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COLTT 2015 - Just-in-Time Teaching - Part 1 - Aug 2015


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An introduction to Just-in-Time Teaching including what it is, the evidence for its effectiveness and

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COLTT 2015 - Just-in-Time Teaching - Part 1 - Aug 2015

  2. 2. THE EVIDENCE STANDARD Teachers can feel bombarded… I strive to be a scholarly teacher … • Apply the rigor we bring to our academic disciplines to the discipline of teaching. • Choose teaching methods that are strongly informed by the best empirical evidence available. Contrast teaching your subject with treating a medical condition like diabetes
  3. 3. In your teaching do you have a method for holding students accountable for preparing for class? Previous anonymous poll results (compiled): ~17% → I don’t, but I ask/threaten really well ~50% → I use a paper method (quiz, journal…) ~10% → I use a digital method (clickers, etc.) ~5% → I use Just-in-Time Teaching ~18% → I have some other method (N ~ 200)
  4. 4. OVERVIEW 1. Motivation for change 2. Basics of Just-in-Time Teaching 3. Mock example 4. Evidence for effectiveness 5. Summaries Teaser for tomorrow’s talk “Just-in-Time Teaching: Making It Shine” 8:45 AM in Wolf 205
  5. 5. PHYSICS EDUCATION REVOLUTION Eric Mazur, Physicist at Harvard:
  7. 7. University of Washington CU Boulder University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign
  8. 8. TECHNIQUE & TECHNOLOGY Technique: Just-in-Time Teaching Technology: Online question & response tools Learne r Teacher
  9. 9. JUST-IN-TIME TEACHING Online pre-class assignments called WarmUps First half - Students • Conceptual questions, answered in sentences • Graded on thoughtful effort Second half - Instructor • Responses are read “just in time” • Instructor modifies that day’s plan accordingly. • Aggregate and individual (anonymous) responses are displayed in class. Learne r Teacher
  10. 10. 29% 31% 20% 14% 5% 0% 10% 20% 30% 40% 50% 60% 0-20% 20-40% 40-60% 60-80% 80-100% Consider a typical day in your class. What fraction of students did their preparatory work before coming to class? Previous anonymous poll results (compiled): N = 232
  11. 11. JITT STRUCTURE & RESPONSE RATES 0 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 80 90 100 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 %Responsed Class # Response Rate by Day College Physics I, N = 78 Worth 10% of final grade Due 10 PM the night before class Assignments available for prior 2-3 days College Physics I
  12. 12. WARMUP QUESTIONS • Every-day language • Occasional simple comprehension question • Mostly “higher level” questions • Any question is better than none (don’t be precious) Connections to evidence: –Pre-class work reduces working memory load during class. –Multimodal practice (not learning styles): JiTT brings reading, writing and discussion as modes of practice.
  13. 13. METACOGNITION Two questions in every WarmUp: First:“What aspect of the material did you find the most difficult or interesting.” Last: “How much time did you spend on the pre- class work for tomorrow?” Connections to evidence: –Forced practice at metacognition: Students regularly evaluate their own interaction with the material.
  14. 14. THE JITT FEEDBACK LOOP Student responses: • Graded on thoughtful effort • Sampled and categorized for display • Quoted anonymously Closing the loop: • Respond to some students digitally • Class time shifts to active engagement.
  15. 15. EXAMPLE: WHIRLING BUCKET A bucket of water can be whirled in a vertical circle without the water falling out, even at the top of the circle when the bucket is upside down. Explain… ~15% → An outward force holds it in ~30% → An inward force holds it in ~20% → Talked (correctly!) about acceleration & velocity… but didn't really answer. ~10% → Nailed it! (or close enough)
  16. 16. EXAMPLE: WHIRLING BUCKET “The water doesn't come out because you twirling the bucket is applying the force of spinning, and the water just kind of counteracts that motion.” “Because the water naturally wants to keep traveling in the same direction its being whirled around in the water attempts to continue going up in a straight line but the bottom of the bucket forces it to stay in the bucket, like when you are pushed by the door of a car while making a turn.”
  17. 17. JUST-IN-TIME TEACHING A different student role: • Actively prepare for class (not just reading/watching) • Actively engage in class • Compare your progress & plan accordingly A different instructor role: • Actively prepare for class with you (not just going over last year’s notes ) • Modify class accordingly • Create interactive engagement opportunities Learne r Teacher
  18. 18. JITT VS. FINAL GRADE CORRELATIONS College Physics I, Fall 2013 0 20 40 60 80 100 0 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 80 90 100 CumulativeScore(withoutwarm-ups) WarmUp Score WarmUps vs. Cumulative Score Correlation r = 0.71
  19. 19. PROGRESSIVE EXAMS CORRELATIONS College Physics I: Important disclosure: This was not a hypothesis we were testing, it appeared as we analyzed the data. Could be 0.18 0.33 0.43 0.54 0.00 0.10 0.20 0.30 0.40 0.50 0.60 0.70 0.80 Mini Exam (week 4) Exam 1 (week 7) Exam 2 (week 11) Final Exam (week 16) NoneWeakStrongModerate Correlations between Total WarmUp Score and Sequence of Exams
  20. 20. MAZUR AFTER 1 YEAR
  21. 21. ELSEWHERE?
  22. 22. STUDIED EFFECTIVENESS Used at hundreds of institutions Dozens of studies/articles, in many disciplines: Bio, Art Hist., Econ., Math, Psych., Chem., etc. –Increase in content knowledge –Improved student preparation for class –Improved use of out-of-class time –Increased attendance & engagement in class –Improvement in affective measures
  23. 23. Mean on 1-5 scale Preparation for class 4.06 Engagement during class 3.93 STUDENT SURVEY RESULTS 9% 10% 81% 10% 18% 73% 10% 22% 68% 0% 20% 40% 60% 80% 100% Harmful Neutral Helpful How did WarmUps affect your... Preparation Engagement Learning N = 781
  24. 24. STUDENT SURVEY QUOTES Physics: “Initially, it was hard for me to get used to the warm-ups. It seemed like along with the homework assignments there was a lot of things to do. Eventually I got used to it and ultimately the warmups really helped me to learn the material and stay caught up with the class.” “If it weren't for warm ups, the amount of time I spent reading the book would have dropped by 75%”
  25. 25. WHAT MIGHT STOP YOU? In terms of the technique: Time, coverage, not doing your part, pushback… In terms of the technology: Learning curve, tech. failures, perfectionism… In any reform of your teaching: Reinventing, no support, too much at once…
  26. 26. MY SUMMARY JiTT may be among the easiest research-based instructional strategies that you can consistently integrate into your teaching. From an evidence-based perspective, JiTT addresses often-neglected areas. Be prepared to find that students know less than we might hope. (Perhaps freeing?)
  27. 27. YOUR SUMMARY What part of JiTT concept/process is the fuzziest for you after this talk? Tomorrow: “Just-in-Time Teaching: Making It Shine” 8:45 AM in Wolf 205 Email: Twitter: @JeffLoats Slides:
  28. 28. LEARNING BY DOING Topics for tomorrow:  Writing good questions  Getting student buy-in  Choosing a tool Want to do a WarmUp? If I’ve talked you into attending tomorrow, email me ( and tell me so. I will send you a (brief) WarmUp and I will use your responses in tomorrow’s talk!
  29. 29. JITT REFERENCES & RESOURCES Simkins, Scott and Maier, Mark (Eds.) (2010) Just inTimeTeaching: Across the Disciplines, Across the Academy, Stylus Publishing. Gregor M. Novak, Andrew Gavrini, Wolfgang Christian, Evelyn Patterson (1999) Just-in-Time Teaching: Blending Active Learning with WebTechnology. Prentice Hall. Upper Saddle River NJ. K. A. Marrs, and G. Novak. (2004). Just-in-Time Teaching in Biology: Creating an Active Learner Classroom Using the Internet. Cell Biology Education, v. 3, p. 49-61. Jay R. Howard (2004). Just-in-Time Teaching in Sociology or How I Convinced My Students to Actually Read the Assignment. Teaching Sociology,Vol. 32 (No. 4 ). pp. 385-390. Published by: American Sociological Association Stable URL: S. Linneman, T. Plake (2006). Searching for the Difference: A ControlledTest of Just-in-Time Teaching for Large-Enrollment Introductory Geology Courses. Journal of Geoscience Education, Vol. 54 (No. 1) Stable URL: ON-DEMAND SLIDES
  30. 30. WHAT TOOLS TO USE? The crucial part: Daily reading, grading & using responses • Automatic full credit for any response • View all responses to a question together • Grade responses on the same page with minimal clicks Wishlist: Easy (quick!) individual feedback
  31. 31. WHAT TOOLS TO USE? • CMS/LMS (Blackboard, D2L, Moodle, etc.) Ready to use, tools… imperfect  awful • Free service from Designed just for JiTT, but extra login, and the site has not been improved in ~5 years • Students email responses Easy! usually overwhelming and awful • Blogging tools (WordPress)? • New tools (TopHat, Learning Catalytics)?