Their rehearsals were on the east coast of England and Scotland, thus they suspected Norway.
Dieppe: Blunder or Valuable Lesson?
Valuable Lesson or Costly Blunder? Operation Jubilee: The Dieppe Raid J. Marshall 2007
Outline <ul><li>The Plan </li></ul><ul><li>Preparation </li></ul><ul><li>Pre-dawn events </li></ul><ul><li>The Main Landing </li></ul><ul><li>The Commandos </li></ul><ul><li>The R.A.F. </li></ul><ul><li>Aftermath </li></ul><ul><li>Conclusions </li></ul>
1) The plan <ul><li>The Canadians had been training (waiting) in England since 1940. </li></ul><ul><li>Russia had taken the brunt of the German action on the Eastern Front since the summer of 1941- the Allies would need an amphibious attack on Europe but had no experience. </li></ul><ul><li>Mountbatten developed a plan to conduct a one-day raid to test defenses , tactics and capture prisoners . </li></ul><ul><li>Canada wanted a chance to show what it had (reputation as WW1 shock troops/revenge for Hong Kong). </li></ul><ul><li>On July 5 the 250 ship flotilla for Op Rutter (Jubilee’s predecessor) was bombed - was surprise lost? </li></ul>
2) Preparations: <ul><li>The soldiers drilled for beach assaults - they initially suspected a raid on Norway as their target. </li></ul>
3) Pre-dawn 21:30 - A German torpedo boat escorting a small convoy in the Channel, bumped the Commandos on their way to Yellow Beach (left flank) Schnellboot - “S-Boat” fast boat : small boats were not limited under the Treaty of Versailles
General Roberts’ Flagship: HMS Calpi - laying smoke: the attack occurred in DAYLIGHT due to delays. An inability to see the battle meant reinforcements continued to be sent even after the situation was lost.
The LCs The Cameron Highlanders of Canada (from Winnipeg) embark for Green Beach at Pourville on the right flank. 6000 men landed in total: 5000 Cdn, 1000 Brits (small numbers from other nations - ex. 50 US Rangers)
5) The Commandos <ul><li>Knock out guns </li></ul><ul><li>Capture prisoners </li></ul>
<ul><li>Led the Commandos on the right flank - a success for special combined operations! </li></ul>Lord Lovat: #4 Commando
Success <ul><li>As bad as things went for the main force, the special forces achieved some success </li></ul>souvenir hat
6) The RAF/RCAF Air Support <ul><li>This was the BIGGEST air-support campaign to date in the war. </li></ul><ul><li>The R.A.F. provided bomber support of ground troops AND fighter cover against the Luftwaffe. The RAF hoped to draw the Luftwaffe into a huge air battle </li></ul>
LCol Cecil Merritt <ul><li>CO of South Saskatchewan Regiment who exposed himself to enemy fire near the seawall to rally his soldiers who were pinned down and slowly being picked off. </li></ul>Padre of Royal Hamilton Light Infantry Regiment who, after helping rescue wounded all day, chose to stay with them rather than be evacuated to England. Capt John Foote
LCol Cecil Merritt, V.C. <ul><li>For matchless gallantry and inspiring leadership whilst commanding his battalion during the Dieppe raid on the 19th August 1942. From the point of landing his unit's advance had to be made across a bridge in Pourville which was swept by very heavy machine-gun, motar and artillery fire, the first parties were mostly destroyed and the bridge thickly covered by their bodies. A daring lead was required: waving his helmet, Lieutenant Colonel Merritt rushed forward shouting "Come on over! There's nothing to worry about here". He thus personally led the survivors of at least four parties in turn across the bridge. </li></ul><ul><li>Quickly organizing these, he led them forward and when held up by enemy pillboxes he again headed rushes which succeeded in clearing them. In one case he himself destroyed the occupants of the post by throwing grenades into it. After several of his runner became casualties, he himself kept contact with his different positions. </li></ul><ul><li>Although twice wounded Lieutenant Colonel Merritt continued to direct the unit's operations with great vigour and determination and while organizing the withdrawal he stalked a sniper with a Bren gun and silenced him. He then coolly gave orders for the departure and announced his intention to hold off and "get even with" the enemy. When last seen he was collecting Bren and Tommy guns and preparing a defensive position which successfully covered the withdrawal from the beach. </li></ul><ul><li>Lieutenant Colonel Merritt is now reported to be a Prisoner of War. To this Commanding Officer's personal daring, the success of his unit's operations and the safe re-embarkation of a large portion of it were chiefly due. </li></ul>
Honourary Captain John Foote, V.C. <ul><li>At Dieppe on 19th August 1942, Honourary Captain Foote, Canadian Chaplain Services, was Regimental Chaplain with the Royal Hamilton Light Infantry. </li></ul><ul><li>Upon landing on the beach under heavy fire he attached himself to the Regimental Aid Post which had been set up in a slight depression on the beach, but which was only sufficient to give cover to men lying down. During the subsequent period of approximately eight hours, while the action continued, this officer not only assisted the Regimental Medical Officer in ministering to the wounded in the Regimental Aid Post, but time and again left this shelter to inject morphine, give first-aid and carry wounded personnel from the open beach to the Regimental Aid Post. On these occasions, with utter disregard for his personal safety, Honourary Captain Foote exposed himself to an inferno of fire and saved many lives by his gallant efforts. During the action, as the tide went out, the Regimental Aid Post was moved to the shelter of a stranded landing craft. </li></ul><ul><li>Honourary Captain Foote continued tirelessly and courageously to carry wounded men from the exposed beach to the cover of the landing craft. He also removed wounded from inside the landing craft when ammunition had been set on fire by enemy shells. When landing craft appeared he carried wounded from the Regimental Aid Post to the landing craft through heavy fire. On several occasions this officer had the opportunity to embark but returned to the beach as his chief concern was the care and evacuation of the wounded. He refused a final opportunity to leave the shore, choosing to suffer the fate of the men he had ministered to for over three years. </li></ul><ul><li>H onourary Captain Foote personally saved many lives by his efforts and his example inspired all around him. Those who observed him state that the calmness of this heroic officer as he walked about, collecting the wounded on the fire-swept beach will never be forgotten. </li></ul>
The Essex Scottish, who landed at Dieppe in 1942, were a part of the forces that liberated the town in 1944, after D-Day.
8) Conclusions <ul><li>Was the raid a complete failure or did it provide valuable insights that allowed the D-Day invasion to be a success? </li></ul><ul><li>Did Mountbatten create a poor plan or did Churchill take over in secret because Churchill needed the Allies to lose badly to get Stalin off his back by proving the Allies were willing to try by that they just weren’t ready? </li></ul><ul><li>Lessons learned: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Beachhead requirements </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Importance of surprise </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Air supremacy </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Effectiveness of special forces </li></ul></ul>Historians analyze data and evidence, synthesize the information and then hypothesize explanations: YOU MUST DECIDE WHAT YOU THINK. WHAT ROLE DID THE DIEPPE RAID PLAY IN THE SUCCESSFUL PLANNING OF THE INVASIONS IN SICILY AND LATER IN NORMANDY?