History 12 Pre 1919 Review

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A secondary school History 12 presentation with background information for an introduction to the Paris Peace Talks, 1919.

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  • Photo shows (L to R) Bismarck, Roon and Moltke: Prussia’s three leaders during the 1860s. The fact that the German Empire (nation-state) was created at Versailles is important symbolically because in 1919-20 that is where the treaty with Germany was signed by the Allies.
  • Over time, Bismarck’s speech has come to be known (incorrectly) as the” blood and iron” speech (1862). The ref to 1848-49 is to the German revolutions: the new Frankfurt parliament offered to make the Prussian king the “Kaiser”, or emperor of Germany; however, the king feared reaction from the other German state heads, and from Russia and A.H. and thus decided to decline in order to keep his power rather than risk “going for it.”
  • Flag at right is the Imperial German Flag 1870 to 1919.
  • Peter the First of Serbia (King 1903-1918)
  • The French commanders used 600 Paris taxi cabs to transport 6000 French soldiers to the battlefield, enabling the French to get sufficient reinforcements
  • History 12 Pre 1919 Review

    1. 1.
    2. 2. The First World War<br />A review of the political and military events to be considered in Paris, 1919 <br />J. Marshall 2009<br />
    3. 3. Contents<br />I: Politics<br />Nationalism<br />Empires and Imperialism <br />The Alliance System<br />The Naval Arms Race (Militarism)<br />II: War<br />The Schlieffen Plan<br />Static Warfare and Attrition<br />Total War<br />
    4. 4. Part I: Politics<br />
    5. 5. I: Politics: 1) Nationalism 2) Imperialism 3) Alliances 4) Naval Race II: War: 1) Schlieffen Plan 2) Static War & Attrition 3) Total War<br />1) Nationalism<br />SEE PAGE 3 OF FALK’S BOOK:<br />Nationalism is _____________not _____________ .<br />Things like ______________, ______________ and<br />_____________ connect nationalities. It is<br />interesting to note that _____________ is not <br />necessary for a group to identify themselves as a <br />nation. <br />visceral<br />cerebral<br />language<br />statehood<br />culture<br />traditions<br />
    6. 6. Hall of Mirrors: Declaration of German Empire, January, 1871<br />PRUSSIA<br />B<br />B<br />The German Question: What role will a unified Germany play in the affairs of Europe and the world?<br /> I: Politics: 1) Nationalism 2) Imperialism 3) Alliances 4) Naval Race II: War: 1) Schlieffen Plan 2) Static War & Attrition 3) Total War<br />
    7. 7. 1) Nationalism and WW1(remember borders were set by earlier conquests)<br /> I: Politics: 1) Nationalism 2) Imperialism 3) Alliances 4) Naval Race II: War: 1) Schlieffen Plan 2) Static War & Attrition 3) Total War<br />a) Franco-Prussian War and German Unification<br /> Germany wanted power and status <br /> (“iron and blood,” a “place in the sun”)<br />France wanted revenge (Alsace-Lorraine, status, pride)<br />UK wanted the status quo (power of RN/colonies)<br />+ General distrust (among nation states/alliances)<br />“The position of Prussia in Germany will not be determined by its liberalism but by its power ... Prussia must concentrate its strength and hold it for the favourable moment, which has already come and gone several times. Since the treaties of Vienna, our frontiers have been ill-designed for a healthy body politic. Not through speeches and majority decisions will the great questions of the day be decided - that was the great mistake of 1848 and 1849 - but by iron and blood.” <br />b) Austria-Hungary<br /><ul><li>Pan-Slavism (Serbia and the Sick Man of Europe)
    8. 8. International competition (A-H, Russia)</li></li></ul><li> I: Politics: 1) Nationalism 2) Imperialism 3) Alliances 4) Naval Race II: War: 1) Schlieffen Plan 2) Static War & Attrition 3) Total War<br />2) Imperialism<br />When one country gains dominance (control/ownership) over another<br />In the “recent” past industrialized “western” nations (Europe, USA, Japan) have colonized non-industrial lands to gain raw materials and markets<br />Manifest Destiny<br />The White Man’s Burden<br />A Place in the Sun<br />
    9. 9. Imperialism led to competition<br />France, UK and other “older” European nation-states had a history of imperialism.<br />A unified Germany was a late-comer to the game.<br />If the imperial nations went to war, precedent suggested the winners would gain the losers’ colonies.<br /> I: Politics: 1) Nationalism 2) Imperialism 3) Alliances 4) Naval Race II: War: 1) Schlieffen Plan 2) Static War & Attrition 3) Total War<br />
    10. 10. 3) Alliances: joining together<br />Balance of power to stop incursions<br />Status quo is only good if you’re on top<br />Collective Security provides mutual aid<br /> I: Politics: 1) Nationalism 2) Imperialism 3) Alliances 4) Naval Race II: War: 1) Schlieffen Plan 2) Static War & Attrition 3) Total War<br />The goal is to stop hegemony by any one power<br />
    11. 11. I: Politics: 1) Nationalism 2) Imperialism 3) Alliances 4) Naval Race II: War: 1) Schlieffen Plan 2) Static War & Attrition 3) Total War<br />The Triple Alliance<br />Triple Entente<br />(L) Wilhelm II of Germany, (C) Francisco Crispi of Italy (R) Franz Joseph I of A.H. <br />“Agreement”<br />
    12. 12. A System of Alliances, Not One<br /> I: Politics: 1) Nationalism 2) Imperialism 3) Alliances 4) Naval Race II: War: 1) Schlieffen Plan 2) Static War & Attrition 3) Total War<br />Dual Alliance<br />Entente Cordiale<br />Anglo-Russian Entente<br />With the signing of the Anglo-Russian Entente, the Triple Entente became a fact.<br />
    13. 13. I: Politics: 1) Nationalism 2) Imperialism 3) Alliances 4) Naval Race II: War: 1) Schlieffen Plan 2) Static War & Attrition 3) Total War<br />Balance of Power<br />The Balkans were seen as the “powder keg” of Europe!<br />
    14. 14. I: Politics: 1) Nationalism 2) Imperialism 3) Alliances 4) Naval Race II: War: 1) Schlieffen Plan 2) Static War & Attrition 3) Total War<br />“Serbia: the menace to European equilibrium”<br />
    15. 15. Catalyst: Assassination<br /> I: Politics: 1) Nationalism 2) Imperialism 3) Alliances 4) Naval Race II: War: 1) Schlieffen Plan 2) Static War & Attrition 3) Total War<br />X<br />
    16. 16. I: Politics: 1) Nationalism 2) Imperialism 3) Alliances 4) Naval Race II: War: 1) Schlieffen Plan 2) Static War & Attrition 3) Total War<br />4) Naval Arms Race<br />HMS Dreadnought made all other warships obsolete<br />Kaiser Wilhelm sought naval supremacy<br />An arms race was started<br />Consider: Why would Britain think it critical that she continue to rule the waves?<br />
    17. 17. Part II: War<br />
    18. 18. 1) The Schlieffen Plan<br />Attack through the Low Countries before Russia can mobilize<br />Use speed and surprise to advantage<br />Avoid a war on two fronts<br />With France and Russia out of the war, Britain will sue for peace<br /> I: Politics: 1) Nationalism 2) Imperialism 3) Alliances 4) Naval Race II: War: 1) Schlieffen Plan 2) Static War & Attrition 3) Total War<br />
    19. 19. But…<br /> I: Politics: 1) Nationalism 2) Imperialism 3) Alliances 4) Naval Race II: War: 1) Schlieffen Plan 2) Static War & Attrition 3) Total War<br /><ul><li>The French stopped the German advance outside Paris in the Battle of the Marne; and,
    20. 20. Russia mobilized her army much quicker than expected.</li></li></ul><li>Trenches<br />Gas<br />Machine guns<br />Heavy artillery<br />Diseases<br />Airplanes<br />Months-long offensives<br />Stalemate<br />Tanks<br />Brass hats<br /> I: Politics: 1) Nationalism 2) Imperialism 3) Alliances 4) Naval Race II: War: 1) Schlieffen Plan 2) Static War & Attrition 3) Total War<br />2) Static Warfare and Battles of Attrition<br />THIS CREATED CYNICISM GOING INTO THE PARIS PEACE TALKS<br />See graphs on page 21 of Global Forces<br />
    21. 21. 3) Total War<br />Home Front<br />Rationing<br />Industrialization/profiteers<br />Loans/bonds/income taxes<br />Women<br />Conscription<br />Civilian casualties<br />Debt/rise of the USA<br /> I: Politics: 1) Nationalism 2) Imperialism 3) Alliances 4) Naval Race II: War: 1) Schlieffen Plan 2) Static War & Attrition 3) Total War<br />
    22. 22. Use the contents bar to write a 150 word paragraph to summarize the political and military events (beyond the cost in lives and money) that led to the peace accords in Paris, 1919. <br />I: Politics: 1) Nationalism 2) Imperialism 3) Alliances 4) Naval Race (Militarism)<br />II: War: 1) Schlieffen Plan 2) Static War & Attrition 3) Total War<br />Topic sentence:<br />A variety of political and military events led up to the peace talks in Paris, 1919. <br />
    23. 23. End<br />

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