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Inter-War Germany and the Putschs x3


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Inter-War Germany and the Putschs x3

  2. 2. Challenges to the Weimar Republic J. Marshall, 2009 Putsch 1 Putsch 2 Putsch 3
  3. 3. Problems from the Outset: <ul><li>Versailles (ouch, my back hurts 231 times) </li></ul><ul><li>Democracy (slow to work/create changes/ </li></ul><ul><li>weak/people used to autocratic authority) </li></ul><ul><li>Economy (inflation and reparations) </li></ul><ul><li>Nationalism (where did the sun go?) </li></ul><ul><li>Reichstag (proportional rep = minority gov’ts) </li></ul><ul><li>Revolution (attacks from R and L: communists + monarchists/soldiers) </li></ul>
  4. 4. $
  5. 5. Putsch - “push” (coup d’état) <ul><li>The Spartacist (communist) Putsch of </li></ul><ul><li>Jan 1919 was the first challenge. </li></ul>BERLIN Demonstrations in Rhur Rosa Luxemburg &Karl Liebnecht Munich Soviet Republic Put down by Freikorps - leaders jailed and then murdered
  6. 6. Not pro Weimar, but anti communist (many were right-wing socialists = SDP) Freikorps (militia/vets)
  7. 7. Imperial & National Loyalty Join the Freikorps!
  8. 8. Dr. Wolfgang Kapp (extreme right winger) think: Kornilov Affair <ul><li>General von Luttwitz and Lt Cdr Ehrhardt seize Berlin with Freikorps soldiers. </li></ul><ul><li>13 March,1920 - leaders declare Kapp Chancellor and Ehrhardt commander of the army. </li></ul><ul><li>President Friedrich Ebert flees with gov’t to Stuttgart. </li></ul>
  9. 9. <ul><li>Freikorps soldiers were mostly veterans - the army and police would not put them down! </li></ul>
  10. 10. E hrhard’s men in action. Police
  11. 11. Resist! <ul><li>Ebert encouraged the people to resist by non-cooperation… </li></ul><ul><li>bankers </li></ul><ul><li>newspaper printers </li></ul><ul><li>bureaucrats, all… </li></ul><ul><li>REFUSED TO LISTEN TO THE KAPPISTS </li></ul><ul><li>AFTER 4 DAYS OF GENERAL STRIKE BY WORKERS & GOV’T OFFICIALS , THE PUTSCH WAS OVER! </li></ul>
  12. 12. Sorry Boys, the jig is up! Are you counting? That was 2.
  13. 13. #3: The Munich Putsch (the Beer Hall Putsch) <ul><li>November 8-9, 1923 </li></ul><ul><li>This was a botched job but it taught Hitler a valuable lesson (and that’s why you should know it - think about Mussolini) </li></ul><ul><li>In politics sometimes a failure is a success </li></ul>there is no such thing as bad publicity
  14. 14. Early NAZI Party meeting in Hofbräuhaus, in Munich
  15. 15. Hitler burst into a political meeting in the beer hall and said: <ul><li>“ The national revolution has broken out! The hall is filled with 600 men. Nobody is allowed to leave. The Bavarian government and the government at Berlin are deposed. A new government will be formed at once. The barracks of the Reichswehr are occupied. Both have rallied behind the swastika.” </li></ul>
  16. 16. The arrival in Munich of troops supporting Hitler.
  17. 17. Hitler thought the army’s men would follow Ludendorf, a commander and war hero.
  18. 18. Many did: the S.A. grew ten-fold during the crisis!
  19. 20. P roclamation to the German People! Guess who
  20. 22. How Important is Momentum? <ul><li>By second day, momentum was lost: city counselors were hostages, many Jews arrested, but Hitler knew the putsch was dead – Ludendorf called 2000 SA “to march” </li></ul><ul><li>Met at Defence Ministry building by 100 soldiers under State Police leader. </li></ul><ul><li>Hitler and Goering shot + Hitler captured </li></ul>
  21. 23. Hitler leads the troops (well, in the romanticized Nazi painting, anyway - his men actually threw him to the ground bodyguard-style as soon as the shooting started). He had already won the Iron Cross, 1st Class
  22. 24. The leaders stand trial after local and state police stop the putsch.
  23. 25. Hitler in Jail 1923-1924 <ul><li>Given 5 years - mild conditions </li></ul><ul><li>Lots time to think and write </li></ul><ul><li>= Mein Kampf 1925 </li></ul><ul><li>main thesis: “The Jewish Peril” </li></ul>“ Those fatal defects which finally led to Germany's downfall afford the clearest proof of how right we were in considering it absolutely necessary to set up programmatic aims which were sharply and distinctly defined. Because we recognized the defects above mentioned, we realized that a new conception of the State had to be formed, which in itself became a part of our new conception of life in general. ” Vol 2, 1: Philosophy and Party 

  24. 26. Paying homage to the 16 fallen Putschists (4 policemen also died) Hitler worked within the existing political framework to come to power legitimately .
  25. 27. END