-9, 1923 </li></ul><ul><li>This was a botched job but it taught Hitler a valuable lesson (and that’s why you should know it - think about Mussolini) </li></ul><ul><li>In politics sometimes a failure is a success </li></ul>there is no such thing as bad publicity
Early NAZI Party meeting in Hofbräuhaus, in Munich
Hitler burst into a political meeting in the beer hall and said: <ul><li>“ The national revolution has broken out! The hall is filled with 600 men. Nobody is allowed to leave. The Bavarian government and the government at Berlin are deposed. A new government will be formed at once. The barracks of the Reichswehr are occupied. Both have rallied behind the swastika.” </li></ul>
The arrival in Munich of troops supporting Hitler.
Hitler thought the army’s men would follow Ludendorf, a commander and war hero.
Many did: the S.A. grew ten-fold during the crisis!
How Important is Momentum? <ul><li>By second day, momentum was lost: city counselors were hostages, many Jews arrested, but Hitler knew the putsch was dead – Ludendorf called 2000 SA “to march” </li></ul><ul><li>Met at Defence Ministry building by 100 soldiers under State Police leader. </li></ul><ul><li>Hitler and Goering shot + Hitler captured </li></ul>
Hitler leads the troops (well, in the romanticized Nazi painting, anyway - his men actually threw him to the ground bodyguard-style as soon as the shooting started). He had already won the Iron Cross, 1st Class
The leaders stand trial after local and state police stop the putsch.
Hitler in Jail 1923-1924 <ul><li>Given 5 years - mild conditions </li></ul><ul><li>Lots time to think and write </li></ul><ul><li>= Mein Kampf 1925 </li></ul><ul><li>main thesis: “The Jewish Peril” </li></ul>“ Those fatal defects which finally led to Germany's downfall afford the clearest proof of how right we were in considering it absolutely necessary to set up programmatic aims which were sharply and distinctly defined. Because we recognized the defects above mentioned, we realized that a new conception of the State had to be formed, which in itself became a part of our new conception of life in general. ” Vol 2, 1: Philosophy and Party
Paying homage to the 16 fallen Putschists (4 policemen also died) Hitler worked within the existing political framework to come to power legitimately .